Tenente Emilio Marchi
|??/??/40||Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (1st)||O.M.S.|
|??/??/41||Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (2nd)||1940-43|
|??/??/42||Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (3rd)||1940-43|
|??/??/40||Medaglia di bronzo al valor militare||O.M.S.|
Emilio Marchi was born on 30 October 1917 and was from Hoboken (U.S.A.).
Sottotenente Marchi took part in the Spanish Civil War using the nom de guerre ’Emilio Marazzi’.
During his time in Spain, he served in the 25a Squadriglia, XVI Gruppo.
On 31 August 1938, CR.32s from the XVI Gruppo was indirectly escorting S.79 and BR.20 bombers to the front of Gandesa. At the end of the bombing, the fighters stayed in the area for interdiction. As in the previous week, the 25a Squadriglia had the duty to cover at 7,000m while the fighters from 26a and 24a Squadriglie flew at 5,500m.
The XVI Gruppo had taken off from Caspe at 16:30 and the eight CR.32s from the 25a Squadriglia flew in four sections of two aircraft:
1st section – Capitano Roberto Fassi (CO) and Tenente Pietro Raimondi
2nd section – Sottotenente Mario Visintini and Sergente Giuseppe Marini
3rd section – Sottotenente Bongiovanni and Sottotenente Mario Pinna
4th section – Sottotenente Marchi and Maresciallo Luigi Acerbi
Around 18:00, Capitano Giuseppe Majone (CO 24a Squadriglia) spotted six SBs in two formations of three each heading from the Segre River towards Villalba.
They were soon attacked by the Italian fighters. Suddenly, a dozen of escorting I-16s dived on the CR.32s of the 24a Squadriglia, but they were in turn jumped by the 25a Squadriglia, which soon was joined by all the Fiats. In the ensuing dogfight Italians claimed two Ratas destroyed and one probable, that were officially shared among the three Squadriglie, though one of the kills was unofficially credited to Capitano Fassi. Sottotenente Visintini (25a Squadriglia) shot at four I-16s, one of which “effectively and by short distance” and saw a Rata falling in flames, which considering the place and the time should be the one shot down by Capitano Fassi. Visintini’s Fiat was however damaged in the action.
As a result, the commander of the XVI Gruppo, Tenente Colonnello Arrigo Tessari, proposed that each Squadriglia should be creited with one shared destroyed I-16.
During his time in Spain, Marchi was credited with one victory. He also claimed additional shared and probable victories.
He took part in the Second World War and in 1942 he served in the 17o Gruppo as a Tenente flying MC.202s in North Africa.
At 15:55 on 12 December 1941, eleven MC.202 of the 17o Gruppo (six from the 71a Squadriglia and five from the 80a Squadriglia), led by Capitano Aldo Felici, took off for troop protection between Gazala and Derna. At 16:00, at the height of 1500m., almost immediately after take-off, they clashed with an enemy formation estimated 30 Curtiss P-40 and Hurricanes strong, apparently directed to attack the landing ground of Martuba.
The Italians claimed no less than eight planes; one each by Capitano Clizio Nioi (80a Squadriglia), Tenente Glauco Vatta (71a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Renato Bagnoli (80a Squadriglia), Maresciallo Marcello Lui (71a Squadriglia), Maresciallo Pio Marsilli (80a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Mario Host (80a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Remo Broilo (71a Squadriglia) and Sergente Egidio Buogo (71a Squadriglia). Two more were claimed as probables by Nioi and Tenente Marchi (80a Squadriglia). Three MC.202 were hit in the cooling systems of which Capitano Nioi landed OK, Tenente Vatta (MM7871) crash-landed on base and Tenente Pierfranceco Conti (MM7861) belly-landed and was slightly wounded. A fourth Macchi was slightly damaged. The formation landed at 16:35 (or alternatively 16:55) and the Italian pilots had expended 3680 rounds of ammunition.
