Biplane fighter aces


Sergente Francesco Cuscunà

© Archive D'Amico-Valentini
Photo kindly via Ferdinando D'Amico.

Date Decoration Note
??/??/41 Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (1st) 1940-43
??/??/43 Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (2nd) 1940-43

Francesco Cuscuna was from Motta S. Anastasio (Catania).

Cuscunà belonged to 75a Squadriglia of 23o Gruppo Autonomo CT.

In July 1940, the 23o Gruppo moved to Sicily and took part in the attacks on Malta.
On 9 July the 23o Gruppo became Autonomo and the first escort missions over Malta was flown on 12 July.

1 November 1940 was the blackest day of war for 228 Squadron when Sunderland N9020/W was intercepted and shot down off Sicily by a couple of Macchi MC.200s from the 88a Squadriglia, 6o Gruppo C.T. piloted by Tenente Luigi Armanino and Sergente Maggiore Natalino Stabile. The experienced crew of the Sunderland disappeared with it (Squadron leader Guy Lambton Menzies, Flying Officer Stuart Maxwell Farries, Sergeant Elias Dawes, Sergeant Frederick Harris, Sergeant George Arthur Stamp, Sergeant Edward Louis Setterfield, Leading Aircraftman Benjamin Edwin Nicholas, Leading Aircraftman Leslie Charles Major Hale and Leading Aircraftman Ronald Fletcher).
At 15:30 on the same afternoon, Sunderland L5806/Q piloted by Flight Lieutenant E. M. Ware was intercepted when only 32 miles from Malta by two more 6o Gruppo Macchis piloted by Tenente Pesaola and Tenente Pio Tomaselli and a couple of CR.42s of the 75a Squadriglia, 23o Gruppo piloted by Tenente Ezio Monti and Sergente Cuscuna. Two men of the Sunderland’s crew were wounded. Mattresses and clothing in aircraft were set on fire by the Italian’s explosive bullets and burning articles were thrown out from the rear door. Flame floats and practise bombs (four of each) were set off by explosive bullets and caused the aircraft to fill with smoke, hindering the amidships gunners in their firing. The rear turret was put partially out of action by having the starboard control handle shot away. The Sunderland was badly holed below waterline and was taken up slip immediately on return to Kalafrana to avoid its sinking. Despite all this damaged the aircraft was back in action on 22 November. The Italian pilots came back reporting that the big flying boat had adsorbed hundreds of rounds apparently without suffering particular problems even if Tenente Tomaselli in one of his attacks had gone so close to it that had almost collided with its empennages. The Sunderland was finally seen to land in Marsaxlokk Bay, without particular problems. Back at base, the Italian pilots argued that the plane had been fitted with some sort of special armour.
Flight Lieutenant Ware later received the DFC for this and other sorties, whilst one of the air gunners, L. A. C. Barton received the DFM. Although wounded in the leg, Barton had continued to operate his gun throughout. With these two losses 228 Squadron practically ceased to exist having no operational plane left. Reinforcement were on their way however and would soon taken to full strength the Squadron.

In August 1941, the 23o Gruppo was based at Pantelleria, Sicily, and still equipped with Fiat CR.42s.

On the afternoon of 30 August 1941, Cuscuna was part of a two-plane escort to a convoy. The two pilots reported that three Wellingtons attempted to attack the ships. Cascuna attacked one, which dived into the sea after he had hit the engines while Sottotenente Wisdor Pederzoli claimed a second in flames, the third was claimed as a probable between them. On this day a Wellington (W5559) of the Overseas Delivery unit, flying from Gibraltar to Malta was shot down eight miles south of Lampedusa, presumably the victim of 23o Gruppo.

On 15 November 1941 Pantelleria-based CR.42s from 23o Gruppo intercepted a passing Blenheim, Maresciallo Germano Gasperoni, Sergente Luigi Sacchi and Sergente Cuscuna claiming to have obtained hits on this. The damaged OADU Blenheim crash-landed on arrival at Luqa.

During a mission 10:00-11:20 on 20 October 1942, Sergente Cuscuna claimed a P-40 over Fuka.
Due to the amount of aerial activity on this day, it has not been possible to verify his opponent.

