Biplane fighter aces

Italy

Capitano Mario Visintini Medaglia d'oro al valor militare


Sottotenente Mario Visintini
Photo kindly via Gianmaria Spagnoletti.

Mario Visintini was born in Parenzo d’Istria on 26 April 1913.
His birth-name was Visentin but this was later “Italianized” to Visintini.

On completing his higher education, he applied to enter the Accademia Aeronautica (Air Force Academy) but failed the medical test.
Instead he undertook a civilian course and received his civil pilot-license at Taliedo, Milan, in June 1936, when he qualified on a Caproni Ca.100.
This civil license enabled him to join the Regia Aeronautica as an Allievo Ufficiale Pilota di Complemento (Pilot Officer Cadet).

He received his military wings in September 1936 and after qualifying as a military pilot at Grottaglie in December 1936, on Breda 25s and Fiat CR.20s, he was posted as Sottotenente to the 91a Squadriglia, 10o Gruppo, 4o Stormo, at Gorizia. Here he trained on CR.30s and CR.32s.

He volunteered for service in the Spanish Civil War in November 1937 and was posted to 25a Squadriglia of XVIo Gruppo "La Cucaracha". This unit was at this time equipped with Fiat CR.32s.

He claimed a Russian I-16 over Venta de los Camposines on 5 September.
Four battles were fought over this place during the day but no details have been found. Five I-16s were lost here, of which one was flown by I. G. Schaulov, who was killed. An I-15 was also claimed by J/88.

In October 1938, Visintini retuend to Italy and 4o Stormo.
During his time in Spain he had claimed 1 victory during 330 hours of operational flying. For his service in Spain he was decorated with the Medaglia d'argento al valor militare.

Back in Italy he was given a permanent commission in the Regia Aeronautica due to his record from Spain. After his return he trained on CR.42s, but also on Ca.133s and S. 79 trimotors.

In January 1940 he was promoted to Tenente for war merits.

On 5 April he was transferred to Italian East Africa (A.O.I.) and posted to the 413a Squadriglia. Before the start of the war in June 1940 he was transferred to the 412a Squadriglia, which was based in Eritrea and equipped with Fiat CR.42s.

On 14 June 1940 he claimed his first victory in the Second World War when he shot down one Wellesley (K7743) of 14 Squadron flown by Pilot Officer Reginald Patrick Blenner Plunkett (RAF No. 40849) over Massawa. Plunkett was killed when his aircraft crashed.
The fate of the rest of the crew is unknown but it is possible that Plunkett was the only person on board at the time of its loss, there is a suggestion that Plunkett flew this mission when he was convinced by other squadron pilots in a jolly up in the squadron mess that providing one of the attacking Wellesleys carried a gunner, that one was not required by himself on the mission. In all cases when a rescue mission was sent out Plunkett was the only one mentioned. And is the only one recorded as missing on this day.
Other sources give the date to 12 June.

On 3 July he shot down another Wellesley (L2652) of 14 Squadron over Decamere. This aircraft was leading two other Wellesleys on a reconnaissance over Zula, Decamere, Gura, Asmara and Massawa. On leaving Decamere it was seen by the other two aircraft to turn suddenly and sharply towards the coast, but they then lost sight of it in cloud. It was subsequently attacked by Visinitini and shot down. The pilot, 26-year-old, Flying Officer Samuel Gustav Soderholm (RAF No. 40194) was killed in the crash. The fate of the rest of the crew is unknown.
Other sources give the date to 4 July.

He claimed a number of victories during July 1940 on unknown dates.
Two enemy bombers were claimed during a British raid on 412a Squadriglia’s airfield. It is possible that this claim was made around midday on 12 July when eleven Wellesleys from 14 and 47 Squadrons attacked Massawa airfield. Italian fighters intercepted the formation, shooting down Sergeant Frederick (Freddy) Nelson (RAF No. 516778) of 47 Squadron, in K8520, and also claiming a probable. It has not been possible to verify which pilots from 412a Squadriglia that were involved in this combat.
Two more enemy bombers were claimed in a combat over an unknown place.

On 14 August Sergente Maggiore Lugi Baron claimed a shared Wellesley over Harmil Island. This claim can’t be verified with British records. It is also possible that this claim is one presumed to have happened on an unknown date in July when Baron claimed a shared Blenheim with Tenente Visintini in the Gura-Decamere area.

On 29 July, he was decorated with the Medaglia d'argento al valor militare.