Three MC.202 of the 81a Squadriglia (6o Gruppo), led by Tenente Giorgio Falchi, scrambled at 16:10. Once they reached the height of 1,000m, at 16:20, they discovered ten Hurricanes strafing the German sector of Martuba. The Macchis jumped the enemies and Tenente Falchi damaged two of them using 80 rounds of ammunition and in turn he was hit by three rounds. The Italian fighters landed at 16:50.
Between 16:00 and 16:10, 14 Bf 109s from III/JG 53 claimed six Hurricanes and a P-40. These were claimed by Oberfeldwebel Hermann Neuhoff of 7./JG 53 (Hurricane at 16:00 and P-40 at 16:10), Unteroffizier Erich Schmidt of 7./JG 53 (Hurricane at 16:00), Leutnant Siegmund Hosnedl of 7./JG 53 (Hurricane at 16:00), Oberfeldwebel Werner Stumpf of 9./JG 53 (two Hurricanes at 16:03 and 16:05) and Leutnant Wolf Schaller of 9./JG 53 (Hurricane at 16:10).
On the Commonwealth side, it appears that at 15:15, nine Tomahawks of 4 SAAF and seven from 2 SAAF Squadron, had taken off as top and close cover respectively to a formation of six Blenheims from 14 Squadron targeting the Derna road (they later reported the attack to the escort with heavy losses of the latter). The South Africans of 4 SAAF Squadron were engaged for 30 minutes with twelve enemy fighters and three Bf 109s were claimed (Captain Andrew Bosman (2) and Lieutenant Douglas Golding) plus two damaged by Bosman, while Lieutenant Lewis Otto Beatty Player (SAAF no. 102848V) was lost (Tomahawk AN351; according to some sources, the Bf 109 that shot down Player was then shot down by Golding). Two more Tomahaks were damaged (including Bosman’s). 4 SAAF Squadron landed again at 16:55. Captain Bosman reported that while on top cover he sighted a number of Bf 109Fs:
‘I broke away to attack, I informed the Sqn. leader and a fight ensued.2 SAAF Squadron reported only that they was jumped by six or eight Bf 109s, losing Lieutenant James Rattray Verster (AN353?) and Captain Piet Robbertse (AN422); both being both PoWs but Verster was rescued by the Army on 24 December. 2 SAAF Squadrons landed back at 15:55. According to some sources, the South Africans losses were all to Bf 109s.
I surprised 2 enemy aircraft and opened fire on each in turn. I am certain I inflicted a fair amount of damage to each of these aircraft. I was forced to rejoin our offensive circle.
One of our aircraft was shot from below. The pilot spun from for about 3000 feet and recovered. He tried to climb back and I circled below to assist him. At about the end of the engagement I was attacked and as the enemy aircraft zoomed past me, I pulled in behind him and opened up. He stood on his tail and flicked over into a spin from which he did not recover. I saw him burn on the hilly ground below.
We rejoined the Blenheims on their way back, and 2 of our A/C including the pilot who had been shot up earlier on were far apart and behind on either side of the bombers. They were attacked by Me.’s from below. I tried to ward off these attacks and on one occasion I peeled off on an aircraft and as he turned and dived I shot him up. He dived head on toward the sea and did not recover. At this stage I proceeded to take cover in the clouds and as I broke cover I was engaged from below, sustaining damage in the tail, dashboard and wing of my aircraft.’
“Fired long burst at 109 F and saw smoke or oil or both pour from his engine. He seemed to go in a long dive. Saw what appeared to be glass house break away from M.202 after burst. Two 109 Fs chased me down to 500 feet making alternate quarter attacks. I kept turning into each as he made his attack. E/A opened fire at very long rang, E/A broke away (possibly ran out of ammo).Pilot Officer Eric Dickinson (AM459):
I claim a 109 F probably destroyed and a M.202 damaged.”