At 09:35 on 26 October, seven MC.202s of the 9o and 10o Gruppi (Tenente Giulio Reiner (leader), Tenente Vittorio Squarcia (73a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Giorgio Bertolaso (91a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Alessandro Bladelli (91a Squadriglia), Sergente Ferruccio Terrabuio (91a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Vittorino Daffara (91a Squadriglia) and Sergente Amleto Monterumici (90a Squadriglia)) took off to intercept a reportedly 18 Bostons, escorted by 30 P-40s and ten Spitfires, heading to bomb Fuka.
A little earlier, at 08:50, twelve MC.202s of the 23o Gruppo, 3o Stormo, (four from the 70a Squadriglia, three of the 74a Squadriglia and five of the 75a Squadriglia) led by Capitano Mario Pinna (CO of the 75a Squadriglia) had taken off from Abu Aggag for a patrol mission (one of the aircraft was flown by Sottotenente Franco Bordoni-Bisleri of the 83a Squadriglia, 18o Gruppo).
At 4500 meters altitude, both Italian formations spotted the enemy bombers at the same time and the attack of the 4o Stormo and the 23o Gruppo made the bombers aiming inaccurate, so most of the bombs fell out of the target. Daffara claimed the left wingman of the head formation of Bostons, and damaged two more. Reiner strafed the bomber leader, which began to slip out of formation sideways. He then climbed and found a Spitfire in front of him, fired and hitting it. The Spitfire exploded when hitting the ground 20 kilometers south-east Fuka. Another Spitfire was claimed as a probable by Bertolaso, who also damaged two Bostons. Squarcia, after having damaged several Bostons and a P-40, pursued another Curtiss together with pilots of the 23o Gruppo, and forced it to make a wheels-up landing south of Daba (the pilot, Sergeant J. G. Meredith (Kittyhawk IIa), was subsequently rescued by the same Squarcia together with Tenente Colonnello Armando François in the Stormo's Fiesler Storch). Bladelli (MC.202 MM7805/84-2) damaged four Bostons and a P-40, but was hit and had to made an emergency landing at Fuka. Another P-40, shared by many, was seen to explode when hitting the ground. Sergente Monterumici (MM7933/84-10), after having fired at the bombers, was hit by three rounds from a P-40; one stopped against the head armour, one hit the armoured windshield and one destroyed the instrument panel. Monterumici recalled:

