Sino-Japanese Air War 1937 – 1945

1945

January 1945

The ground war

At the beginning of 1945, thanks to the successful counteroffensive of the Allies in Burma, there was a restoration of the ground transport highway, which had been cut by the Japanese for almost three years. From India to China moved in unending stream huge columns of trucks full of weapons and everything else necessary for the successful prosecution of the war. The combat power of aviation was significantly strengthened by the delivery of aircraft, spare parts, ammunition and fuel.

During the month, the Japanese chose to take the railroad lines between Hankow and Canton, thus completing another rail link in China and eliminating the 14th AF bases at Suichwan, Namyung, Kanchow and Sincheng. These eastern bases had put much of the Japanese coastal shipping route within range of 14th AF aircraft, which had sunk millions of tons of valuable cargo bound for Japan. The Japanese advances were hardly opposed, and when these bases fell, Chihkiang was left as the most advanced 14th AF base in China.

Chinese Air Force

In the beginning of 1945, the Chinese Air Force numbered seven air groups, one separate squadron and a transport group. The total numbers of the Kuomintang and American air forces exceeded 800 aircraft.
During the concluding period of the war from January to June 1945, the Chinese pilots actively participated in battle supporting the ground forces on all fronts in central, southern and eastern China.

At the beginning of 1945, the Chinese started to receive the P-51D Mustang from the USA. Some of the Chinese pilots had trained on this aircraft in the USA, while other converted in India, receiving aircraft from the 51st Air Wing, AAF.
First to fly combat sorties with the Mustang were 8th and 32nd PS of the 3rd PG.
The 4th PG started to receive the P-51 in India during January 1945.

During 1945 according to the records, the Chinese Air Force only lost two Mustangs in combat. At the same time four fighters were shot down by ground fire, three were lost to meteorological conditions (all flew into mountains) and another six crashed through failure of equipment (this is probably far from complete).

Some important changes in personnel were made in the 5th FG during January, and the new American pilots who had arrived the previous month began to settle in with their squadrons. Two command changes of note were made. The Chinese changed group vice-commanders, as Major Cheng Sung-Ting transferred from the 28th FS of the 3rd FG to go to work for Colonel Chang Tang-Tien. Major Cheng, who had commanded the 28th FS throughout its combat history up to that time, was a seasoned fighter pilot with an aggressive nature and three confirmed kills.
In the 27th FS, Major Jim Dale completed his tour and was replaced as commander by Major I. A. “Buck” Erickson. Dale had been one of the original CACW fighter pilots, first serving as operations officer of the 32nd FS in 1943 and early '44 before getting command of the 27th FS. Dale had scored one aerial kill over the Aleutian Islands during 1942 before joining the CACW, and the Floridian had also scored two ground kills on the third Paliuchi mission while leading the 27th FS.
Another longtime pilot to leave during January was Major John Wilcox of the 17th FS, who had spent a year in India training Chinese pilots before getting into combat. He earned an Air Medal and Distinguished Flying Cross during his eleven months with the 17th FS.

Most of the missions flown from Chihkiang during January were against ground targets. As a result of these attacks, the Japanese were unable to use the rail lines between Hengyang and Kweilin, as well as the airfields at those cities.

US Army Air Force

The 26th FS, 51st FG, sent detachments to operate from Poseh, Liangshan and Laohokow with P-51s.
The detachments of the 528th FS, 311th FG, operating from Hanchung and Liangshan with P-51s, returned to base at Shwangliu.
The detachment of the 436th BS (Heavy), 7th BG (Heavy), based at Luliang with B-24s ferrying gasoline to Suichwan, returned to base at Madhaiganj, India.

On 1 January, a detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, begun operating from Laohokow with P-51s (the squadron was based at Chengkung and another detachment was at Kwanghan).

On 10 January, the detachment of the 25th FS, 51st FG, operating from Poashan with P-51s moved to Leangshan.

Lieutenant Generals Albert C. Wedemeyer, Commanding General China Theatre, George E. Stratemeyer, Commanding General Eastern Air Command, and Daniel I. Sultan, Commanding General India-Burma Theatre, confered at Myitkyina, Burma, on 15 January and agreed that an AAF HQ to command the US 10th and 14th Air Forces should be set up in China.

On 20 January, the detachment of the 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Yunnani with B-25s, returned to base at Yangkai.

The flights of the 21st and 35th PRS and 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 14th AF, operating from Suichwan with F-4s, F-5s, P-40s and P-51s, returned to base at Kunming and Chengkung on 22 January.

On 26 January, the detachment of the 493rd BS (Heavy), 7th BG(Heavy), operating from Luliang transporting gasoline to Suichwan with B-24s, returned to base at Pandaveswar, India.

By 27 January, the complete forward detachments of the four B-29 groups from the 20th AF in the Chengdu area had evacuated their bases and moved to more permanent bases in India. This move complied with the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) directive formulated on 15 December 1944 and received on 18 December. The long-existing understanding that the XX Bomber Command might be moved from the CBI Theater when more convenient bases are available was thus put into its initial stage when the XX Bomber Command’s Commanding General, Major General Curtis Emerson LeMay, and the JCS agreed that on logistical grounds the XX Bomber Command’s operating scheme was basically unsound. This was a situation made more apparent when in November 1944 the Japanese had overrun Luchou and Yungning and threatened Kunming, China. This development necessitated air tonnage flown over the Hump being diverted to Chinese ground forces and the 14th AF, resulting in curtailed supplies to XX Bomber Command and providing the catalyst for beginning a movement of the command from China.

The detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, at Kwanghan with P-51s returned to base at Chengkung on 30 January (another detachment was at Laohokow).
On the same day, the detachment of the 492nd BS (Heavy), 7th BG (Heavy), at Luliang, ferrying gasoline to Suichwan, in B-24s, returned to base at Madhaiganij, India.

IJAAF

The 25th and 85th Sentais moved to Nanking.

Operations

1 January 1945
Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Ft Bayard.

40 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded railroad targets, warehouses, industrial works, and gun positions from Yoyang to Puchi.

47 other P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit troops, horses, town areas, and rail and road traffic at several locations especially at Liuchenghsien and between Siaokan and Hsuchang.

Eight P-51s, 4 from the 16th FS, 51st FG and 4 from the 3rd FG (CACW) hit Suchow Airfield, claiming 25 aircraft destroyed.

2 January 1945
30+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity, mainly railroad traffic, at or near Lohochai, Pengpu, and Sinyang, China, and Man Pong, Wanling, and Wan Pa-Hsa, Burma.

3 January 1945
Ten P-51s from the 14th AF hit the airfield at Tsinan, claiming 13 aircraft destroyed.

Six P-51s from the 14th AF claimed several river steamers sunk in the Hankow-Chiuchiang area while six others damage bridges at Chinchengchiang.

20+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-47s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked various targets of opportunity in the Wuchang-Hankow and Shwangliu, China areas, and at Namtao, south and south-west of Man Pong, and west of Wanling, Burma.

One of the sweeps above included the CACW that reported a sweep over the Yangtze River. Over Siaokan airfield, Lieutenant Heyward Paxton, 7th FS, spotted a Ki-43 in a revetment and swooped down to destroy it in a strafing run. He led the formation on to Hankow, where the P-51s found a formation of Ki-43s and Ki-44s at 09:45. In the combat that followed Paxton claimed a Japanese fighter (CACW's first claim for 1945) and Lieutenant William Harbour of the 16th FS claimed a Ki-43 between Hankow and Kux Kukiang. 2nd Lieutenant George Patrick and 1st Lieutenant Francis McCarter, both from the 16th FS both claimed a damaged Ki-43 each in the same area. The fighters then broke off the fight and went home to Laohokow.

4 January 1945
Four B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Ft Bayard area in China and the Samah Bay area on Hainan Island.

20 fighters from the14th AF hit targets of opportunity around Lohochai, Sinyang and Hankow, China.

First Lieutenant Masao Hideshima, Sergeant Major Tadao Tashiro (NCO81), Segeant Major Kyushiro Ohtake and one other pilot were the only remaining pilots of the 25th Sentai in China when the rest had returned to Japan to collect replacements after having lost most of the aircraft.
On this day, the 5th Air Army HQ ordered them to attack Laohekou airfield with Ta Dan bombs.
They departed, prepared for death, but Ohtake was forced to return early with engine trouble. The other three were all shot down by P-51s and lost.
They had run into fighters from the CACW, which reported scrambling two P-40s flown by First Lieutenant Jose A. Muniz and First Lieutenant Heyward Ainsworth Paxton Jr. from the 7th PS (CACW) at 06:45 together with four P-51s to intercept an incoming Japanese attack and found six bombers with two Ki-43s about 5 miles south-east of Laohekou airfield. First Lieutenant Muniz and First Lieutenant Paxton Jr. claimed one 'Oscar' each on their first diving pass at 3,000ft. After this attack the Japanese bombers salvoed their loads and ran for home before any more attacks could be made.
The fighters from the 7th PS landed again at 07:15.

5 January 1945
A combined group of 28 P-40Ns and P-51Ds flew from Laohekou (Hubei) to attack the Japanese aerodrome at Wuhan. An air battle took place over the target in which one Chinese pilot was killed.
There are no reports about Japanese losses.

29 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit airfields at Hankou and Wuchang, claiming 50 aircraft destroyed in the air and on the ground.
The CACW took part in this attack and the top cover flights were led by First Lieutenant Heyward Ainsworth Paxton Jr. of 7th FS (CACW), Captain Tan Kun of the 32nd FS (CACW) and First Lieutenant William V. Zimpleman of the 16th FS (which reported the mission taking place between 13:00-15:30). At 14:00, they were jumped by a reported 30-40 Ki-43s and Ki-44s out of the overcast at about 10,000ft over Hankou airfield. As the Japanese fighters dropped down out of the clouds, the top cover P-51s broke up their formations.
On his second pass, Paxton caught a Ki-44 with a burst of fire into its cockpit and engine from 30 degrees deflection, and it went down, streaming fire. Paxton then turned head-on to another Ki-44, but his bullets missed their mark. By now there were three of four Japanese fighters on Paxton's tail, so he down out of the fight, lost them, and then climbed back to look for more targets.
Next Paxton registered good hits on the fuselage and wings of a Ki-43, but it dropped out of sight, and Paxton lost him. With more fighters on his tail, Paxton dove out again, and he repeated the manoeuvre three more times before the strafers radioed that they had finished their attack on the airfield below. With that the P-51s and P-40s reformed and headed back to Laohokow.
Totally the American and Chinese fighters claimed 10 enemy fighters destroyed, one probably and four damaged. Paxton totally claimed a Ki-44 and a damaged Ki-43 while First Lieutenant Charles W. Perelka claimed a probable Ki-43 just west of Hankou airfield. The 8th FS (CACW) claimed five Ki-43s. These were made by Captain Frank D. Klump (two), First Lieutenants Yang Yuen-Chen, Lee Chih-Kang and Chung Chu-Sheh. Captain Tan claimed one Ki-43 and one Ki-44. The 16th FS claimed two enemy fighters and three damaged. These claims were made by First Lieutenants Walter A. Ferris (one Ki-43 and one Ki-44 destroyed and one Ki-43 damaged), Zimpleman (one damaged Ki-43) and Walter W. Wyatt (one Ki-43 damaged).
Reynolds was the top strafer, with five of the 39 confirmed ground claims. Another pilot who confirmed a strafing claim was Lieutenant Kuo Ju-Lin of the 28th FS (CACW), who eventually became the commander in chief of the Chinese Air Force (before retiring in Taipei).