On 1 September, a single Wellesley (L2669) from 14 Squadron flown by Sergeant Norris made a photographic reconnaissance over Harmil Island, but was intercepted by fighters scrambled from Massawa and crash-landed on the island, the crew being taken prisoner.
Visintini shared this claimed with two other pilots.

Early in the morning on 30 September three 45 Squadron Blenheim Is raided Gura, but there all the bombers were attacked by CR.32s and CR.42s, Blenheim L6665 flown by 28-year-old Squadron Leader George Justin Bush (RAF No. 37061) being shot down, killing Bush and his crew (Observer 20-year-old Sergeant John C. Usher (RAF no. 580912) and Wireless Operator/Air gunner 21-year-old Sergeant James Corney DFM (RAF no. 541684)). An hour later six more of the Squadron’s aircraft appeared over Gura and on this occasion suffered no loss, although fighters were seen again.
It seems that Tenente Visintini had shot down Bush since he claimed two victories over Gura on this day as recorded by his commanding officer.

In the early hours of 16 October Flight Lieutenant Mitchell of 430 Flight, piloting a Vincent, attacked Tessenei airfield. He was followed back to Gedaref by a Ca.133, which bombed the landing ground without effect. But the Italians now knew where the aircraft, which had been operating around the Lake Tana region during recent weeks, were based.
A strike was laid on at once. At 0525 an S.79 flown by Generale Piacentini himself led in six CR.42s of the 412a Squadriglia flown by Capitano Antonio Raffi, Tenente Vinsintini, Tenente Carlo Canella, Sergente Maggiore Lugi Baron, Scarselli and Tenente De Pauli. Some sources claims that nine CR.42s were involved in this strike and the British identified the attackers incorrectly as one S.79, four CR.42s and three CR.32s.
The Savoia dropped its bombs without causing much damage, but the fighters then strafed and totally destroyed all eight Wellesleys of 47 Squadronss detachment (K7742, K7762, K7779, K7781, L2650, L2675, L2677 and L2688) and two of 430 Flight’s Vincents (K4657 and K4731). An attempt to telephone the fighter detachment at Azzoza was foiled, as the line between Gedaref and Azzoza was found to have been cut. Italian claims were very accurate, eleven aircraft being claimed destroyed, together with a munitions dump and a lorry.
For his part in this action Vinsintini was decorated with a Medaglia di bronzo al valor militare.

On the 6 November the British forces in Sudan launched an offensive to capture the Italian fort at Gallabat as well as occupy Metemma, which was just across the frontier. All that the RAF could provide in way of support was six Wellesleys, two Vincents, six Gauntlets, ten Gladiators (drawn from ‘K’ Flight and 1 SAAF Squadron) and four Hawker Hardys (from the Rhodesian Air Force). The Wellesleys were first into action bombing Gallabat, with the Gladiators requested to over fly the area in large formations. Three Gladiators of ‘K’ Flight arrived over the advancing troops at low level. They were patrolling to the east of Metemma when a formation of an estimated six or seven CR.42s from 412a Squadriglia led by the unit commander Capitano Raffi attacked them from out of the sun. The Gladiator pilots were taken by surprise; 24-year-old Flight Lieutenant Kenneth Howard Savage (RAF no. 37483) (L7614) was shot down and killed while Pilot Officer Kirk (K7969) was forced to take to his parachute; neither pilot saw their attacker. Pilot Officer J. Hamlyn evaded the initial onslaught but his aircraft (L7612) was badly damaged and he force-landed, returning later on foot.
Meanwhile Major Schalk van Schalkwyk (N5855) of 1 SAAF Squadron had also taken off from Azzoza, but on arriving over the front was also attacked by the CR.42s. Observers on the ground at once rang the strip at ‘Heston’ to report the lone Gladiator in combat with eight opponents, and despite thick mud caused by an unexpected downpour during the night, Captain Brian Boyle at once took off, arriving just in time to see the commanding officer's Gladiator going down in flames, the pilot taking to his parachute with his clothes on fire; he did not survive. Immediately Boyle was also attacked, bullets entering the cockpit and wounding him in hands and legs; desperately he fought on until the engine of N5852 stopped, and he had to crash-land between the lines. Boyle was brought in by Indian troops and sent by ambulance to Wadi Seidna where he was hospitalised for some weeks. He was subsequently warded a DFC (1 SAAF Squadron’s first) on 7 January 1941 for his gallant action in going single-handed to van Schalkwyk’s assistance.
Capitano Raffi reported that four victories were claimed as a result of these engagements, but Sottotenente Rosmino's aircraft was hit and he returned with his parachute pack riddled with bullets.
During the morning another ‘K’ Flight Gladiator was flown up to the front, and shortly after midday Flying Officer Haywood (K7977) joined four Gladiators of 1 SAAF Squadron from ‘Heston’, which took off at 13:20 in another patrol over the front. There five Ca.133s were seen at 7,000 feet, 2,000 feet lower than the Gladiators, approaching the battle area. As the fighters prepared to attack, they were bounced from above by six CR.42s and Haywood’s aircraft was seen to crash in flames. The South Africans at once split up into pairs, Lieutenants John Coetzer and Robin Pare taking on the fighters while Lieutenants Andrew Duncan and John Hewitson went after the bombers. The Caproni attacked by Duncan crashed on the Metemma-Gondar road, while Hewitson’s fell out of control after he’d fired three burst and crashed; he also damaged a third bomber on the ground. The crew of one of the shot-down bombers survived, and was to return on foot several days later.
While this was going on, the two pilots fighting the CR.42s had managed to drive them off, each claiming one of the fighters shot down; no losses of CR.42s were recorded however, although either or both of those attacked may have been damaged, and force-landed. Two more victories were claimed by the Italians to raise their total for the day to six, two or three of which were credited to Tenente Visintini, who claimed two destroyed and one probable enemy aircraft in the Gondar area during the day.
By the end of the day, despite the loss of air superiority by the British forces, Gallabat Fort had been captured and the garrison virtually annihilated.