“On that day I scrambled to intercept 18 Bostons, escorted by approximately 30 Curtiss P-40s and about ten Spitfires, heading to our airfield. I attacked the bombers before they could deliver their charge on our aircraft on the ground, while the escorting fighters were still far enough off, giving me a chance to disengage. In reality, on that occasion our adversaries employed larger calibre guns, still unknown to us, and opened fire unexpectedly at a 500 meters range. A burst hit my cockpit, shattering the canopy and blistering my face with glass chips. I quickly rolled away to evade this difficult situation but as soon as I gained speed the windscreen smashed, hurting my forehead. I was left with no protection in the violent airflow and I felt like my head was coming off. I reduced speed but the enemy fighter was again getting on my tail. I had no more altitude to lose and, trying to dodge a burst, I touched the ground with the propeller, crash-landing at excessive speed. In the sandy desert plain, my plane kept on dragging, engaged in a never-ending run, while in those seemingly endless moments I was saying: Tm still alive, I'm still alive, I'm still alive...
When at last the plane carne to rest, I climbed out of my cockpit, bleeding; then, fearful that the damaged aircraft could catch fire, I went further away, and made my way northbound, with the help of a small compass that I carried with me. After a few hours walk, the real troubles started: large minefield, marked with many pegs, was just in front of me, apparently endless. I made a detour, because I couldn't stop: I had just a half-filled water-bottle and the flies, attracted by the blood that was still dripping from the wounds on my face, kept on annoying me. After some time, I heard an aircraft engine noise far away: it was a Storch, piloted (as I was told afterwards) by my Stormo CO T.Col Armando François and by Ten Vittorino Daffara. Unfortunately they didn't notice me, although I waved my life-vest for a long time, trying to draw their attention.
I carefully resumed my march among the mines, hoping to meet with someone or something. Some time later, I carne across the wreck of a shot-down aircraft. I approached to see what type it was: it was a P-40 whose pilot was lying on a wing with his head on his hands and a parachute not so far way. The body was intact but sort of mummified. Not very far away there was another aircraft, this time a Spitfire, whose pilot was sitting still on his 'chute near to the tailwheel, with to back leaning against the fuselage, holding his knees with his arms. He looked as if he was sleeping, but he too had been already transformed into a statue. I gently knocked my knuckles against his cheek-bone and a sort of dried wood sound replied. I then thought to myself: 'This will be also my destiny, but... never mind, let's continue until there’s energy to do so...
After many more hours of walking, I noticed what I hoped so much to see: a thin dust cloud moving towards me. I started again to wave my life-vest, but I wasn't able to make clear what it really was: was it just the wind raising some sand or something moving in my direction? As a matter of fact, my eyes were filled with clotted blood, while the right part of my face, from the nose to the cheek, was a just a congealed wound. It was 7 o’clock p.m. already, the sunset was soon to come and by then I’d been walking for ten hours. The dust cloud kept on getting closer and at last I managed to recognise a motorbike. The driver was Ten Carlo Tommasi, of 3o Stormo, wandering around in the desert looking for souvenirs to be brought back to his villa in Naples...”
Monterumici was taken to a field hospital and later repatriated.
From the 23o Gruppo formation Bordoni-Bisleri claimed one of the fighters, which crash-landed about 15 km south-east of Fuka and Capitano Pinna claimed one probable Boston and a damaged fighter while Sergente Antonio Franciosi (75a Squadriglia) claimed a probable Kittyhawk and two damaged Bostons. Sergente Maurizio Mandolesi (75a Squadriglia) damaged two fighters and two bombers, Sergente Cuscunà (75a Squadriglia) damaged a bomber and all of the Gruppo's pilots damaged twelve aircraft. Sergente Maggiore Celso Zemella (70a Squadriglia in MM9058/70-10) jumped and parachuted in the El Quteifiya area due to an engine failure.
The Luftwaffe claimed only two planes in these combats (one Kittyhawk each by Unteroffizier Erich Krainik of 8./JG 27 and Leutnant Jürgen Harder of 7./JG 53 at 09:57 10 km north-east of Fuka). However, Unteroffizier Krainik (Bf 109 F-4/Trop WNr. 8727 Black 7 + ~) was lost in combat with Spitfires over Deir el Tarfa and he became MiA (totally 13 victories). Leutnant Doktor Helmut Fenzl from 7./JG 27 (Bf 109 F-4/Trop WNr. 13136 White 7 + ~) was shot down in combat with P-40s (reportedly by Pilot Officer J. G. Wright from 112 Squadron) near El Alamein and the pilot became a PoW. Leutnant Werner Boden from 9./JG 27 (Bf 109 F-4/Trop WNr 8669) was shot down in combat with enemy fighters (reportedly a Spitfire) at Turbiya and the pilot was killed.
The Desert Air Force reported a general attack in the Fuka and Daba areas conducted by 24 Kittyhawks of 260 Squadron and 2 SAAF covering twelve Bostons and six Baltimores bound for Fuka while twelve Kittyhawks of 112 Squadron escorted bombers. Ten Hurricanes of 274 Squadron covered by others of 127 Squadron, six Kittyhawks of 450 Squadron and 17 Spitfires of 92 and 601 Squadron were also up, the Spitfire doing a “delousing” sweep. These large formations reported widespread combat with enemy fighters and while no bombers were reported lost five fighters failed to return. The fighters made claims for four Bf 109s destroyed, one probable and one damaged and four MC.202s destroyed, two probables and two damaged.
The Kittyhawk IIIs of 112 Squadron was in combat with Bf 109s north of El Alamein at 09:00-09:50 and Squadron Leader Billy Drake (FR293/?) claimed one Bf 109 destroyed while Pilot Officer J. G. Wright (FR279/J) claimed one Bf 109 F destroyed. Pilot Officer Wright crashed-landed near the front-line and was reported MiA while 21-year-old Flying Officer Keith Ronald Gardener (RAF No. 103554) (FR263/X) failed to return and later died of his wounds.
Flying OfficerJ. L Waddy from 92 Squadron (Spitfire Vb) claimed one Bf 109 F over Daba between 09:30-11:00.
260 Squadron encountered the Italian fighters and Flying Officer E. G. Aitchison and Flying Officer J. G. Meredith claimed one MC.202 each destroyed over Fuka landing ground between 10:00-11:48. Meredith was shot down and taken to Fuka but the same evening the 4o Stormo was obliged to hand him over to the Germans by an order coming directly from the HQ. 22-year-old Pilot Officer Charles Edwin Ody (RAF No. 135396) was reportedly shot down by Bf 109s south-west of Daba and Ody was KIA. Flying Officer E. G. Aitchison’s fighter was badly damaged by Flak north of the Qattara Depression but the pilot was safe. Sergeant W. D. Barker’s Kittyhawk was badly damaged by MC202. South-west of Daba but the pilot was safe.
Between 10:30-11:30, the Spitfire Vcs from 601 Squadron was in combat with MC.202s over El Daba. Pilot Officer A. B. Boyle (EP682) claimed one damaged while Flight Lieutenant J. H. Curry (AB345/J) claimed one destroyed.
Captain L. B. van det Spuy from 5 SAAF Squadron (Tomahawk IIb AN226/C) claimed one probable MC.202 over Fuka at 10:40 while Flight Sergeant R. N. B. Stevens from 3 RAAF Squadron (Kittyhawk Ia AK653/CV-X) claimed one probable MC.202 over Fuka landing ground at 10:50.
At 10:50, the 2 SAAF Squadron engaged the fighters and made a number of claims over Fuka Main landing ground when Captain J. E. Parsons (Kittyhawk Ia EV326/DF-F) claimed a Bf 109, Lieutenant J. H. Burls (ET972/DB-P) a MC.202, Lieutenant A. P. Blignault (EV356/DB-A) claimed a probable Bf 109F, 2nd Lieutenant A. F. Allen-Whyte (AK658/DB-P) and Lieutenant H. J. Lowens (EV330/DB-S) damaged respectively a Bf 109F and a MC.202.
Hurricane IIc HL774 of 274 Squadron was shot down by Bf 109s with the pilot, Flying Officer Graves MIA.