23 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit the airfield and other targets in Samah Bay area on Hainan Island, claiming 11 aircraft destroyed.
At 16:58, 19 P-38s and P-51s attacked the Sanya airfield. Eleven A6Ms rose to intercept the intruders, claiming three P-51s and two P-38s (including one unconfirmed) for the loss of five A6Ms and three additional destroyed on the ground.

30 P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked various targets of opportunity, Sinsiang, and Kengtung, China, and Wan Pa-Has and in the Wanling area of Burma.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF pounded 13 storage buildings at Kengtung, China.

Two P-47s from the 10th AF joined ground forces in blasting artillery positions at Kunlong, China and Wingkang.

Operation ”Grubworm”, one of the major transport achievements of the war, was completed on this date one month from its start. The Chinese 14th and 22d Divisions, Chinese 6th Army HQ, a heavy mortar Company, a signal Company, and 2 portable surgical hospitals have been airlifted. The move required 1,328 transport sorties; Air Transport Command provided 597 sorties; the air commando squadrons, 488; and 10th AF, 243. The airlift included 25,000+ Chinese soldiers, 396 US soldiers, 1,596 animals, 42 jeeps, 48 howitzers, 48 heavy mortars, and 48 antitank guns. The troops and supplies were landed at Chanyi, Kunming, Luliang, and Yunnani, China. Only three aircraft were lost during the operation.

6 January 1945
40 P-40s, P-51s, and P-47s from the 14th AF pounded the Hankou-Wuchang area.
Between 12:30-15:15, Thomas A. Reynolds of 7th FS (CACW) led a formation of 19 P-40s and five P-51s back to the Hankou/Wuchang airfields but the Japanese response was considerable weaker than the previous day. Only four Ki-43s rose to challenge the attackers, and one of these was shot down quickly by Second Lieutenant George C. Patrick of the 16th FS. Anti-aircraft fire was heavy, as it had been the day before, but only one P-40 was lost.
Reynolds claimed four destroyed on the ground and five damaged.

49 Chengdu-based B-29s from the 20th AF were dispatched in Mission 25 to bomb an aircraft factory at Omura, Kyushu Island, Japan. 28 hit the primary target, 13 bombed a secondary target at Nanking, China while 6 attacked targets of opportunity. They claimed 4-6-10 Japanese aircraft. One B-29 was lost.
This was the XX Bomber Command’s last mission against targets in Japan.

7 January 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Ft Bayard, China and attacked shipping in Samah Bay on Hainan Island, claiming one vessel sunk.

9 January 1945
Eight P-51s from the 14th AF bombed railroad repair shops at Sinsiang

46 B-29s of the 20th AF from Chengdu were dispatched in Mission 26 to bomb the harbor at Kirun, Formosa. 39 hit the target and six bombed targets of last resort along the China coast. This raid was the first of several such operations against Formosa in conjunction with the US invasion of Luzon Island.

11 January 1945
Eleven fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity south-east of Wanting, China and in the east end of the Wanting River valley.

12 January 1945
35 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF pounded targets of opportunity around Wanting, China and Muse, Burma.

13 January 1945
Six B-25s of the 14th AF blasted six storage buildings at Kengtung, China.

31 P-51s, P-38s, and P-40s of the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the Wanting area.

16 P-51s of the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity around Shanhsien, Chiatsochen, and Chaling.

14 January 1945
27 B-24s from the 14th AF, supported by 45 P-51s and P-40s, pounded Hankou. Eight enemy aircraft were claimed destroyed.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets at and west of Kengtung.

42 P-47s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked airfields at Wuchang and Hankou. 17 Japanese aircraft were claimed destroyed for the loss of at least three fighters.
Fighters from the CACW and the 16th FS attacked Hankou between 13:15 and 13:50. The CACW used eleven P-40s carrying parafrag bombs and eleven P-51s with 100-pound demolition bombs. The plan was that the top cover P-51s would drop down and dive-bomb the airfield after Reynolds' (7th FS (CACW)) P-40s had finished their parafrag attacks, but First Lieutenant Heyward Paxton's P-51s ran into an estimated 25 to 30 Japanese fighters and had to jettison the bombs before they could make their attacks.
Flying with Paxton was Captain Edward Mulholland, by now the longest-serving U.S. pilot in the 7th FS (CACW). He followed in on the first pass and hit a Ki-43 in the fuselage and wing root with a thirty- to forty-degree deflection shot and the Ki-43 dove straight in (Mulholland's second victory). Next, he got in ninety-degree deflection shots on two more Ki-43s, but then his own aircraft was hit badly from behind and he broke off, heading for home. Soon the P-51 became uncontrollable, however, and Mulholland was forced to bale out.
Meanwhile, Paxton had watched Mulholland's Ki-43 crash, then climbed back up into the fight. He spotted First Lieutenant Elwood Smith of the 28th FS (CACW), his wingman, with a Ki-43 on his tail, so Paxton gave the Japanese fighter a good burst to chase him off. Smith, who got one Ki-43 of his own and shared another with Lieutenant George Walston of the 16th FS in the fight, later confirmed seeing Paxton's Ki-43 crash. This gave Paxton 6 and 1 shared victories, the most scored by a pilot while serving in the CACW.
Paxton, however, had been hit by a Japanese fighter and he dove out of the fight. Unable to keep his P-51 in the air, he belly-landed it suffering a leg injury in the crash, but he eventually linked up with Mulholland, and the two pilots returned to Laohokow about two weeks later. Because they both had escaped from behind enemy lines, they were taken out of combat. Paxton, because of his injuries, was sent home thereafter while Mulholland was assigned to air-defence duties at Liangshan, and then finally sent home in June.
Totally, the 7th FS (CACW) claimed 2 and 3 damaged Ki-43s over Hankou airfield between 13:15-14:15. These being claimed by Paxton (1 and 1 damaged) and Mulholland (1 and 2 damaged. Reynolds claimed three enemy aircraft destroyed on the ground while Lieutenant J. T. Moore claimed two more.
The 16th FS claimed 2 and 1 shared and 1 probable Ki-43s over Hankou airfield at 13:20. These were claimed by First Lieutenant George Walston (1 shared Ki-43 or Ki-44 and 1 probable), First Lieutenant Walter Wyatt (1 destroyed) and First Lieutenant William Zimpleman (1 destroyed).
29 fighters, including 16 P-51s of the 75th FS, which was then stationed at Chihkiang under 5th FG (CACW) control, escorted B-24s to Hankow. The Japanese attempted to intercept the bombers as they hit their target from 16,000 feet, but the enemy pilots were unable to break through the escorts and attack the Liberators.
About 25 miles southwest of Hankow, Captain Phil Colman of the 26th FS (CACW) spotted two Tojos below the bombers and dove to attack them. He caught up with them at 1,000 feet, and the first Ki-44 turned to the right and came at him head-on. The action took place so fast that neither pilot had a chance to fire at the other. Colman then switched his attention to the other enemy fighter and put a two-second burst into it as the pilot attempted to turn away from him. The Tojo caught fire in its fuselage and wings, then did a half-roll and dove into the Yangtze River below with a splash at 13:50. This was Colman's sixth victory in China, though he is officially credited with only five. He scored four more times as an F-86 pilot during the Korean War. Lieutenant Oliver Strawbridge of 26th FS (CACW) claimed a Ki-44 and Lieutenant Milton Searcy from the same unit a damaged Ki-43 at 13:20 over Hankou airfield.
The 27th FS (CACW) made one claim when First Lieutenant Yueh Kung-Cheng claimed a Ki-43 over Hankou at 13:50. He reported that he got on the tail of a Ki-43 at 9,000 feet and proceeded to chase it until the Oscar finally crashed into the ground and exploded.
These were the only aircraft destroyed by the 5th FG during the month.
The 25th FS (CACW)(typo?) claimed one damaged Ki-43. Second Lieutenant Daniel Cardin made this claim at 13:20 over Hankou airfield.
The 28th FS (CACW) claimed 2 and 1 shared over Hankou area when First Lieutenant Smith claimed a shared Ki-43 or Ki-44 at 13:20 and a Ki-44 at 13:45 while First Lieutenant Oliver Reynolds claimed a A6M at 13:45.
Lieutenant Van Moad of the 8th FS (CACW) was killed during this mission.
The 25th Sentai tried to intercept the raid over Hankou. Warrant Officer Iwataro Hazawa (NCO81) took off during the attack, but as he climbed up, his aircraft was hit and set on fire. He baled out, but the ripcord of his parachute had been severed, and he fell to his death. At the time of his death, he had made 40 claims for aircraft destroyed or damaged, the total in the former category being estimated at around 15. At the same interception was also Lieutenant Kameo Yamamoto (Class 56) killed.
The 48th Sentai lost First Lieutenant Masukichi Kimura (NCO 75) (Hikotai leader) and Sergeant Shigeru Tanno (Sho-11) over Wuchang. Several other Japanese pilots force-landed or baled out.

21 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the Wanting area.

Five P-51s from the 14th AF blasted trucks and buildings at Shanhsien.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF attacked shipping on the Yangtze River near Anking.

82 B-29s from the 20th AF out of Chengdu were dispatched in Mission 28 to bomb air installations at Kagi, Formosa. 55 hit the primary target while one bombed Heito, Formosa. 22 others hit alternate and targets of opportunity at several points, among them Taichu Airfield, Formosa and Hengyang, China. No B-29s were lost.

15 January 1945
18 B-25s from the 14th AF, supported by 20 P-51s and P-40s, attacked Hankou.
Other B-25s attacked shipping near Amoy, and hit targets of opportunity in the Siang-Chiang and Hsiang River Valleys and from Hong Kong to Foochow.

130+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked numerous targets of opportunity throughout south China from the Burma border to the south-east coast.

U.S. carrier aircraft raided Southern China for the first time, hitting Canton and Hong Kong. Eight P-51s also joined in the fray. Seven U.S. planes were claimed for the loss of one Japanese fighter when Captain Isao Kobayashi (Class 54), Hikotai leader of the 9th Sentai, was shot down and killed.

16 January 1945
At around 09:15, about 20 U.S. carrier aircraft attacked Canton, including some low level attacks that caused much consternation among the Japanese.

At 09:30 some 14 A6Ms patrolling above Sanya (Hainan Island) encountered eleven Grumman F6Fs. These were followed by eight carrier-based bombers. Three F6Fs and two bombers were claimed to have been shot down, for the loss of three Japanese aircraft lost and one seriously damaged.

Four B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed a train north of Hankou and eight B-25s pounded Wanting.