“Engaged one M.202 with PO Humphreys and had a violent dogfight, no hits observed. Then two others attacked me, I turned inside one and saw a flash inside his fuselage and he dived away. The other meanwhile had been engaged by another Tomahawk.Sergeant Donald McQueen (Tomahawk AN303):
Claim one 202 damaged, self no damage. Macchi dived vertically and the climbed straight up into sun. Very hard to hold the climb.”
“Two enemy aircrafts attacked No.2 Red Section by diving from above. These two a/c followed line astern. I turned in, fired on both and followed one down. The first - a 109 F - appeared to be hit near the cockpit as a flash appeared. When about 4000’ lower was still on his back. After following and losing a 109 I climbed to 12000 feet and was jumped by a 109 E (a Macchi?) which chased me down to cloud cover.”112 Squadron claimed a probable Bf 109 (Pilot Officer Bartle (AN372/Q) – according some sources credited as a destroyed), who also claimed a damaged MC.202. Two more Bf 109s were claimed by Pilot Officer Dickinson and Sergeant McQueen but they lost Pilot Officer Robert James Daniel Jeffries (AK413/K), Sergeant J. Alves (AK476) and Sergeant William Earl Houston (AK457) together with Flight Lieutenant P. H. Humphreys fighter damaged. Jeffries and Houston were killed while Alves was taken PoW. In the ORB, the 112 Squadron admitted its first serious setback.
“While on offensive fighter sweep over Tmini area 1300 ft (sic) E/A were reported 9 o’clock below and climbing. During the formation turn two aircraft collided. One of these turned in the direction of the base and dived for a cloud layer at 3000 ft. I turned and dived to follow him. While catching Tomahawk to escort to base ME 110 was sighted above flying towards me. Cloud base was 3000 ft. and E/A was just beneath. Pulling around into his tail from beneath flames came from wing root and fuselage after two bursts. I then lost sight of the a/c.”The Australians were back at 17:00.
On 6 April 1942, the 6o and 17o Gruppi scrambled to intercept a raid of bombers escorted by fighters over Derna. The 6o Gruppo scrambled with six fighters (three from the 79a Squadriglia, two from the 81a Squadriglia and one from the 88o Squadriglia), which took off at 08:10 and returned between 09:10 and 09:15 while eight fighters from the 17o Gruppo (one from the 71a Squadriglia and seven from the 80a Squadriglia) scrambled at 08:20 and landed back at 09:40.
The fighters from the 6o Gruppo had barely taken off when the Commonwealth formation composed of twelve Bostons escorted by many fighters stepped at different heights released its bomb-load on Derna El Ftehja. Only Capitano Domenico Camarda (79a Squadriglia) and Capitano Dante Ocarso (88a Squadriglia) were able to reach the raiders at the height of 4000m. Capitano Ocarso reported that he reached the enemy formation over Gazala and attacked even if flying at inferior height and heavily outnumbered. He claimed a P-40 shot down and three damaged with the use of 730 rounds of ammunition, then he flew back to base without suffering any damage. Capitano Camarda claimed a damaged Hurricane with the use of 80 rounds.
Part of the 17o Gruppo formation was able to reach the Commonwealth Squadrons after a long chase at around 09:15 at the height of 6000 metres. They were Capitano Clizio Nioi, Sergente Maggiore Alvise Andrich (80a Squadriglia), Tenente Marchi (80a Squadriglia) and Tenente Renato Talamini (80a Squadriglia). One P-40 each was credited to Capitano Nioi and Sergente Maggiore while three more P-40s were damaged; claimed by Capitano Nioi, Tenente Marchi and Tenente Giovanni Ghiglia (80a Squadriglia). Tenente Saladini force landed with engine trouble. The pilots of 17o Gruppo had expended 1330 rounds.