At 06.00 on 4 November two MC.202s flown by Capitano Mario Pinna of the 74a Squadriglia and Sergente Maggiore Cuscuna of 75a Squadriglia were scrambled from Abu Smeit after Bostons and Curtiss fighters. A little later a third MC.202 took off, flown by Tenente Franco Bordoni-Bisleri of the 95a Squadriglia (06:35-07:30).
They reportedly intercepted three P-40 Kittyhawks and Bordoni-Bisleri shot down one of them near the airfield. This P-40 had moments before shot down Pinna, who was forced to leave his burning aircraft (MC.202 MM8081/75-1) with parachute after having collided with a Kittyhawk.
Pinna was badly wounded in his face and on his hands and was picked up by soldiers from the Folgore Division and later collected by a Fiesler Storch. A Ca.133 Sanitario then picked him up and transported him to Marsa Matruh for treatment and recovery.
Cuscuna returned from this combat with a damaged aircraft at 07:15 after having claimed two damaged P-40s.
It seems that twelve 260 Squadron Kittyhawk IIas provided escort for bombers between 08:10-09:40. They encountered reportedly four Bf 109s with one of which Flying Officer N. E. Gilboe (Kittyhawk IIa FL351/C) collided over Ras el Abd (Pinna), both aircraft crashing. Flying Officer Gilboe became a PoW.

On 30 July 1943 a formation of B-17s escorted by P-38s were intercepted over Rome. In the ensuing combat the Italian pilots claimed four B-17s. One was clamed by Tenente Marinoni, one by Tenente Melis and one by Tenente Franco Bordoni-Bisleri (claim number 18)(some sources claims that this claim was shared with Sergente Mantelli). The fourth B-17 was claimed as a shared between Sergente Maggiore Cuscuna and Sergente Buogo. Two P-38 Lightnings were also claimed by Maresciallo Giannelli and Sergente Mantelli, which claimed one each. Sergente Buogo was however shot down and forced to leave his aircraft in parachute.

After the Italian capitulation in September 1943 he served in the 1a Squadriglia of the Italiana Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana (ANR).

1a Squadriglia flew their first operational mission on 3 January 1944. Around 12:00, they scrambled from their base at Mirafiori on a very precise heading and quickly climbed to break the cloud base at 3000 metres. Within ten minutes, they made visual contact with an enemy force, which at 8000 metres, was clearly visible from the vapour trail they produced. They intercepted the large formation of B-17 Flying Fortress from the 99th BG USAAF in the Torino area. P-38 Lightnings positioned well below the bomber force escorted the American bombers.
The Squadriglia commander Maggiore Adriano Visconti signalled his men to direct themselves towards the fighters in strict combat formation in a wide turn with the intention of forcing the P-38s to climb in protection of the bombers and hit them from below in the process. The plan worked to perfection and within the space of a few seconds, three Allied fighters were shot down in flames south of Cuneo. The first fell to the 20mm cannon fire of Sergente Cuscuna, followed by those of Visconti himself and Sottotenente Remo Lugari. The 1a Squadriglia returned to their base without any losses.
These victories were ANR's first claims in combat.