180+ P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over vast expanses of China south of the Yangtze River and from the Burma border to the South China Sea attacked numerous targets of opportunity. The Muse, Burma and Wanting and Changsha, China areas were hit especially hard.

17 January 1945
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town area, river shipping, and trucks at Ishan and three B-25s and eight P-40s pounded sampans and storage areas west of Hengshan while two B-25s hit an oil dump and other targets of opportunity in the Hsiang River Valley and another blasted a troop compound at Chaling.

180+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF hit a large number of targets of opportunity from the Burma border to Shanghai, China, concentrating on the Wanling, Burma area and airfields in the Shanghai, Wuchou, and Wuchang, China areas.
About 20 P-51s raided the Shanghai airfield, where the 90th Sentai was based. Despite scrambling interceptors and claiming eight P-51s damaged, some 25 light bombers were burnt/destroyed on the ground, dealing a major blow to the 90th Sentai.
Captain Nobuyuki Hironaka (Class 55), CO of the 1st chutai, 85th Sentai, was killed over Wuchang.

Lieutenant Freeland Matthews of the 8th FS (CACW) was shot down in a P-40 near Hankou.

77 of 92 B-29s of the 20th AF from Chengdu bombed the airfield at Shinchiku, Formosa in Mission 29.
Eight other hit alternates and targets of opportunity in south-eastern China. One B-29 was lost.

18 January 1945
29 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed and 25 P-40s pounded shipping and railroad targets at Hong Kong.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Ishan and Chinchengchiang.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF and twelve P-40s hit shipping in the Puchi area.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Wanting and two hit troop compounds at Chaling

About 140 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China from the Burma boundary to Hong Kong attacked a huge variety of targets of opportunity.

Sergeant Nao Koshu (Sho-9) of the 19th Sentai was killed off Formosa.

A B-25 Mitchell bomber from a USAAF squadron was landing at Chihkiang when it overshot about two-thirds of the 4,400-foot runway. The bomber touched down, then took a forty- to fifty-foot drop off the end of the runway and crashed into the rice paddy below. Major Glyn Ramsey (CO of the 17th FS CACW), who was talking to Lieutenant Don Lopez, a pilot in the 75th FS, in the 17th FS alert shack when the B-25 came in to land. He recalled:

"This guy swung around to land from north to south. The alert shack was right at the edge of the runway, and I always stood out there with a flare pistol. Any pilot who came in there and wasn't low enough and slow enough to stay on the runway- we were pretty good judges since we flew it every day - I would fire a red flare at him to warn him. I found the flare pistol when I could see this B-25 was high and fast. I never believed he would land, but he kept coming right on down, and he didn't hit the ground until he had about 1,500 feet left - not more and probably less.
I stood there and watched him and figured he would just go around. We had no control tower in those days. We had one up there, but it wasn't manned with any controllers. I never did fire a flare, and I later wished a thousand times that I had. He touched down and immediately they saw how short they were, so instead of going around they just chopped the power and locked the brakes. Rocks were flying in all directions and mud and clay, and it was jerking those rocks out of the runway and throwing them in all directions. When he went off the end of the runway he was doing about 70 miles per hour.
He went off the runway not more than 300 feet from where I was standing. He went off with those brakes locked, and of course that nose went straight down. Though the slope was only about forty-five degrees, the forward speed of that airplane was such that as it went down the nose hit the ground and sheared the nose gear and drove that greenhouse on the nose right back up to the engines, just drove the whole thing back. The airplane came to a crunching halt with the tail sticking up in the air.
Lopez and I ran down there with a bunch of people, but we had absolutely no fire fighting equipment - not even a five-gallon can. There were guys hurt in the back, and someone was in there trying to get them out. The airplane's spars were broken at the engines, and the pilots’ compartment and the bombardier's greenhouse compartment were just shoved back so that they extended hardly at all beyond the engines, which means they were shoved back about six to eight feet. There was a big hole in the front opening, and I looked in there and saw a guy with blood all over him. He was dazed, but he could hear me, and I kept telling him, ’Come out this way.’ Finally he began to comprehend; I said, ’Here, here’; I could almost reach that guy. I got that guy to come out of that hole. It turned out to be the pilot. The copilot was killed.
The right engine was dripping a little fuel, and it had caught on fire. It was not even burning behind the nacelle, which was off the ground about three feet. The fuel was dripping out onto the rice paddy and burning on the ground. We could see that it was going to burn enough there that eventually the plane was going to catch on fire.
As we were facing the plane from the front, there was a small hole in the left wing, and we could see a guy in
[the fuselage] through it; he was a young kid and he had blond hair. He had on a field jacket and a parachute harness. It was a chest-type harness, but he didn't have the parachute on; just the harness. He was perfectly rational and we kept telling him to come on out, but he said his leg was hung up. He couldn't get out. It was like looking in a can, and there were control cables and junk all jammed together. We could see him clearly from about his hipbones up, and we could see part of one of his legs, but I could not get him to come out. He was the flight engineer.
The top turret had fallen down, so you didn't have the normal space you would have had. This boy was not crushed. He had plenty of space to breathe and move around. He just had a leg caught. Lopez and I had taken time out and gotten down on our knees in the rice paddy along with the night soil and everything, just scooping that mud and stuff up and putting it on that fire. Droplets would come down and catch on fire, and we would get this mud and slap down on it, You can't trap gasoline fumes. The tragedy of this whole thing was that we couldn't do it, so we turned our attention to trying to release that man.
Finally Lopez and I were out on the wing, and we finally figured out that he wasn't going to get out of there, and somebody said, ’Well, what are we going to do?’ By this time the 75th flight surgeon walked up. He was a real mature man, a real fine-type guy. We said, ’Doc, can you cut his leg off?’ He said, ’I can if I can get to it.’ Finally that flame leaped up that drip and caught on fire behind the engine nacelle at the source of the gas leak. We knew then it was just a short matter of time.
It began to burn and get hot, then suddenly the top turret's oxygen supply bottle's fitting melted off, and that fitting blew out of there. If that bottle hadn't been pointed toward the tail of the airplane, Lopez and I would have been cremated. That thing blew out, and then for about three or four seconds - long enough to burn us up - it blew flame down that fuselage parallel to us. The heat was terrible. When that went off it blew that flame onto the ammunition canister, and the ammunition started going off.
After talking to the flight surgeon about cutting the kid’s leg off, we decided to try to pull him out because the doc said he couldn’t get to him. About three of us grabbed that parachute harness, and we put all the force on it we could. You could hear that guy scream a country mile. It was terrible. By this time he was not rational; he knew he was about to burn. We could not budge him. It got hot enough that his field jacket caught on fire, and he was still talking to us, and he said, ’Please get me out of here.’ Lopez and I were in mud and blood from head to toe, and we would grab up this mud with our hands and rub it on his arm to put the fire out. By the time we would get another one up there it would be burning again.
The reason Lopez and I left was a .50-caliber going off. That shell casing came flying out and one of those hit Lopez right above the eye and cut a gash about three-quarters of an inch long. It was deep enough that it addled him. I grabbed him by the arm and said, ’Hey, Lope, you’ve got to get out of here.’ He was just like a fighter who had been given a knockout punch: he was on his feet, but he was incapacitated there for about thirty seconds.
When I turned around to take Lopez out of there, Lt. Mac McCullough had just arrived or I had just become aware of his presence. McCullough is the type of individual who would have been right there on that wing where we were. The group’s Chinese engineering officer was there and jerked out his .45 pistol and said, ’There, shoot him.’ I said I didn't want to shoot the trapped man. That is an odd feeling. All the Chinese were in a chorus saying, ’Shoot him. Don't let him die like that.’ I took the gun in my hand, but I wasn't about to shoot him, and I knew I wasn’t about to shoot him. There never was any doubt in my mind, but I thought, ’This is insane, but still he is on fire.’ McCullough said, ’Let me have the gun,’ so I gave it to him and took Lopez out of there.
When I went out, McCullough charged the gun and shot it into the ground once, and of course we were all at fever pitch at this time. Not over the accident, not the fact that a couple of guys had been killed, but what was so horrible to us was that a guy was about to burn to death and we couldn't do anything about it. He fired that gun into the ground and that is the last I remember. I just didn’t pay any attention to it after that. Lopez had to be gotten out of there. I figure Dunning was arriving about that time.”
Indeed, the 31-year-old group commander had arrived, and true to form, he took charge of the situation. He was not a man to pass off a tough job, and it was reported that he already had been burned trying to rescue the trapped man.
The following account of the next few minutes was written based on official documents by Robert E. Hays, Jr., in 1964, after Dunning's death.
”On hearing the suggestion that the man should be shot, and seeing the drawn weapon, Dunning took the pistol away from McCullough with the comment that, ’…If there is any shooting to be done I will do it. I am the senior officer here.”
With gun in hand Dunning walked toward the front of the plane and looked at the trapped airman. Later there was conjecture as to whether any words passed between the two, but no one denied that the man in the plane was conscious at the time. Turning, as though to walk away, Dunning seemed to be engaged in some inner struggle. A decision had to be made, a decision that was foreign to everything John Dunning had ever been taught, a decision which called for a courage of the type few men had ever been called upon to exercise with calm deliberation. Turning to look at the plane, he saw that the flames were then licking around the legs of the trapped man. His flying clothing was burning, and there was no one to put out the flames. Seeing that, Dunning raised the pistol, took deliberate aim, and fired two shots into the head of the doomed man. Turning, he threw the gun into the mud and walked away from the burning plane.”
Lopez and Ramsey differ from this account on only one point: they say that Dunning fired but one shot. Regardless, the deed had been done, and the man had been put out of his misery. Back to Ramsey's account:
I went straight to the alert shack… and by that time Lopez was completely rational. It wasn’t more than two or three minutes until I came out, and Dunning drove up in a Jeep from the direction of the plane. By this time the airplane was just one big ball of fire. Obviously, anything that could be done was long past. 1 remember that Dunning drove up there looking straight ahead, and he was in shock. Now I won't say it was clinical shock, but 1 mean when a guy is sort of a zombie: he was not alert to what was going on around him, but he drove up there and stopped.
... I walked out there and said something. I didn’t know he had done it; I didn’t know what had happened. He said, ‘It's terrible,’ and I said, ‘Yeah, it is, but Colonel, there is nothing we can do about it.’ I didn't know for an hour until somebody else told me. I knew he was in a terrible mental state. I knew something terrible had happened, but I didn't even guess that he had shot the guy…,
None of the guys in the group drew any judgments. We didn’t look down on him because he did it. We felt pity for him because that's the kind of man he was. ... I was sitting in a bar someplace years later - it could have been in Canada; it could have been in Southeast Asia - and I heard somebody start telling this story. My first inclination was to lower the boom on him…because the story I was hearing was obviously an inaccurate repeat. That's the only time I ever heard anybody mention it after that.”
A month later Dunning was charged in a general court-martial with voluntary manslaughter. His trial took place on the afternoon of 2 March 1945, in the recreation hall of a 14th Air Force hostel in Kunming. Seven colonels heard the case. Dunning's defence, mounted by Lieutenant Colonel John H. Hendren, was based on the contention that the defendant had acted irrationally under a great deal of emotional strain, rather than stressing the mercy-killing aspect. A main point of the defence, however, was that the condition of the man's charred body, when it was finally recovered, left a reasonable doubt that he had died from the gunshot rather than from burning. The principle factor in the colonels’ decision was not recorded, but a considerable weight of testimony on behalf of Dunning's qualities as an officer and airman probably worked in his favour. Whatever the case, Dunning was acquitted when the prosecution failed to gain the two-thirds majority needed for conviction.