The raid had been performed by the usual formation of twelve Bostons escorted by nine Kittyhawks of 94 Squadron (take off 08:20 and landing 09:50), Tomahawks IIb of 2 SAAF and 4 SAAF Squadrons and finally by five Kittyhawk of 260 Squadron (take off 08:35 and landing 10:10) as extra top cover. 4 SAAF Squadron joined the formation over El Adem. In the meantime, twelve Hurricanes of 274 Squadron (take off 08:55) made a delousing sweep over Gazala together with 33 Squadron.
94 Squadron was attacked during the return journey by Bf 109s and MC.202s (possibly the two machines of the 6o Gruppo). At 09:20, Pilot Officer G. L. Usher (Kittyhawk Ia AK741) and his wingman Sergeant W. T. Wallace discovered two Bf 109s and a Macchi over Martuba, while the bombers had just banked to return to base. Axis fighters had just taken off; in fact, they were 2,000 feet under the 94 Squadron that was flying at 18000 feet. Pilot Officer Usher recorded in his CFR:
“As the bombers turned to the left after dropping their bombs, I saw three E/A below on my left. I attacked straggling 109, which tried to avoid me by turning. I saw my bullets go into his left wing. This attack developed into dead astern and by time I was 30 yards behind him most of my guns had stopped firing. I noticed holes in his left wing and broke away in a dive to get under the bombers.Wallace instead chased a second Bf 109, off the tail of Usher, and forced it to flee. He fired some rounds but was unable to appreciate any result. A few minutes later, Wallace was in turn attacked by a Macchi that shot at him from long distance and hit his plane in the wing and in the propeller. Then a dogfight started and he was able to hit the Macchi in the wing with a four-second burst. The Macchi fled without losing control so Wallace was only credited with a damaged. Over Menelao, Sergeant Matthews engaged a Bf 109 that was on the tail of Flight Lieutenant Scott. He fired 150 rounds at it and saw it climbing, emitting a trail of black smoke but wasn’t credited with it. 25-years-old Flight Lieutenant Douglas Frederic Ommanney Shelford (RAF No. 72011) failed to return, presumed shot down over Gazala in Kittyhawk AK861.
Ammunition expended 1100 rounds.”
Between 16:35-17:45 on 27 May, 19 MC.200s of the 8o Gruppo were out to strafe armoured vehicles in the Acroma-el Mrassas area. Top cover was provided by eight MC.202s of the 17o Gruppo (five from the 71a Squadriglia, two from the 72a Squadriglia; one of which returned earlier because of engine trouble, and three from the 80a Squadriglia) led by Tenente Mario Ligugnana (71a Squadriglia).
While the MC.202s were at an altitude of 4,500m over el Mrassas, a formation of about 15 P-40s tried to prevent the ground attack of the MC.200s. The pilots of the 17o Gruppo launched the attack, hitting eleven enemy planes. Three of these were believed to have been shot down. Maresciallo Andrea Stella (71a Squadriglia) probably shot down a P-40 and fired at two more; his plane was in its turn hit in the cooling system area and so he had to land it at Timini (MM7863/71-5, engine to be replaced). The other twp probables were claimed by Tenente Marchi (80a Squadriglia; with the use of 512 rounds) and Sergente Maggiore Carlo Ermo (71a Squadriglia). Tenente Ligugnana fired at two P-40s and Tenente Sergio Morandi (71a Squadriglia), fired at one P-40 while Tenente Mario Carini (72a Squadriglia) fired 132 rounds. In total, they fired 1192 rounds.
Meanwhile, many MC.200s were hit by anti-aircraft fire and Capitano Orfeo Cecchet of the 94a Squadriglia (MM8331) was forced to land away from the airfield but within friendly lines.