On 12 December, the 412a Squadriglia launched an airfield strafe on the advanced strip at Gaz Regeb, where 237 Squadron’s ‘B’ Flight was based.
In the morning, five aircraft took off led by a S.79 (Tenente Colonnello Liberati). At 06:10, three of them (Capitano Antonio Raffi, Tenente Luciano Cacciavillani and Tenente Visintini) attacked the parked Hawker Hardys, destroying K4053, K4308, K4055 and K4307 while the other two CR.42s remained above as cover.
Capitao Raffi, CO of the 412a Squadriglia, made several attacks on one aircraft, which consistently refused to burn, but his own aircraft was then hit in the oil sump by fire from the Sudan Defence Force detachment guarding the airfield. Trailing smoke, he headed for his base, but the engine finally seized and stopped some 100 kilometres from the target and he force-landed east of Aroma, near the Atbara River. Tenente Visintini landed alongside, took his CO aboard and seated on Raffi’s knees after dispensing his parachute took off after setting fire to the CO’s crippled CR.42. They returned successfully to Asmara.
The Italian pilots claimed to have destroyed five Vickers Vincents on the ground at Gaz Regeb, together with some armoured cars. Once at Barentu, after refurbishing, Visintini and Cacciavillani returned to destroy Raffi's abandoned fighter to ensure its total destruction.


Mario Visintini (left) and Raffi in a Fiat CR.42.

On 16 January 1941 he was promoted to Capitano and Commander of 412a Squadriglia.

In January he claimed an enemy aircraft during a night interception on an unknown date and place.
It is also possible that this claim was made during the night of 12/13 December 1940 when he, according to some sources, claimed a bomber shot down with a second probably destroyed over Eritrea. No losses were however reported by the British squadrons during this night.

On 26 January he claimed a Blenheim and scattered five more.

A Blenheim was claimed on 4 February.

During the morning on 9 February he took part in an attack together with four other pilots from 412a Squadriglia on Agordat and its satellite airfield. 16 aircraft were claimed shared destroyed on the ground including 5 Hurricanes, 5 Hawker biplanes, 2 Gladiators, 2 Wellesleys, 1 Valentia and 1 ‘Martin’ Lysander.
Actual losses were two Wellesleys (K7713 and L2665) of 47 Squadron, two Hardys and two Lysanders of 237 Squadron, while four other aircraft were damaged.

On the afternoon on 9 February he claimed two enemy aircraft intercepted while they were attacking Asmara and Adi Ugri.
These claims were reported in Italian War Bulletin N. 247 as Visintini’s 15th and 16th victories during the Second World War.

Some sources state that he claimed three Blenheims in three separate combats in the beginning of the year. This probably means that at least one of the claims in January or 9 February against unknown enemy aircraft was of this type.
On one occasion he set an engine of one of these bombers on fire, then flew alongside signaling the pilot to land. Only when the pilot ignored these signals and continued to fly out to sea, did Vinsintini administer the coup de grâce.