19 January 1945
Five B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Ishan.

About 115 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China and north French Indochina attacked a great variety of targets of opportunity covering especially in the Wanting, China area.

20 January 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity west of Hengshan, two hit a troop compound and other targets at Chaling and Anjen, and one damages a small freighter in the East China Sea.

32 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded airfields in the Shanghai area, claiming 22 aircraft destroyed.

200+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over vast south China and north French Indochina areas attacked bridges, town areas, rail, road and river traffic, and other targets of opportunity at numerous points.

Five light Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai attacked the Suichan airfield, claiming some ten aircraft damaged or destroyed.

21 January 1945
30 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the Hong Kong area.

Twelve P-51s from the 14th AF hit Nanking Airfield (claiming 11 enemy aircraft destroyed) and targets of opportunity along the Yangtze River to Hankou.
At 12:30, Major Thomas Reynolds of the 7th FS (CACW) caught a Ki-44 in the landing pattern over Taichiao Chan Airfield (Nanking) with its wheels down and sent it crashing to the ground, then destroyed two more aircraft strafing while Lieutenant J. T. Moore added two others.

30 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity at several locations. Twelve of the fighter-bombers concentrated on the Wanting area.

22 January 1945
16 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked various targets in the Wanting area and in south-west China.

Ten P-51s from the 14th AF bombed buildings at the Kunlong ferry.

14 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit the Sintsiang railroad yards and destroyed several locomotives and trucks east of Tsinan and Suchow.

23 January 1945
40 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity (mainly river, road, and rail traffic) at several locations in both south China and in the north China plain, including the Wanting, Suchow and Yuankiang areas, the lower Tungting Lake region, points between Kiaotow and Kweiyi, and points as far north as Peking.
Captain Frank D. Klump (0-794256) of the 8th FS (CACW) led four P-51s on a sweep of the railroad from Suchow to Yenchow. The Mustang pilots had destroyed seven locomotives by the time they reached Yenchow, and then spotted a formation of Japanese troops and dove to strafe them. Ground fire hit Klump's P-51C (44-11104), and it began to stream gasoline and coolant. He pulled off the target and headed toward home, but ten miles later, he radioed to the others that he was going to bail out. As he popped the canopy at 1,000ft, the Mustang suddenly nosed over, went straight in and he was KIA.
One of the pilots in the formation reported seeing Klump struggle out of the cockpit and onto the wing just before the P-51 hit and exploded.

24 January 1945
Twelve P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked railroad targets north of Siangsiang, between Loyang and Kaifeng, and near Tungchen. 21 locomotives were claimed destroyed.

25 January 1945
21 P-51s from the 14th AF hit rail targets and airfields in the Peking area, claiming four locomotives and 40 aircraft destroyed.

16 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets around Kaifeng, Shihkiachwang, Pengpu, and Chingmen. 42 locomotives were claimed destroyed.

Lieutenant Colonel Takeo Sato (Class 38) of the 22 FB and Major Tsuneo Inoue (Class 52) of the 72nd Sentai were both killed off Formosa.

26 January 1945
15 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit Chenghsien Airfield and locomotives, tracks, and motor transport at Nanking and Sinsiang.

27 January 1945
22 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked locomotives, trucks, and shipping at Sinsiang, Kihsien, and Nanking, from Taiyuan to Puchou, and east of Yiyang.

Attempts to hit Laohokao at night with light bombers from the IJAAF in an attempt to support ground operations to seize the airfield was not successful (since most of the aircraft had already been moved to airfields further inland, leaving fighters to meet the intruders in searchlight lit skies), and several aircraft failed to return.

28 January 1945
23 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked railway and river traffic at Wuhu, Sinyang, and Linfen, in the Sinsiang-Hantan area, between Loyang and Sinyang, and along the Pinghan (Hankou-Peking) railroad.

The first convoy from Ledo, India crosses the Chinese border heading for Kunming, China.

29 January 1945
The 14th AF attacked Pailochi Airfield, river and road shipping, troops, gun positions, buildings, and other targets of opportunity were attacked at Kweiyi, Hankou, Sinyang and Chihkiang, between Hengshan and Siangtan, between Wuhu and Anking, north of Hengyang, and east and south of Yutze.

30 January 1945
27 B-24s from the 14th AF, escorted by 32 P-40s and P-51s, bombed Hankou.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the areas around Loyang, Yuncheng, and Sinantien.

31 January 1945
P-51s from the 14th AF strafed targets of opportunity along the Pinghan (Hankou-Peking) railroad.

February 1945

Chinese Air Force

In February, a detachment from the 3rd BS (CACW) was sent to Laohokow.
These B-25s, along with two from the 22nd BS, 341st BG, flew day river sweeps on the Yangtze from Hankow east to Nanking, railroad strikes, and sea sweeps near Shanghai.
The 2nd BS (CACW) and the rest of the 3rd BS (CACW) continued to fly from Liangshan, with night intruder missions against convoys and trains along the Peking-Hankow line and day strikes against tracks and bridges.
The 1st BS (CACW) sent a detachment to Hsian to use the 75mm cannons of their B-25Hs against rail targets in the Tsing-Pu area north of the Yellow River. These missions proved fairly successful. The remained of the 1st BS aircrews flew missions against the Yellow River Bridge and the Peking-Hankow rail line from their base at Hanchung.

During February-March, the primary job of the 5th FG remained to harass the Japanese lines of supply in the Hsiang River valley. Eventually the squadrons were assigned specific sectors to patrol. The 17th FS covered Yochow; 26th FS Hsiangtan to Hengyang; 27th FS Hengyang to Kweilin; 29th FS Kweiyi to Hsiangtan; 75th FS (still under 5th FG control) Hankow to Changyeh. The 26th FS found hunting particularly good on the roads of its sector, destroying 115 trucks during the month of February. Captain Winton “Slick” Matthews, the new operations officer, was tops, with 38 trucks destroyed and 43 damaged; Major Erickson was second with 21 destroyed; and Lieutenant Jack Fetzer was third with 16 destroyed. Most of the flying during this time was done by the American pilots, because many of the Chinese had been sent to India for transition training to P-51s. This was especially true in the 29th FS, and as a result the 26th FS used the 29th FS’s P-40s on many missions during February and March.

On 25 February, Major Van Ausdall of the 26th FS flew in to Chihkiang with the 5th FG’s first P-51, and Captain Jim McCutchan followed the next day with another. The re-equipment with Mustangs would take place gradually over the coming months, but in fact it never was completed. The P-40s were lumped primarily in the 27th FS and flown through the end of the war.

During February, Major Bill Hull (CO 29th FS) got orders sending him to Foster Field, Texas, for gunnery training, and he was replaced by Major Fred Ploetz. Captain Frank Everest moved over from the 17th FS to become operations officer in the 29th FS. Hull wasn’t finished in China, however, for he returned to the 5th FG during the summer of 1945.

US Army Air Force

On 1 February, the 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Poseh (another detachment was operating from Laohowkow).

The detachments of the 25th and 26th FS, 51st FG, operating from Leangshan and Laohokow respectfully with P-51s, returned to base at Yunnani and Kunming respectfully on 4 February.
On the same day, the 25th FS sent a detachment to operate from Poseh with P-51s.

On 5 February, the 21st PRS, 14th AF, based at Kunming with F-4s and F-5s, sent a flight to operate from Hsian (another flight was operating from Luliang).

The HQ 308th BG (Heavy) moved from Kunming to Hsinching on 10 February.
The 35th PRS, 14th AF, based at Chanyi with F-5s, sent a flight to operate from Chengkung (another flight was at Chihkiang) on the same date.

On 12 February, the HQ 81st FG and the 92nd FS moved from Kwanghan to Fungwansham with P-47s.

The 27th Troop Carrier Squadron, 443rd Troop Carrier Group, moved from Yunnani to Chengkung with C-47s on 15 February.
The 528th FS, 311th FG, based at Shwangliu with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Hsian on the same date.

On 17 February, the detachment of the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, operating from Chanyi, China with F-7s returned to base at Guskhara, India.

The 374th and 375th BS (Heavy), 308th BG (Heavy), moved from Chengkung and Kunming to Kwanghan with B-24s on 18 February.

On 21 February, the detachment of the 530th FS, 311th FG, operating from Hsian with P-51s, returned to base at Kwanghan.

The 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai with B-25s, sent a detachment to operate from Peishiyi on 27 February.
The 35th PRS, 14th AF, based at Chanyi with F-5s, sent a detachment to operate from Laohwangping (another detachment was operating from Chengkung) on the same day.

On 28 February, the 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai with B-25s, sent a detachment to operate from Laowhangpin.

IJAAF

On 7 February, a detachment led by Captain Shoij and including about ten Ki-43s from the 24th Sentai moved to Hong Kong to provide cover to a tanker making its way along the Chinese coast. During this time, they also used Swatow as an advanced base.

Operations

1 February 1945
Four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked a division HQ south-west of Yungning.

2 February 1945
Four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked a regimental HQ and a storage area at Lungchow.

4 February 1945
Ten P-40s from the 14th AF bombed the airfield and Japanese HQ at Yungning and railroad yards at Sinyang.
Two of the P-40s were lost to ground fire over Sinyang. This was two P-40s from the 7th FS (CACW) that crashed killing the pilots. The first was 2nd Lieutenant Li Tsung-Tang, which crashed to his death in his P-40N 43-24151 (MACR 450204) at Sinyang railroad yard. At the time of his death, he had claimed three victories. The second was Chao Kuang-Di, who was killed when P-40N 43-23285 (MACR 45204) was killed at Pinghan (Sinyang?) railroad.

5 February 1945
14 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked locomotives and trucks at the Pinghan railroad yards, Hsiangcheng, and Lohochai. At least nine locomotives and an undetermined number of trucks were destroyed.

6 February 1945
20 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded and considerably damage Peking Airfield, claiming seven aircraft destroyed.

Other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit several targets of opportunity (mainly rail and river traffic) around Tsingpu, Wuhu, Suchow, Hsiangcheng, Ichang, Chingmen, and Yungning.

7 February 1945
Eleven P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Hengshan.

34 P-40s from the 14th AF hit river, road, and rail traffic from Kweiyi to Hengshan, from Chiuchiang to Wuhu, from Siaokan southward, in the area south of Tsinan, and north of Tehsien, and from Wan Mai-Lo, Burma to Luang Prabang, French Indochina.

Two fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit the warehouse area at Kweihsien

8 February 1945
Ten P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Shihtangchung and blasted a bridge approach at Changsha.