Six Tomahawk IIbs of 5 SAAF Squadron had scrambled to between Tobruk and Gazala (17:25-18:45). The Tomahawks were searching for seven enemy aircraft when they were attacked. Second Lieutenant Frederick Louis Stevens (AN263/GL-V) was jumped by a reported Bf 109 at 15,000ft over Tobruk and hit. He recalled:
“I was jumped by a Me.109. My cockpit was filled with smoke and flames, and I thought my machine was on fire, and after trying to open my hood, which would not budge, I tried to jettison it. Eventually I managed to open it, and when the smoke cleared, I was relieved to notice that I wasn’t on fire. I then had a good look about the sky to try and locate the rest of the Squadron and also any sign of enemy AC. I then noticed that my engine was overheating. I throttled right back, and started gliding in an easterly direction, watching my tail all the time. My engine would not cool off, and at 2000 feet, I noticed a lot of tracks and I decided to land on one of them, which I did without damaging the AC. I then tried to contact out R/T controlling station without any results ... I noticed three soldiers approaching ... and told me “hands up”... “Stevens was taken prisoner but after a few hours he found himself taken in the midst of a tank battle and managed to escape, returning the next day. Seven Tomahawks of 4 SAAF Squadron were also over Bir Hakeim (17:45-19:00) when they sighted two Macchis. Captain Gordon Goodenough Bayly was jumped by one of them while he was alone, but ”the Macchi would not stay to fight”.
On 30 May, eight Macchis of the 17o Gruppo (three from the 71a Squadriglia, two from the 72a Squadriglia and three from the 80a Squadriglia) we] on a free sweep in the Bir Harmat area (09:50-11:05). They were led by Capitano Pericle Baruffi (71a Squadriglia).
Climbing to an altitude of 4,500m, they intercepted a formation of P-40s that was trying to attack Stukas that were bombing armoured vehicles north-east of Bir Harmat. They were credited with four P-40s shot down and another six machine-gunned (total rounds used: 1164). Tenente Mario Carini (72a Squadriglia) claimed one P-40. The second was shared between Capitano Baruffi, Maresciallo Marcello Lui and Tenente Sergio Morandi (all 71a Squadriglia). The third and fourth was shared between Tenente Marchi (using 80 rounds), Tenente Giovanni B. Ghiglia (154 rounds) and Sergente Maggiore Alvise Andrich (470 rounds) (all 80a Squadriglia). Maresciallo Giuseppe Magli (72a Squadriglia, MM7735/72-3) didn't return and was posthumously promoted to Sottotenente.
The action had probably involved nine Kittyhawk Ias of 2 SAAF Squadron on a reconnaissance mission to identify targets for the Bostons (10:20-12:10). At 11:00, Lieutenants ‘Doug’ Allen and ‘Tim’ McLeod landed at El Adem because of engine trouble. The Kittyhawks, which had to fly low at an altitude of 800 feet, reported the attack by five Macchi MC.202s at 11:45 and were caught at a disadvantage. The Macchis were sighted in a loose formation at 2000 feet down sun, ”gambolling about in rough line astern in typical Italian fashion.” The usual dive and zoom tactics were employed. Lieutenant Leonard Berrange (AK735/DB-E) claimed one MC.202 at 11:45 and stated:
“I heard duck on the R/T and did a steep turn to the left. As I looped round I saw 2 Macchis completing attacks and climbing into the sky. I then completed my turn through about 270 degrees and then noticed a Macchi coming in low from the East to attack our 3 AC below. I pushed my stick forward as he came in and fired two short bursts which went in front of him, then fired a long burst and saw my bullets converging on him. He immediately pulled up vertically, smoke came from him as he got to the top of his climb, when he stalled, went on his back and dived into the ground where he burst into flames. .50. 180.”Lieutenant Eric Smith nearly collided with another Macchi while Lieutenant Richard Gifford ‘Dick’ Harrison (AK841/DB-K) was hit, losing control of his aircraft but managed to regain it; he crash-landed on its belly at Acroma and was taken prisoner. During the fight, the enemy ground forces fired with MG (total rounds: .50-570).
Between 10:45-12:20 on 28 June, four MC.202s from the 88a Squadriglia (Tenente Marchi, Sottotenente Roberto Sgorbati, Maresciallo Italo Baldelli and Sergente Maggiore Mario Host) flew a free sweep to the east of Mersa Matruh. While returning they sighted a P-40 strafing motor transports. It was attacked and quickly shot down in flames as a shared between the pilots (200 rounds).