On 11 February Visintini claimed a Hurricane over Keren. This claim was probably made in combat with Hurricanes from 1 SAAF Squadron, which had 11 aircraft on patrols over the area during the day. Two of them encountered three CR.42s, which dived away in thick cloud. Lieutenant S. de K. Viljoen followed and failed to return. Running low on fuel, he had to land near a village, fortunately within territory in British hands. He obtained petrol, and attempted to take off next morning, but crashed. He returned to Agordat on foot. His aircraft was later recovered and repaired.
It seems that Viljoen had chased aircraft from 412a Squadriglia, engaged in strafing British troops in front of Keren. Two of these fighters flown by Sergente Maggiore Lugi Baron and another pilot, force-landed at a forward landing strip due to bad weather.
Later on the day Visintini took off to fly back to guide these pilots home. It seems that during the flight he was however blown off course by high winds and while descending through clouds he crashed into the side of Mount Nefasit and was instantly killed.

He received Medaglia d'oro al valor militare posthumously for his outstanding combat record, and for noteworthy work as deputy commander of the Squadriglia. Visintini was the Italian top-scorer in the East African campaign of 1940-41.
According to Italian War Bulletin N. 252 of 14 February 1941 he was credited with 17 confirmed victories in A.O.I. The attached document to his Medaglia d’Oro states 50 combats, 16 destroyed and 32 shared destroyed.

At the time of his death, Visintini had 17 victories, all of them claimed while flying biplane fighters.

Please note that all Visintini’s claims were and are unofficial, as up to date there isn’t any official confirmed listing of Italian aces. His claims in Spain have been especially difficult to verify with various sources and most of them only credit him with one victory there. However most sources agree that he claimed 16 or 17 victories during the operations in the A.O.I.

Claims:
Kill no. Date Time Number Type Result Plane type Serial no. Locality Unit
  1938                
1 05/09/38   1 I-16 Destroyed Fiat CR.32   Venta de los Camposines 25a Squadriglia
  1940                
2 14/06/40   1 Wellesley (a) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   over Massawa 412a Squadriglia
3 03/07/40   1 Wellesley (b) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   over Decamere 412a Squadriglia
  ??/07/40   ½ Blenheim (c) Shared destroyed Fiat CR.42   Gura-Decamere area 412a Squadriglia
4 (d) ??/07/40   1 Enemy bomber Destroyed Fiat CR.42   A.O.I. 412a Squadriglia
5 (d) ??/07/40   1 Enemy bomber Destroyed Fiat CR.42   A.O.I. 412a Squadriglia
6 (d) ??/07/40   1 Enemy bomber Destroyed Fiat CR.42   A.O.I. 412a Squadriglia
7 (d) ??/07/40   1 Enemy bomber Destroyed Fiat CR.42   A.O.I. 412a Squadriglia
  01/09/40   1/3 Wellesley (e) Shared destroyed Fiat CR.42   Harmil Island 412a Squadriglia
8 30/09/40   1 Blenheim (f) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Gura area 412a Squadriglia
9 30/09/40   1 Blenheim (f) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Gura area 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
  16/10/40   1/7 Enemy aircraft (g) Shared destroyed on the ground Fiat CR.42   Gedaref 412a Squadriglia
10 06/11/40   1 Enemy aircraft (h) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Gondar 412a Squadriglia
11 06/11/40   1 Enemy aircraft (h) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Gondar 412a Squadriglia
  06/11/40   1 Enemy aircraft (h) Probable Fiat CR.42   Gondar 412a Squadriglia
  12/12/40 06:10- 1/3 Vincents (i) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Gaz Regeb 412a Squadriglia
  12/12/40 06:10- 1/3 Vincents (i) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Gaz Regeb 412a Squadriglia
  12/12/40 06:10- 1/3 Vincents (i) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Gaz Regeb 412a Squadriglia
  12/12/40 06:10- 1/3 Vincents (i) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Gaz Regeb 412a Squadriglia
  12/12/40 06:10- 1/3 Vincents (i) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Gaz Regeb 412a Squadriglia
  1941                
12 ??/01/41   1 Enemy aircraft (j) Destroyed Fiat CR.42     412a Squadriglia
13 26/01/41   1 Blenheim (k) Destroyed Fiat CR.42     412a Squadriglia
14 04/02/41   1 Blenheim Destroyed Fiat CR.42     412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hurricane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hurricane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hurricane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hurricane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hurricane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hawker biplane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hawker biplane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hawker biplane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hawker biplane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Hawker biplane (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Gladiator (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Gladiator (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Wellesley (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Wellesley (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Valentia (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
  09/02/41   1/5 Lysander (l) Shared destroyed on ground Fiat CR.42   Agordat area 412a Squadriglia
15 09/02/41   1 Enemy aircraft (m) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Asmara - Adi Ugri 412a Squadriglia
16 09/02/41   1 Enemy aircraft (m) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Asmara - Adi Ugri 412a Squadriglia
17 11/02/41   1 Hurricane (n) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Keren 412a Squadriglia