Nine other fighters from the 14th AF knocked out another bridge north of Changsha.

Four fighters from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity from Linfen to Yutze to Shihkiachwang and bombed Tsinan Airfield.

Two P-51s from the CACW flew a six-hour recon mission to scout the airfields in the Tsingtao area, about 400 miles north of Shanghai on the Shantung Peninsula.

Lieutenant Wei Shian-Kow of the 26th FS (CACW) spotted a Topsy transport 8 miles south-east of Changsha while on an escort mission and swooped down for the kill. The Topsy dove as Wei approached on his first pass, but when Wei lined up again and opened fire he was able to set the enemy aircraft afire in the fuselage and wings. The Topsy crashed into the ground, and no parachutes were seen before it hit.

9 February 1945
Eight fighters from the 14th AF hit rail bridges in the Kiyang and Lukou areas, damaging one bridge. Several trucks were strafed and destroyed.

Three fighters from the 14th AF on a railroad sweep destroyed several locomotives between Peking and Sinsiang.

Several other fighters from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards at Kaifeng and the airfield at Sinsiang.

The Chinese-American Composite Wing (CACW) fighters made a surprise strike at Tsingtao Airfield.
Major Thomas A. Reynolds of 7th FS and Lieutenant Colonel Bright took off with 13 P-51s but Bright, unfortunately, never got much past the end of the runway at Laohokow, because the engine of his P-51D (44-11281) failed on takeoff and he washed out the fighter. Lieutenant Walston assumed lead of Bright's flight after the crash, and he turned over the formation lead to Reynolds, who was leading the second flight. Major Ed Witzenburger of the 51st FG led a third flight, and each one was assigned a different airfield to attack.
The assault was a complete surprise, and Reynolds noted that even the ground fire at his target, the main Tsingtao airfield, was “extrernely meager and inaccurate." His first pass was made east to west over five “Kates” (probably Ki-51 Sonias), and he saw the first and third planes catch on fire. When he came across the field again, he spotted six more of the light bombers parked between two hangars on the west side of the field. Three of these caught fire, and the other three were damaged. On the next pass, he strafed a row of ten bombers and saw two catch fire. Reynolds burned three more and damaged perhaps ten others in six more runs across the airfield. He noted that the enemy aircraft appeared to have a fresh coat of brown paint and that they were concentrated on the north and west sides of the field.
Lieutenant Moore was in Reynolds' flight and he made ten strafing runs over the field, destroying ten more bombers and a gasoline truck. He estimated that he also damaged ten Japanese aircraft.
Major Witzenburger’s flight attacked the southernmost Tsingtao airfield and also found plenty of targets on the ground. Witzenburger destroyed four, plus claiming five probables and four damaged. Two pilots from the 26th FS, Captain Stanley Hedstrom and Lieutenant Gerald Ravenscroft, destroyed four and two aircraft, respectively. A further 15 aircraft were claimed destroyed by Lieutenant George Walston’s flight, which attacked the northernmost airfield, at Liuting. Flying with Walston were Lieutenants Bill Zimpleman, Walter Wyatt, and George Koran.
Totally, the CACW claimed about 100 aircraft destroyed and damaged. They also destroyed several nearby locomotives.

11 February 1945
17 B-25s from the 14th AF hit railroad yards at Sinyang and Lohochai and a locomotive foundry at Hsuchang.

23 P-47s from the 14th AF pounded Hankou Airfield.

Eight fighters from the 14th AF hit Anyang Airfield and Pinghan railroad targets of opportunity.

B-24s from the 14th AF claimed two cargo vessels sunk in the South China Sea.

A Chinese pilot crashed in the fog in a Mustang while returning from a combat flight to Hankou.

12 February 1945
Six P-51s from the 14th AF destroyed six locomotives between Suchow and Pengpu and strafed the Nanking and Suchow airfields.
Other fighters claimed at least 10 more locomotives destroyed in areas south of the Yellow River.

P-40s from the 14th AF bombed troops in the Hsiangcheng area and hit trains on the Pinghan railroad.

13 February 1945
Fighters from the 14th AF sweept the railroad from Sinyang to Hsuchang, bombed the approach to a Hsuchang bridge, and strafed Sinyang and Ichang Airfields.

B-25s from the 14th AF bomb a foundry at Hsuchang.

14 February 1945
P-47s from the 14th AF bombed Kaifeng Airfield and P-51s hit Shihkiachwang Airfield, destroying several parked aircraft. Afterwards, the P-51s blasted seven locomotives between Puchou and Sinsiang.
Other fighters destroy seven more locomotives between Sinyang and Hsuchang, bombed the railroad yards at Lohochai, and destroyed a fuel dump at Hsiangcheng.

15 February 1945
15 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets at Saiping, in the Hankou area, north of Sinantien, between Hsuchang and Loyang, and along the Yangtze River from Wuhu to Hankou.

16 February 1945
33 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked airfields in the Nanking area, railroad yards at Hsuchang and Tungpu, and hit rail and river traffic from Wuhu to Hankou, in the Sinsiang area, and in French Indochina, the Luang Prabang area, and from Muong Soui to the Mekong River.

17 February 1945
30 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Linfen and Yuncheng.

A single B-25 from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity from Hengyang to Lingling.

27 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked animal transport, barracks, railroad targets, and the town area at Puchi.

16 P-47s from the 14th AF hit the Hankou-Wuchang area.
37 other fighter-bombers attacked railroad yards and targets of opportunity and road and river traffic near Tsinan, Changsha, and Kweiyi, and at Sinyang, Linfen, and Lung Hai.

18 February 1945
25 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked the Sinyang railroad yards and airfield and targets of opportunity along the Pinghan railroad, at Chiuchiang, in the Nanking area, east of Lohochai, and south-east of Hsuchang.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the South China Sea claimed damage on two vessels.

Sergeant Tomisaburo Takemura (Sho-11) of the 48th Sentai was killed in an accident at Wuchang.

19 February 1945
14 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF blasted rail and river traffic at Chiuchiang, Hsuchang, Lung Hai, and Tsinpu.

20 February 1945
34 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded locomotives, railroad cars, and other targets of opportunity at Tsingtao and Puchi.
About 30 other fighter-bombers on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity (mainly rail and river traffic) at scattered locations including Changsha, Lohochai, Tsingtao, Chukiatsi, north of Lingling, and between Siangsiang and Siangtan.
19 Mustangs went back to Tsingtao for another shot at the airfields, and this time Lieutenant Colonel Gilpin Bright (3rd FG (CACW)) was able to lead the attack. He destroyed two Ki-46 Dinahs, Major Thomas Reynolds (7th FS (CACW)) was credited with three more ground kills, and Captain Don Minnick of the 7th FS (CACW) got three others. Lieutenants George Walston (16th FS) and Koran each claimed single ground kills to bring the total to ten. Lieutenant Zimpleman of the 16th FS and Captain Donald Rauch of the 26th FS were both shot down; Zimpleman survived, but Rauch was listed missing in action.

21 February 1945
21 B-25s from the 14th AF, supported by twelve P-51s, pounded Taiyuan.

Two B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF hit Yoyang.

About 100 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, trucks, horses, railroad targets, river shipping, and other targets of opportunity at many locations throughout southern and eastern China.

22 February 1945
19 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit villages, tanks, and trucks from Hsiangcheng to Hsuchang, attacked railroad traffic around Sinsiang and Linfen, hit river craft, trucks, and troops in the Chiuchiang area, and claim one freighter sunk on the Yangtze River between Hankow and Nanking.

A single B-25 from the 14th AF attacked convoys in the Siang-Chiang Valley near Hengyang.

23 February 1945
29 B-24s and 22 fighters from the 14th AF scheduled to attacked Shihkiachwang aborted because of bad weather.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity near Siaokan and attacked river traffic from Nanking to Hankou.

Five B-24s from the 14th AF sweet the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea, damaging one vessel.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in the Kaifeng area.

24 February 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF on individual sweeps over the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin claimed four vessels sunk.

25 February 1945
Six B-25s from the 14th AF, supported by five P-40s, hit sampans and buildings in the Puchi area.

Three B-25s and 19 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded the Isuho ferry and attack river and road traffic from Siangtan to Hengyang.

Captain James Russell of the 17th FS (CACW) spotted a Sally twin-engined bomber flying near Hengyang and gave chase. The bomber quickly made for the airfield at Hengyang and landed, but Russell followed it down in a strafing pass and blew it up as it rolled to a stop at the end of the runway.

A single B-25 from the 14th AF bombed truck convoys south of Hengyang.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea claimed damaging hits on two vessels.

44 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit bridges, river shipping, troop areas, and motor transport at Kweiyi, Paoching, and Siangtan, from Lingling to Hengyang and Leiyang, from Anjen to Chaling, north of Liuchow, and west of Ishan.

26 February 1945
20 B-25s from the 14th AF, some with fighter escort, bombed Ishan, Luchai, Siangtan, and hit bridges at Chuchou and Loshan.

70+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over southern and eastern China and north French Indochina attacked numerous targets of opportunity including airfields, town areas, and river, rail, and road traffic.

27 February 1945
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Ishan and Hwaiyuanchen.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea attacked shipping, claiming two vessels sunk.

19 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit barracks south-west of Ishan, 15 attacked Kiungshan Airfield, twelve hit targets of opportunity in the Yoyang area, 23 hit targets of opportunity around Kiyang, and 30 others hit scattered targets of opportunity at other points in southern and eastern China.

28 February 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in the Hsiang River Valley while two P-51s hit targets of opportunity north-east of Hengyang.

A single B-24 from the 14th AF damaged a cargo vessel in the South China Sea.

March 1945

The ground war

Weather shut down operations at Laohokow from 12 to 21 March.
During those nine days, the Japanese began an advance against the base that would quickly bring to a close the fruitful operations from Laohokow.
The Japanese offensive began at Lushan, about 120 miles northwest of Laohokow, where a force of about 4,000 troops had been concentrated for the assault. Three similar columns left almost simultaneously from Paoanchen, Shengtin, and Shahotin, which are between Lushan and the Peking-Hankow railroad line. By 21 March, the Lushan force was only 60 miles from Laohokow, and the first contact with Chinese defenders was made. The Chinese decided to defend the strong points at Nanyang and Tengshein, which both lay in the path of the advance from Lushan, but in fact, no effective resistance was mounted.
Beginning on 22 March, the aircraft at Laohokow pounded relentlessly at the advancing Japanese. As the Japanese shifted gears and began moving only at night, the P-40s and P-51s searched out and attacked their day hiding places while the P-61 night-fighter detachment from the 426th Night Fighter Squadron at Laohokow flew night sweeps. B-25s from the 1st BG (CACW) added their firepower in both day and night missions from Laohokow, Ankang, and Hsian. Fighter missions flown against the advance increased from five on 22 March to 14 on 25 March, and seven aircraft were lost during that time.
If the Chinese ground troops weren't putting up much of a fight, the CAF pilots at Laohokow certainly were. Sad proof of this is found in the fact that several Chinese pilots in the 3rd FG (CACW) were killed during those four days.