On 25 April, 117 B-24s of the 304th Wing USAAF, escorted by 45 P-47s of the 325th FG, attacked the Aeritalia aircraft factory in Turin.
24 MC.205s from 1o Gruppo ANR intercepted them and Sergente Maggiore Cuscuna claimed a P-47 at 12:15 at 4.500 meters over Monte Cimone. Maggiore Adriano Visconti and Maresciallo Carlo Cucchi from the same unit claimed a P-38 each over La Spezia at the same time.
Seven G.55s and two MC.205s of the “Montefusco-Bonet” Gruppo scrambled at 12:40 from Venaria Reale to intercept the US bombers. They were led by Capitano Giulio Torresi and included Sergente Maggiore Lucio Biagini, Biron, Celentano, Franco Sarasino and Maresciallo Ennio Tarantola. Comoni and Morettin probably also took part in this scramble. Biron was forced to abort the scramble after technical problems on his MC.205.
At 13:05, while attacking the bombers at 22,000 feet over Turin, the ANR fighters were jumped by the escorting P-47s. Three G.55s were shot down and Biagini (G.55 serie 0 “Yellow 13” MM91074) was killed after having spent at least eighty 20mm and one hundred-twenty 12.7mm rounds claiming a B-17 over Turin while Torresi (G.55 serie I “Yellow 1”? MM91100) parachuted from his burning aircraft at 13:20, lightly wounded in the head after having been attacked by enemy fighters. Tarantola (G.55 serie I “Yellow 8” MM91101) also parachuted badly wounded.
Franco Sarasino (G.55 “Yellow 5” MM91087) scrambled late due to engine troubles and arrived on the scene when his companions were attacked by Thunderbolts. He tried to help them (spending twenty 20mm and thirty 12.7mm rounds), but was soon chased by two P-47s that forced him to escape westwards; he was left by them in the Val di Susa area, so he could return to his base at Venaria Reale.
In his logbook Torresi claimed two Liberators, one Boeing and one Thunderbolt probably shot down.
Totally it seems, however, that only two B-24s from the 304th Wing were lost during the day; one B-24 (42-52214) from 744th BS of the 456th BG (MACR 5640) and one B-24 (42-52195) from 453th BG (MACR 4632). The 325th FG didn’t sustain any losses.
Of the 45 P-47s from 325th FG only 17 reached Turin (4 aborted and 24 released their drop tanks when engaged with the ANR fighters over Genova). They claimed two G.55s and one damaged. Torresi was probably shot down by Second Lieutenant Donald J. McDonald (P-47 42-75823) of the 318th FS, who claimed a G.55 at 13:05 over Turin. The other claims were made by First Lieutenant Benjamin H. Emmert Jr. of the 318th FS (P-47D-15RE 42-75671), who claimed a G.55 south of Turin at 13:05 and Second Lieutenant Joseph W. Harper (P-47 42-75803/#90) of the 318th FS, who claimed a damaged G.55 at 13:00.
The three Fiat wrecks were recovered respectively on 30 March 2000 (MM91074), 5 August 2000 (MM91100) and 22 February 2003 (MM91101).

Cuscuna ended the war with at least 1 biplane victory and a total of 5 destroyed (2 of them claimed while serving with the ANR).

Kill no. Date Time Number Type Result Plane type Serial no. Locality Unit
  01/11/40 15:30 1 Sunderland (a) Shared damaged Fiat CR.42   off Malta 75a Squadriglia
1 30/08/41 p.m. 1 Wellington (b) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   off Lampedusa 75a Squadriglia
  30/08/41 p.m. 1/2 Wellington (b) Shared probable Fiat CR.42   off Lampedusa 75a Squadriglia
  15/11/41   1/3 Blenheim (c) Shared damaged Fiat CR.42   off Pantelleria 75a Squadriglia
2 20/10/42 10:00-11:20 1 P-40 Destroyed MC.202   Fuka 75a Squadriglia
  26/10/42 08:50-10:30 1 Boston (d) Damaged MC.202   S El Alamein 75a Squadriglia
  04/11/42 06:00-07:15 1 P-40 (e) Damaged MC.202   over the lines, El Alamein battle area 75a Squadriglia
  04/11/42 06:00-07:15 1 P-40 (e) Damaged MC.202   over the lines, El Alamein battle area 75a Squadriglia
  30/07/43   1/3 B-17 Shared destroyed MC.202   Rome 75a Squadriglia
4 03/01/44 12:00 ca 1 P-38 Destroyed MC.205   S Cuneo 1a Squadriglia
5 25/04/44 12:15 1 P-47 (f) Destroyed MC.205   Torino area 1a Squadriglia