Biplane victories: 17 and 2 shared destroyed, 1 probable, 32 shared destroyed on the ground.
TOTAL: 17 and 2 shared destroyed, 1 probable, 32 shared destroyed on the ground.
(a) Wellesley (K7743) of 14 Squadron flown by Pilot Officer Plunkett destroyed over Massawa. The pilot was killed but the fate of the rest of the crew is unknown. AA also claimed this aircraft.
(b) One Wellesley (L2652) of 14 Squadron flown by Flight Officer S. G. Soderholm destroyed over Decamere. The pilot was killed but the fate of the rest of the crew is unknown.
(c) This claim can have been made on 14 August when Sergente Maggiore Lugi Baron claimed a shared Wellesley over Harmil Island together with an unknown pilot. This claim can’t be verified with British records.
(d) It is possible that two of these claims where made on 12 July when 412a Squadriglia claimed one destroyed and one probable from a formation of eleven Wellesleys from 14 and 47 Squadrons. Only Sergeant F. Nelson in K8520 was shot down.
(e) Wellesley (L2669) from 14 Squadron flown by Sergeant Norris shot down. The aircraft cash-landed and the crew was taken prisoner.
(f) Claimed in combat with Blenheim Is of 45 Squadron. Visintini claimed two but only Blenheim L6665 flown by G. J. Bush was lost together with its crew.
(g) According to British sources eight Wellesleys of 47 Squadron and two Vincents of 430 Flight were destroyed against claims for eleven aircraft destroyed on the ground.
(h) Claimed in combat with Gladiators from 1 SAAF Squadron and ‘K’ Flight, which lost six aircraft while claiming two CR.42s and two Ca.133s. 412a Squadriglia claimed six Gladiators during the day with no losses, although at least one CR.42 were damaged.
(i) Five Vickers Vincents were claimed destroyed by 412a Squadriglia while in fact Hawker Hardys K4053, K4308, K4055 and K4307 of ‘B’ Flight, 237 Squadron were destroyed.
(j) Claimed at a night interception on an unknown date and place, possibly during the night of 12/13 December 1940.
(k) This claim can’t be verified with since no Blenheims seems to have been lost in this area during the day.
(l) 412a Squadriglia on Agordat claimed 16 aircraft destroyed on the ground. Actual losses were two Wellesleys (K7713 and L2665) of 47 Squadron, two Hardys and two Lysanders of 237 Squadron, while four other aircraft were damaged.
(m) These claims were reported in Italian War Bulletin N. 247 as Visintini’s 15th and 16th victories during the Second World War.
(n) Claimed in combat with Hurricanes from 1 SAAF Squadron, who didn’t sustain any losses. According to Italian War Bulletin N. 252 of 14 February 1941.

Sources:
Luciano Cacciavillani's personal logbook courtesy of Cacciavillani family (Luciano jr and Alberto)
410a Squadriglia war diary (1940) kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro.
Comando Aeronautica Africa Orientale war diary (June 1940) kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro.
Dust Clouds in the Middle East - Christopher Shores, 1996 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-898697-37-X
Gloster Gladiator Home Page - Alexander Crawford.
In cielo e in terra - F. Pagliano, 1969 editore Longanesi, Milan, kindly provided by Alfredo Logoluso.
Italian Aces of World War 2 - Giovanni Massimello and Giorgio Apostolo, 2000 Osprey Publishing, Oxford, ISBN 1-84176-078-1
RAF 1939-45 - D. Richards and H. St. Georges Saunders kindly provided by Alfredo Logoluso.
Springbok Fighter Victory: East Africa Volume 1 1940 – 1941 – Michael Shoeman, 2002 African Aviation Series No. 11, Freeworld Publications CC, ISBN 0-958-4388-5-4
Storia Aeronautica Italiana
The Bristol Blenheim: A complete history – Graham Warner, 2002 Crécy Publishing Limited, Manchester, ISBN 0-947554-92-0
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Visintini - S. Platen, 1942 editore Rizzoli, Rome, kindly provided by Alfredo Logoluso.
Additional info kindly provided by Sergey Abrosov, Stefano Lazzaro, Alfredo Logoluso, Giovanni Massimello, Michele Palermo, Ondrej Repka, Ludovico Slongo and Pelham Temple.




Last modified 13 December 2010