In the afternoon on 25 March, the base engineer at Laohokow, Captain. James G. Bohlken, was requested to start destruction of the airfield. Ten planes, including three B-25s, one transport, three P-51s, and three P-40s, were destroyed by fire. All non-flying personnel were withdrawn over the Han River and the base was abandoned the next day.

By taking Laohokow, the Japanese had severely damaged the Allies' projective strategy of coordinating the 14th Air Force coastal attacks from the inland and seaborne coastal attacks by Pacific Fleet forces on Japanese lines of supply. Nevertheless, Laohokow was the last 14th A.F. base lost to the Japanese during the war, and the offensive that had swallowed it soon petered out as the ever-increasing demands for defense of its home islands sapped Japan's strength.

Chinese Air Force

In March, the Chinese cadets completing primary training in India were sent to the USA to train further. By that time, the number of cadets dispatched had reached 1224, of which 384 managed to return to China and participate in combat. In all, from 1942 to 1945 420 training aircraft were sent from the USA to China through India, including 20 AT-6s, 8 AT-7s, 15 AT-17s, 150 PT-17s, 127 PT-19s, 70 PT-22s and 30 BT-13s. 10 Beechcraft D-17 medical aircraft were also sent.

On 1 March, the 34th PS was re-established
Also on this date, the 8th Heavy BG was re-established with Hung Yangfu as the group commander and the staff quartered at Pengshang (Sichuan). It was assigned the newly established 33rd BS, 34th BS and 35th BS, which planned to be equipped with B-24 Liberators. The skeleton staff consisted of specialists who had already been trained in the USA to fly the B-24. However, the group personnel completed training on the Liberator only in September 1945, which was already after the end of combat activity.

Also on 1 March, the Chinese established a specialized 12th Reconnaissance Squadron equipped with 14 F-5E reconnaissance aircraft received from the Americans. (The earlier 12th Squadron flying the SB had been disbanded at the end of 1943). The squadron was sent to the front in June and had by the end of the Sino-Japanese war only managed to complete a few flights.

Brigadier General Winslow Morse bid his final farewell to the CACW. The general had returned temporarily from his liaison trip to Europe, but he had now received orders to return to the United States. Farewell banquets were given in his honor at Peishiyi on 24 March by officers of his staff. In addition, all wing personnel at the base marched in reviews on the airfield that day. Morse, recorded the wing historian, "gave a typically brief, rumbling, bumbling farewell to the men he was leaving behind." Colonel T. Alan Bennett resumed command of the CACW.
Ankang was now the most important base for the CACW forces in North China.

The 3rd FG flew 337 sorties during March.

In the 26th FS, Major Van Ausdall was relieved on 3 March and sent to command and general staff school at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. His replacement was Captain Bill Johnson, who had been with the squadron since the previous May. His operations officer was Captain McCutchan, one of the originals in the 26th FS.

New American pilots began to arrive in numbers during March, and with them came enough P-51s for them to begin thinking about some long-range penetration missions. Bad weather scrubbed flying from 9 March to 24 March, but then the 5th FG was ready to get back in action.

US Army Air Force

During March, the detachment of the 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Laowhangpin with B-25s returned to base at Yangkai.
The 26th FS, 51st FG, based at Kunming with P-51s sent a detachment to operate from Liangshan during the month.
The 74th FS, 23rd FG, based at Luliang with P-51s sent a detachment to operate from Tushan until August 45.
The 426th Night Fighter Squadron, 14th AF (attached to 312th Fighter Wing), moved from Chengdu to Shwantliu with P-61s (a detachment was operating from Hsian).
The 449th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-38s, sent a detachment to operate from Mentsz while the detachment at Yunnani returned to base.

On 11 March, the 1st Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, based at Hsinching with C-47s, sent a detachment to operate from Liangshan.

The detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, operating from Laohokow with P-51s, returned to base at Chengkung (another detachment was operating from Poseh) on 16 March.

On 25 March, the detachment of the 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Peishiyi with B-25s, returned to base at Yangkai.

The 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai sent a detachment to operate from Chihkiang with B-25s on 28 March.
The 19th Liaison Squadron, 69th Composite Wing, moved from Kunming to Chengkung with L-1s and L-5s on the same day.

On 29 March, the 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai with B-25s, sent a detachment to operate from Chihkiang.

The 529th FS, 311th FG, based at Pungchacheng with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Hsian on 30 March.

IJAAF

On 25 March, the 24th Sentai’s detachment at Hong Kong returned to Formosa, its duty completed.
On the same day, the 22nd Sentai arrived to Hsuchow from the Philippines in an attempt to bolster the flagging Japanese aerial strength in China.

The 9th Sentai moved to Nanyuan, near Peking.

The 25th Sentai completed its conversion from Ki-43s to Ki-84s.

Operations

1 March 1945
Six B-25s and five P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the south side of Ishan while 17 other P-51s hit the eastern and western sections of the city.

Nine P-51s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity of Chinchengchiang while four others hit troops and road traffic between Chinchengchiang and Hwaiyang.

2 March 1945
Three B-24s from the 14th AF on sweeps over the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea claimed two vessels sunk and 3 damaged.

3 March 1945
Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea attacked shipping targets of opportunity, claiming one vessel sunk and three damaged.

4 March 1945
Four B-24s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep damaged a destroyer escort in the South China Sea.

During the night of 4/5 Mar, eleven of twelve B-29s from the 20th AF, staging from Luliang, mined the confluence of the Hwangpoo and Yangtze Rivers and the Tai-hsing Narrows at Shanghai (Mission 42) and one B-29s dropped mines at Tungting Lake without loss.

5 March 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF, escorted by eight P-47s, knocked out a bridge at Changtuikuan while four bombed Chikhom.

40+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit road, rail, and river traffic, town areas, and other targets of opportunity in French Indochina, the central Yangtze River area, and elsewhere in south and east China.

6 March 1945
Four B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Chikhom.

About 50 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit storage, troops, railroad targets, and river and road traffic around Hankou, along the Pinghan railroad, Kaifeng, Suchow, Hsuchang, Changsha, Yoyang, Liuyang, and Hengyang, and on railroads from Liuliho to Chengtung and from Tungpu to Tatung.

7 March 1945
Four B-25s and nine P-40s from the 14th AF blasted railroad targets north of Kiaotow.

Single B-25s from the 14th AF hit truck convoys in the Hsiang River Valley, the waterfront at Changsha, and a bridge and other targets of opportunity on the Pinghan railroad.

130+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked numerous targets throughout south and east China, concentrating on railroad, road, and river targets in the areas around Nanking, Yoyang, Sintsiang, and Changsha.
The CACW flew a dive-bombing mission to Tai Chaio Chan airfield, Nanking, with ten P-51s. Major Reynolds of the 7th FS led the mission. They became involved in combat between 14:55-15:25 over the target and Major Reynolds claimed two Ki-44 Tojos, both of which exploded, and a third as a damaged when the P-51s were jumped over the target. Captain Wang Kuang-Fu of the 7th FS added another Ki-44 to bring his total aerial kills to five and a half, making him the second Chinese ace of the CACW after Major Tsang of the 8th FS.
The 26th FS also took part in this mission and 2nd Lieutenant John Jobson claimed a Ki-43 while 1st Lieutenant Hal Foster claimed a probable Ki-43.

8 March 1945
34 B-24s from the 14th AF, supported by 21 P-51s, pounded Shihkiachwang.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF claimed a transport sunk in the South China Sea.

16 B-25s and six P-40s from the 14th AF attacked railroad tracks, boxcars, gun positions, sampans, and locomotives, knocked out two bridges and damaged another, and destroyed and damaged several locomotives at or near Hengshan, Yehhsien, Lohochai, and Chungmow.

140+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF flew armed reconnaissance over wide areas of south and east China, attacking numerous targets of opportunity, mainly river, road, and railroad targets, storage areas, gun positions, and troops, concentrating around Changsha, Changanyi, and a bridge at Puchi.

9 March 1945
32 B-24s from the 14th AF, escorted by 5 P-51s, bombed railroad yards at Sinsiang.

15 B-25s and two P-40s from the 14th AF knocked out two bridges at Hwaiyuanchen and east of Jungtse, and hit railroad targets and other targets of opportunity at Yehhsien, Chowkiakow, Hsuchang, and east of Junan.

50+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked railroad targets, river and road traffic, bridges, gun positions, and troops at several locations, particularly around Kweiyi, Hengyang, Nanking, and Sinyang.

10 March 1945
32 B-24s from the 14th AF blasted the railroad yards at Tsanghsien and Tehsien.

Ten B-24s and four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Siangtan and nearby targets of opportunity.

60+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit river, road, and railroad targets, gun positions, warehouses, airstrips, and troops around Sinyang, Yiyang, Changsha, Kiyang, Yoyang, Hengyang, Hankou, and Wuchang.

11 March 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF over the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin claimed one freighter sunk and another damaged.

Ten P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF blasted locomotives on the Tsinpu railroad and demolished three villages east of Lohochai.

12 March 1945
Six P-51s from the 14th AF hit road communications at Hwayuan, China and bombed a building at Ha Coi, French Indochina.

13 March 1945
Seven B-24s from the 14th AF over the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea claimed a cargo vessel and a large junk destroyed.

13 P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF destroyed a storehouse, damaged a compound at Chinchengchiang, China, and knocked out a bridge and hit machinegun positions and other targets of opportunity at Lang Son, French Indochina.

First Lieutenant Teisaku Ajiki (NCO51) of the 24th’s Sentai’s detachment claimed a B-24 over Swatow but was himself killed.

14 March 1945
Three B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one cargo vessel sunk in the South China Sea.

One B-25 and four fighter-bombers from the 14th AF damaged twelve track sections near Tungyangchen.

Four P-51s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity near Chihsien.

First Lieutenant Ikegami and Sergeant Ryuzo Kitayama of the 24th’s Sentai’s detachment both claimed B-24s over Hong Kong.

15 March 1945
Four B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one vessel sunk in the South China Sea.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit the area east of Pingsiang.

Four P-51s from the 14th AF hit locomotives between Sinsiang and Shihkiachwang and four attacked motor transport in the Paotou area.

Sergeant Kiyoshi Omoteguchi of the 24th’s Sentai’s detachment claimed a P-51.
Sergeant Major Takeo Kondo (NCO87) of the 24th Sentai's detachment in Swatow was killed.

16 March 1945
32 B-24s from the 14th AF, escorted by 10 P-51s, pounded the north railroad yards at Shihkiachwang.

One B-25 and two P-51s from the 14th AF attacked the railroad between Sinsiang and Shihkiachwang.

17 March 1945
One B-25 and twelve P-51s from the 14th AF damaged 21 locomotives and a river launch in the Peking area, around Tsinan, and between Taiyuan and Tatung.

18 March 1945
Six B-24s from the 14th AF swept the Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea, claiming one freighter damaged.

19 March 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF on a sweep over the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin claimed a large freighter sunk.