Sottotenente Sgorbati had to do a forced landing at Bir el Astas. Sgorbati was safe and the aircraft was recovered on 1 July.
This seems to have been Lieutenant H. W. G. Bidwell (Tomahawk IIa …460) of 5 SAAF Squadron, who didn’t return from a mission (take-off 11:10). His fighter came down 15 miles from base and was destroyed by fire.
Three Bf 109 pilots from III/JG 27 observed the event after having scrambled to intercept enemy fighters strafing motor transports on the road to Bir el Astas airfield.
The Spitfire Vcs from 81 Squadron was engaged in a confused combat over their airfield at Bône during the late morning on 14 November 1942, during which Flying Officer P. G. Anson, Flight Sergeant J. Friar and Flight Sergeant D. F. Husband claimed a fighter shot down between them which they identified as a Bf 109 E. This was probably a G version of 7./JG 53, reported shot down in flames by Spitfires 3km south-east of Bône, in which Leutnant Dieter Hirsch (Bf 109 G-4/Trop WNr. 16004 White 3 + 1) was killed. A second Bf 109 was claimed as a probable by Flight Lieutenant L. G. Bedford, who was himself shot down, baling out into the sea, suffering burns, but managing to swim ashore. A second Spitfire was hit and crash-landed with Flying Officer H. E. Fenwick WiA. It is probable that both these aircraft fell to Oberleutnant Wilfried Pufahl of 7./JG 53 who claimed two Spitfires, the first at 1500 meters altitude 30km south-east of Bône at 09:20 and the second at 800 meters altitude 10km south-east of Bône at 09:25.
Meanwhile, two more of 81 Squadron's pilots (Sergeant J. R. Baker and Flying Officer Roberts) claimed a BR.20, identified as a ”Breda 20”, which aircraft they had claimed has not been identified. However, during this same engagement Flight Sergeant J. Friar shot down a Fiat CR.42 of the 24o Gruppo which had been undertaking a reconnaissance over Bône from Sardinia. This CR.42 was flown by Tenente Ernani Loddo (370a Squadriglia), who became MiA (later reported as KiA). This may have been associated with an attack on Bône made by ten MC.202s of the 17o Gruppo which had departed from the same island. These Italian pilots, led by the Gruppo’s commander Capitano Pericle Baruffi, reported strafing ten twin-engined aircraft on the ground there. These were probably C-47s, but none of these aircraft suffered any damage on this date. One Macchi flown by Tenente Pietro Maurichi (80a Squadriglia) was damaged by AA, a second suffering engine trouble which caused Tenente Marchi (80a Squadriglia) to force-land at El Aouina, Tunisia.
At 15:25, seven 272 Squadron Beaufighter Ics took off from Malta to strafe El Aouina, but as they approached the airfield a signal rocket was fired, and a tremendous barrage of Flak was put up. Squadron Leader Anthony Watson fired at a Ju 52/3m, but his aircraft (Beaufighter Ic T5079/G) was hit in the starboard engine and he force-landed on a beach 42km north-east of the airfield at 17:02; after setting light to his Beaufighter, he and his navigator, Pilot Officer C. F. Cutting, began walking towards the Allied lines, eventually reaching them safely. Sergeant W. Russell claimed to have set two Ju 52/3ms on fire, but his own aircraft was damaged. Sergeant G. A. Tuckwell claimed to have set fire to a third and a twin-engined aircraft, and to have probably destroyed a single-engined type. During this attack two MC.202s from the 155o Gruppo were destroyed by fire (including MM9095 from the 378a Squadriglia). While trying to move some drums of fuel clear of others already on fire, Capitano Carlo Miani, commander of 360a Squadriglia, was severely burned on his right leg and was removed to hospital. Tenente Marchi was also wounded during this attack.