Biplane victories: At least 1 destroyed, 1 shared probable, 2 shared damaged.
TOTAL: 5 destroyed, 1 shared probable, 3 and 2 shared damaged.
(a) Sunderland L5806/Q of 228 Squadron, flown by Flight Lieutenant E. M. Ware damaged.
(b) One Wellington was lost during the day when Wellington W5559 of the Overseas Delivery unit, flying from Gibraltar to Malta was shot down eight miles south of Lampedusa.
(c) Damaged Blenheim from O.A.D.U.; crash-landed on arrival at Luqa.
(d) RAF, SAAF and RAAF claimed 4 Bf 109s destroyed, 1 probable and 1 damaged and 4 MC.202s destroyed, 2 probables and 2 damaged while losing 1 Hurricane, 4 Kittyhawks and getting 2 Kittyhawk badly damaged. No bombers were lost. The 9o, 10o and 23o Gruppi together with III./JG 27 and III./JG 27 claimed 1 Boston, 1 probable, and 9 damaged, 4 P-40s destroyed, 1 probable and 4 damaged, 1 Spitfire destroyed and 1 probable while losing 3 Bf 109s and 2 MC.202s with 1 more damaged.
(e) Claimed in combat with Kittyhawk IIas from 260 Squadron, which lost 1 Kittyhawk (pilot PoW) reportedly after a collision. 23o and 18o Gruppi claimed 1 destroyed and 1 damaged while losing 1 MC.202 (Pinna WiA).
(f) Claimed in combat with P-47s from the 325th FG, which didn’t suffer any losses.

3o Stormo, storia fotografica - Dai biplani agli aviogetti - C. Lucchini and E. Leproni, 1990 Gino Rossato Editore kindly provided by Jean Michel Cala with translations kindly provided by Birgitta Hallberg-Lombardi
25 Aprile 1944 – Ferdinando Pedriali, 2004 Storia Militare no. 129 (XII) June 2004 kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro.
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Two – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781909166127
Army Air Forces
Assi Italiani Della Caccia 1936-1945 - 1999 Aerofan no. 69 apr.-giu. 1999, kindly provided by Jean Michel Cala
Centauri su Torino - Giancarlo Garello, 1998 Giorgio Apostolo Editore, Milan, ISBN 88-87261-04-0 kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro
Dal Reggiane 2002 al 2005 - Sergio Govi, 1984 Giorgio Apostolo Editore, Milan kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro
Elenco Nominativo dei Militari dell’ A. M. Decorati al V. M. Durante it Periodo 1929 - 1945 1 Volume A - L
G 55 e MC 205 a difesa di Torino - Ferdinando Pedriali, 2003 Storia Militare no. 116 (XI) May 2003 kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro
Il Carmagnolese
In cielo e in terra - Franco Pagliano, Longanesi & Co., Milano, 1969 kindly provided by Alfredo Logoluso
Italian Air Forces 1943-1945 - The Aviazone Nazionale Repubblicana - Richard J Caruana, 1989 Modelaid International Publication, kindly provided by Jean Michel Cala
Luftwaffe Claims Lists - Tony Wood
L'ultimo volo del mitico "Banana" – Roberto Ferrarese, 2003 Aerofan no. 87 Oct-Dec 2003, Giorgio Apostolo Editore, Milan, kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro
Malta: The Hurricane Years 1940-41 - Christopher Shores and Brian Cull with Nicola Malizia, 1987 Grub Street, London, ISBN 0-89747-207-1
Stars & Bars - Frank Olynyk, 1995 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-898697-17-5
Additional info kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro, Stefano Mencarelli, Ondrej Repka and Ludovico Slongo.

Last modified 15 January 2024