21 March 1945
Six B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one vessel damaged in the South China Sea.

22 March 1945
24 fighter-bombers and a single B-25 from the 14th AF attacked railroad traffic and railroad yards in and around Shihkiachwang, at Chukiatsi, and from Sinsiang to Chenghsien.
The CACW flew five fighter missions against the Japanese troops that were advancing towards Laohokow. Captain Yieh Wan-Fie, CO of the 7th FS, an original squadron member who had recently assumed command from Captain Hsu Chi-Hsiang, was killed when he tried to make a belly landing in his damaged P-40 and aircraft flipped over after it touched down. Captain Minnick of the 7th FS was killed on the same day.

23 March 1945
28 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Tsinan railroad shops and Yellow River bridge.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF bombed town areas, storage facilities, and targets of opportunity at Sinsiang and Wu-yang and chiefly in the Hsiangcheng area.

50+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, and river, road, and railroad targets in north French Indochina and south and east China.

16 P-47s from the 10th AF hit targets of opportunity along roads from Mong Nawng to Wan Sing, Burma and to Kunlong, China.

Captain Phil H. Parker (0-664232) Flight Leader of the 28th FS (CACW) was killed during the day when he crashed in P-51D-6-NT (44-11282) (MACR 14140). He had taken off from Ankang to dive-bomb a motor-park at Hsiangcheng. Parker was last seen before a bomb-run at 14:20 and was not seen after the bomb-run was completed.

24 March 1945
34 B-24s from the 14th AF, with an escort of 9 fighters, pounded the Chenghsien locomotive park and Yellow River bridge.

30+ B-25s and 100+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, operating in forces of one to eight aircraft, attacked tanks, trucks, locomotives, troop concentrations, storage areas, airstrips, bridges, gun positions, and general targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China.

Captain Tadahito Umeno (Class 55), Hikotai leader of the 9th Sentai, was killed in an accident at Tongzhou.

First Lieutenant Toshiyuki Shindo (Class 56) of the 85th Sentai was killed at Nanking.

25 March 1945
20+ B-25s and 150+ fighters from the 14th AF, operating individually and in flights of up to eight aircraft, continued attacks on numerous targets including river, road, and rail traffic, airfields, troop concentrations, storage areas, horses, and gun positions throughout southern and eastern China.

30 missions were flown by the 3rd FG (CACW) fighters from Ankang between 25 March and the end of the month. In addition, the 1st BG (CACW) was quite busy during the period, flying nearly all of its 158 March missions during the final week of the month. Most of these, as most of those flown by the fighters, were against the advancing Japanese forces.

26 March 1945
15 B-25s and 80+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, operating individually or in small flights, continued to disrupt mobility and supply lines throughout southern and eastern China, hitting numerous targets of opportunity chiefly trucks, tanks, supply areas, horses, troops, artillery pieces.
Several of the fighter-bombers also considerably damaged Puchou Airfield.

27 March 1945
25 B-25s from the 14th AF hit towns, rail, road, and river traffic, and targets of opportunity around Kweilin, Liuchow, Hengyang, Hochih, Kaifeng, Anlu, Ishan, Kiyang, and the Siang Chiang Valley, China and Nanyang, Burma.

44 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit trucks, trains, sampans, power facilities, and other targets around Nanyo, China and Hongay, Son Tay, Na Cham, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Moc Chau, Muong Hang, and Bac Quang, French Indochina.

28 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge north-east of Liuchow, hit the town of Szeenhsien, and attacked ammunition dumps and road and river traffic around Hochih, Ishan, Liuchow, Pingnam, Liangfeng, and Kweilin.

28 March 1945
Six B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Haiphong and Hanoi docks in French Indochina and the Bakli Bay barracks on Hainan Island.

Nine B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit rivercraft and other targets from Yanglowtung to Sienning.

Nine B-25s from the 14th AF hit junks, storage, and targets of opportunity in the Lushan area and seven bombed Chingmen.

14 B-25s from the 14th AF, operating in groups of one to four aircraft, hit rivercraft and scattered targets of opportunity at several other points in southern and eastern China.

120+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over French Indochina and southern and eastern China continued to pound numerous targets of opportunity; mainly river, road, and rail traffic and troop concentrations; rivercraft and airfields in areas around Kai Tek Airfield in Hong Kong and Canton, Hankou, and Wuchang were severely hit.

The CO of the 74th FS, Major Philip Chapman, was shot down by AA fire over Changting in P-51C-10 (44-11055) and killed.

In Mission 46, ten of ten B-29s from the 20th AF mine the mouth of the Hwangpoo River and the south channel of the Yangtze River at Shanghai

29 March 1945
Eleven B-24s from the 14th AF attacked shipping in the South China Sea, at Bakli and Samah Bays on Hainan Island, and at Haiphong, French Indochina, heavily damaging a destroyer and a merchant vessel.

18 B-25s from the 14th AF, escorted by twelve P-40s, bombed railroad yards at Yoyang.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF claimed six small steamers sunk and several vessels damaged in the Liuchow area.

Single B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity at or near Loyang, Loning, Neihsiang, Yiyang, and Hsuchang.

90+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over southern and eastern China and French Indochina attacked troops, supplies, transport, and communications targets at several places, concentrating strikes around Hengyang, Chuchou, Isuho, Nanking, and Namyung, and among many targets hit airfields at Amoy and Kai Tek in Hong Kong.

The first long-range Mustang mission by the 5th FG (CACW) was flown by the 17th FS and 29th FS. Led by Major Frederick Ploetz, the formation consisted of nine aircraft from the 17th and eight from the 29th, and the target was Ming Ku Kung Airfield at Nanking. The 1,500- mile mission took 6 hours and 45 minutes to complete. The pilots were disappointed that there was no interception attempted by the Japanese and that targets on the airfield were sparse. Nevertheless, a number of Oscars and Tojos were destroyed. Top scorer for the 29th FS was Captain Everest, a recent transfer from the 17th FS. He approached from the north and spotted four Tojos parked in a revetment on the east side of the field. He circled down to 150 feet altitude, then swept in on a strafing run that set two of them on fire and exploded a third. He circled the field once to confirm his targets, but then the engine in his Mustang began to miss, so he headed home. Single Oscar fighters were destroyed by Lieutenants Shen C. Y. and Chen K. C., while 2nd Lieutenant Roy Marker and Sub Lieutenant Liang T. K. each damaged one aircraft. Major Ploetz shot up four hangars and blew up a pile of bombs. None of the 17th FS pilots were able to confirm any aircraft destroyed, though several were damaged.

30 March 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Samah Bay area of Hainan Island.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF, supported by 24 P-40s, knocked out a bridge at Chungmow.

Ten B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hsuchang, nine bombed Changanyi, and nine pounded the Yanglowtung railroad yards. 15 P-40s from the 14th AF flew escort

.Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hankou Airfield, two bombed Neihsiang, and single B-25s attacked targets around Fang- cheng, Nanyang, and Anlu.

100+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over southern and eastern China hit troops, railroad targets, trucks, tanks, supplies, and rivercraft especially around Hankou, Wuchang, Kanchou, and Hangchow. The airfield area at Kanchou and airfield and railroad yards at Hangchow are hit particularly hard.

31 March 1945
30 B-24s from the 14th AF, with an escort of nine P-51s, blasted railroad yards at Shihkiachwang.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards at Sinyang while four hit the Yanglowtung yards.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge and hit gun position at Sienning while six more knocked out a bridge near Ninh Binh, French Indochina and hit storage area at Samah on Hainan Island Bay.

Lieutenant Colonel Bright decided to lead 26 P-51s of the 3rd FG (CACW) on a long-range mission to Shanghai to strafe the airfields at nearby Wingpo. The hunting was not as good as had been hoped, and only three Japanese aircraft were destroyed. The long distance involved in striking the target from Ankang proved disastrous when six P-51s ran out of gas and had to be abandoned on the way home. One of these was flown by Bright himself (P-51 44-11303 MACR 13594), who bailed out near the secret base that had been established at Valley Field in the Chinese-held pocket of territory east of the Peking-Hankow rail line. Bright eventually returned to Ankang, but he was taken out of combat and turned over command of the 3rd FG to one of its old favorites, Colonel Eugene Strickland.
Other lost P-51s were 44-11263 (MACR 13787), 44-11425 (MACR 13590) and 44-11463 (MACR 13593).

About 125 other fighter-bombers and several B-25s (operating individually) from the 14th AF attacked numerous targets in French Indochina and southern and eastern China including bridges, troops, supplies, and rail, road, and river traffic.

April 1945

The ground war

The Japanese had been building up for an offensive to take Chihkiang, and on 10 April they attacked. Time was of the essence for the Japanese, for the Chinese 4th Area Army, which was stationed in the Chihkiang area, was in the process of reorganizing and rearming. With a successful offensive, the Japanese could eliminate the threat posed by an effective 4th Area Army and at the same time drive the 14th Air Force out of its most forward base. Even if the drive didn’t take Chihkiang, if the Japanese could advance close enough their threat would be too great to continue using the base. At the same time, the Japanese would be in better defensive position to fend off a counterattack by the Chinese.
The Japanese appeared to be outnumbered when they pushed off with six divisions totalling perhaps 25,000 men against twelve divisions of Chinese and ten more in reserve, numbering nearly 125,000. The Japanese, however, were banking on past experiences that had shown the Chinese forces to be far less effective than their own well- trained, well-fed, and well-equipped troops. However, it would soon become evident that times had changed.
The Japanese advanced in one of their classic three-pronged attacks. The main drive began on 10 April at Paoching, which served as their headquarters and supply funnel. They moved west along the highway to Chihkiang, and much of the fighting took place along this route. In the south, the Japanese took Sinning, and then split into three smaller forces moving north toward Chihkiang, utilizing three valley approaches to the base. The third advance was in the northern sector, where smaller forces from Paoching and Youngfeng moved toward Sinhwa. This was the weakest of the three advances, and it was stopped 15 to 20 miles short of its objective.
The Japanese must have been surprised by the stiff opposition that was mounted by the Chinese troops. Spearheaded by the 73rd Army, which was largely US-trained and equipped, the Chinese were able to counter the characteristic Japanese tactics of infiltration and envelopment, and they got more than a little help from the CACW outfits at Chihkiang.
Although the Chinese forces fought with more determination and skill in the Battle of Chihkiang (as it became known) than ever before against the Japanese, it was air power that finally swung the outcome their way. The Battle of Chihkiang marked the maturation of air-ground liaison tactics in China, as nine ground radio teams spread out in a ring around the base with the Chinese advance units to direct air strikes by the CACW fighters and bombers. Never before had the CACW been able to strike with such accuracy and immediacy against the Japanese. No fewer than 71 missions directed by the ground radio teams were flown in one seven-day period late in the month.

By the end of April the Japanese had advanced far enough to seriously threaten the base at Chihkiang. Nevertheless, there were signs that the base might be held. The 73rd, 74th, and 28th Chinese armies were fighting well, and the Chinese high command was bringing in other forces to back them up. These support troops included two divisions of the 6th Army, which had fought under General Stilwell in Burma. They were brought in by air transport and trucked to Chihkiang to defend the base.