Marchi was killed in Italy on 2 April 1944.
At the time of his death, Marchi was credited with 1 biplane victory and a total of 2.
|Kill no.||Date||Time||Number||Type||Result||Plane type||Serial no.||Locality||Unit|
|31/08/38||18:00-||1/8||I-16||Shared destroyed||Fiat CR.32||Gandesa||25a Squadriglia|
|1||??/??/3?||1||Enemy aircraft||Destroyed||Fiat CR.32||Spain||25a Squadriglia|
|12/12/41||16:00-16:35||1||Tomahawk (a)||Probably destroyed||MC.202||Gazala area||80a Squadriglia|
|06/04/42||08:20-09:40||1||P-40 (b)||Damaged||MC.202||Ain el Gazala||80a Squadriglia|
|27/05/42||16:35-17:35||1||P-40 (c)||Probably destroyed||MC.202||el Mrassas||80a Squadriglia|
|30/05/42||09:50-11:05||1/3||P-40 (d)||Shared destroyed||MC.202||Bir el Harmat||80a Squadriglia|
|30/05/42||09:50-11:05||1/3||P-40 (d)||Shared destroyed||MC.202||Bir el Harmat||80a Squadriglia|
|28/06/42||10:45-12:20||1/4||P-40 (e)||Shared destroyed||MC.202||W Mersa Matruh||88a Squadriglia|
|2||29/03/44||11:30 ca||1||B-24||Destroyed||MC.205||1a Squadriglia|
Biplane victories: 1 and 1 shared destroyed.
TOTAL: 2 and 4 shared destroyed, 2 probably destroyed, 1 damaged.
(a) Claimed in combat with P-40s from 2 SAAF, 4 SAAF, 3 RAAF and 112 Squadrons, which claimed 6 and 5 damaged while losing 7 and 3 damaged P-40s. Axis fighters claimed 15, 2 probables and 2 damaged while losing 2 and 2 damaged fighters.
(b) In this confusing combat it seems that Allied fighters claimed 3 destroyed, 1 probable and 6 damaged while losing 2 and getting 2 damaged. Axis fighters claimed 7 destroyed, 1 probable and 7 damaged while getting 1 aircraft damaged.
(c) Probably claimed in combat with Tomahawk IIbs from 5 SAAF Squadron, which lost 1 Tomahawk IIb (pilot safe). The MC.202 from 17o Gruppo claimed 3 P-40s probably destroyed while getting 1 MC.202 damaged.
(d) Probably claimed in combat with Kittyhawk Ias from 2 SAAF Squadron, which claimed 1 MC.202 while losing 1 Kittyhawk (pilot PoW). The MC.202 from 17o Gruppo claimed 4 P-40s while losing 1 MC.202 (pilot KIA).
(e) Probably Tomahawk IIa from 5 SAAF Squadron.
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume One – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN 978-1908117076
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Two – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781909166127
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Three – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2016 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781910690000
Courage Alone - Chris Dunning, 1998 Hikoki Publications, Aldershot, ISBN 1-902109-02-3
Eagles over Gazala: Air Battles in North Africa May-June 1942 – Michele Palermo, IBN Editore, ISBN (10) 88-7565-168-X
Elenco Nominativo dei Militari dell’ A. M. Decorati al V. M. Durante it Periodo 1929 - 1945 2 Volume M - Z
Fiat CR.32 Aces of the Spanish Civil War - Alfredo Logoluso, 2010 Osprey Publishing, Oxford, ISBN 978-1-84603-983-6
La Battaglie Aeree In Africa Settentrionale: Novembre-Dicembre 1941 – Michele Palermo, IBN, ISBN 88-7565-102-7
Regia Aeronautica: The Italian Air Force 1923-1945 - An Operational History - Chris Dunning, 2009 Ian Allan Publishing, Hersham, Surrey, ISBN 978-1-906537-02-9