Chinese Air Force

At about the same time that Strickland returned to the 3rd FG from his job as wing operations officer to take command of the unit, in mid-April, the CACW received the news that the word "provisional" had been dropped from the names of its units. Strickland had become one of the youngest full colonels in the USAAF when he was promoted in February at age 27.

In April the 3rd FG reunited at Ankang. Group headquarters and the 8th FS were moved up from Liangshan to make room for the 1st BG to move onto that base, and the 32nd FS left Hanchung to join the 7th and 28th fighter squadrons, which were already at Ankang. In effect, it was the first time the group had ever lived together, save for a week in mid-February 1944 at Erh Tong when no missions were flown.
The 92nd FS of the 81st FG was also stationed at Ankang, and living conditions were crowded.
One fighter from each 3rd FG squadron was based at Liangshan for air defense under Captain Ed Mulholland.

The 3rd FG flew 313 sorties during April during the fight to save Laohokow. Missions were mixed between close air support of the Chinese forces opposing the Japanese advance past Laohokow and the continued pounding of Japanese lines of river, road, and rail supply from the Peking-Hankow railroad east to the coast.
The attacks by the B-25s of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd bomb squadrons were also considered effective at holding rail traffic to a minimum.
The 3rd FG lost ten fighters in the first two weeks of the month to enemy fire, weather, and accidents.

Command changes continued in the squadrons of the 5th FG as more pilots finished their tours. In the 17th FS, Major Glyn Ramsey was relieved on 21 April by Captain Frank Stevens, who had just transferred from the 29th FS. Ramsey had flown 86 missions totalling 210 combat hours when he went home.
In the 27th FS, Major “Buck” Erickson was replaced by Major Winton “Slick” Matthews. Captain Charles Souch became operations officer of the 27th FS.

In the 1st BG, Lieutenant Colonel Bill Dick was moved to group headquarters from the 4th BS at Chihkiang, and his place was taken by Major Henry Stanley.

US Army Air Force

During April, the 426th Night Fighter Squadron, 14th AF (attached to 312th Fighter Wing), based at Shwangliu with P-61s, sent detachments to operate from Liangshan and Ankang.

On 1 April, the detachments of the 11th and 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Chihkiang with B-25s, returned to base at Yangkai.

The 91st FS, 81st FG, based at Fungwanshan with P-47s, begun operating from Hsian on 9 April.

On 12 April, the 449th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-38s, sent a detachment to operate from Posek.

The detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, operating from Poseh with P-51s returned to base at Chengkung on 13 April.
The 490th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), moved from from Warazup, Burma, to Hanchung with B-25s on the same day.

On 14 April, the 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 14th AF (attached to the 23rd FG), based at Chengkung, begun operating from Laohwangping with P-40s and P-51s.

The 490th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Hanchung sent a detachment to operate from Hsian with B-25s on 16 April.

By the end of the month, gasoline supplies were so low at Chihkiang that the 75th FS, 23rd FG was moved out because there was only enough fuel left to fly for two more days.

Operations

1 April 1945
Seven B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Ft Bayard storage area.

Six B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping and warehouses in the Sienning-Puchi area.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF hit warehouses and other buildings at Hsuchang while three damage a bridge at Changtuikuan.

Single B-25s from the 14th AF bombed targets of opportunity around Sanshihlitun, Sichuan, Loning, and Suicheng.

23 P-51s from the 3rd FG (CACW) returned to Shanghai in force and the hunting was considerably better than it had been the previous day. Major Reynolds scored his final two ground kills, bringing his total to 38 and a half plus four aerial kills and making him the top-scoring fighter pilot in the 14th AF. A total of eight ground kills were reported and the Chinese pilots of the unit claimed five transports shot down and one damaged over Tachang aerodrome between 12:15-12:30.
1st Lieutenant Chung Han-Fai of the 32nd FS and his squadron commander, Captain Hung Chi-Wei, were pulling up from their first strafing run on Tachang aerodrome when they spotted a formation of nine twin-engine enemy aircraft (reported as TE transports and were probably Ki-57 “Topsy”) over the field at about 150 feet altitude. Chung shot up the last aircraft in the formation, which crash-landed near the field, then turned to attack the rest of the formation from the side. He hit a second aircraft, which trailed black smoke, then crashed and burned. At this point one of the enemy aircraft tried to turn back and land on the airfield, but Lieutenant Chung followed its turn and shot it down before it could reach safety. Captain Hung, meanwhile, had shot down another of the Japanese aircraft and saw it crash-land near the base.
2nd Lieutenant Liu Chieh-Min of 28th FS also scored against the transports and he claimed one destroyed and one damaged “Topsy” (Ki-57).
One P-51 (44-11525) was lost when 2nd Lieutenant Oliver Reynolds of the 28th FS baled out south-west of Shanghai (MACR 13768). The fate of the pilot is unknown.

70+ other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked river, road, and rail traffic, storage areas, troops, and general targets of opportunity throughout wide areas of occupied south and east China.

2 April 1945
25 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked trucks, tanks, rivercraft, and targets of opportunity at Sichuan, Neihsiang, Sinyang, Mingkiang, Siangtan, Kweiping, Nanning, and Hengshan.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Kowloon Docks in Hong Kong and hit shipping at Bakli and Samah Bays on Hainan Island.

32 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded airfields in the Shanghai area.

140+ other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked numerous targets scattered throughout south and east China, including troops, trucks, horses, river shipping, bridges, gun positions, airfields, rail traffic, and town areas.

3 April 1945
17 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Pinglo, China railroad yards and in French Indochina, the Ninh Binh railroad yards, knocked out a bridge at Thinh Duc, and damaged bridges at Gian Khau and Mon Cay.

60+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF knocked out bridges at Hsitu and between Chuting and Hengyang, destroyed pontoon bridges in the Kanchou area, hit Yangtong airfield, pounded the Hai Duong, French Indochina railroad yards, and hit river traffic and other targets of opportunity at several locations including Hongay, and Cao Bang, French Indochina, and Tayu, Hankow, Kanchou, Yoyang, and the Ishan- Hwaiyuanchen, areas of China.

5 April 1945
27 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, horses, and river, road, and rail traffic at Son La, French Indochina and Shanhsien and Shihkiachwang, and in the Tehsien and Loyang-Pinglo area of China.

6 April 1945
Three B-24s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the Bakli Bay area on Hainan Island.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF blasted railroad targets of opportunity, troops, horses, and boat landings in the Chenghsien area and along the Lung Hai railroad and Yellow River.

7 April 1945
14 B-25s from the 14th AF hit town areas and targets of opportunity at Sichuan, Hsihhsiassuchi, Neihsiang, Shaoyang, and Nanchang and 24 P-51s attacked river, road and rail traffic in the Yellow River area, south of Anyi, at Yuncheng, and at Tengfeng.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF bombed harbours and dock areas at Bakli and Samah Bays on Hainan Island and at Haiphong, French Indochina.

8 April 1945
31 P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge S of Shaoyang, destroyed a section of track at Sincheng, and hit numerous road and rail targets of opportunity in the Yellow River areas and points to the south, from Shanhsien to Loning, at Hungtung, and south of Hei-Shih Kuan.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF attacked shipping targets of opportunity in the South China Sea and in Bakli Bay on Hainan Island and Yulin Bay and bombed Kowloon Docks in Hong Kong.

9 April 1945
Nine B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the docks at Canton and Kowloon in Hong Kong and attack targets of opportunity at Bakli Bay on Hainan Island.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Sinyang railroad yards and nearby targets of opportunity.
13 other B-25s knocked out a bridge north of Hsuchang and hit various targets around Laohokow, Sichuan, Sinyang, Likuanchiao, Lichen, and along the Han River.

19 P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in or near Neihsiang, Laohokow, and Sichuan.

10 April 1945
23 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded Yungcheng storage areas.

50+ B-25s and 180+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF (operating in small flights) attacked numerous targets throughout south and east China. Targets hit were mainly troops, horses, town areas, storage areas, and river, road, and rail traffic.
In 8th FS, 3rd FG (CACW), a flight of four P-51s went for a strike on Shanghai airfields. Joe Page took part in this sortie and recalled:

"It took two drop tanks and seven and a half hours to make that run in good weather, and if you had dysentery - which I seemed to have all the time in China - it was a rough trip. On April 10, when we got back to the foothills on the return, flight, the weather had turned bad and we had a solid deck of clouds over the mountains. Our field was closed, so we turned to go to Chungking. As my tanks ran dry, one by one, I knew the only option was to bail out when the engine quit.
I watched two bail out, and then my turn came. The only one left was Captain James Spurgin. I jumped, and Spurgin waved his wings. I came down in the yard of a Chinese family who thought I was some kind of devil after them. After I convinced them I was friendly, they escorted me to a village where a riverboat was going down the Yangtze to Chungking the next day. The next morning about 10 A.M., as we went down the river, I heard a lot of shouting, and when I looked over the side, there was Captain Spurgin grinning at me from a sampan.
The boat carried us to Chungking, where we stayed in Ambassador
[Patrick] Hurley's quarters. He was in Russia at the time. We had fine treatment from the Chinese and embassy personnel. We caught a ride out on a military transport plane back to base. I hurt my leg when I bailed out, but it was only bruised and was soon as good as new."
Joe Page was a veteran of 25 missions over Italy with the 81st FG before he came to China and transferred to the CACW. He already had experienced a three-week walk out from the mountains after a bailout.

11 April 1945
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hsihhsiassuchi, five pound the Pinglo barracks and storage area, and a few others hit the Yanglowtung railroad yards and targets of opportunity east of Paoching.

150+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked troops, river, road and rail traffic, and a variety of targets of opportunity scattered throughout south and east China and north French Indochina.

12 April 1945
Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF supported by 14 P-51s, bombed the Wuchang railroad yards and airfield.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the Hsuchang railroad yards, three hit Loning, two attacked Likuanchiao, two bombed Tenghsien, and a single B-25 attacked storage areas at Pingyao and Huaiching.

100+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, bridges, river shipping, trucks, and railroad targets at several locations in French Indochina and at points scattered over south and east China.

13 April 1945
Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards and warehouse area at Kaifeng and six knocked out a bridge at Ningming.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF hit shipping in the South China Sea and Bakli Bay on Hainan Island and the town areas of Tenghsien and Liuchow.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF, along with five P-51s, knocked out a bridge and hit the town area and shipping at Puchi.

About 140 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF flew armed reconnaissance and strikes throughout south and east China, hitting rail, road, and river traffic, town areas, troops, and general targets of opportunity. Among these was 2nd Lieutenant Robert Gardner of the 28th PS (CACW) (MACR 14242), who reported:

“My last mission was a milk run against locomotives on the Kaifeng-Soochow railroad. While leading a flight of four 51s, all carrying drop tanks, I destroyed a locomotive, but the low and slow pass resulted in taking a hit in the oil line from small-arms fire. I was forced to bail out…
This was a virgin bailout, and I pulled the rip cord too soon, thus enabling the enemy to track the descent of the chute for a bonus of two minutes or so. The Mustang went straight in and exploded. The ammo kept popping off, and I feared, irrationally, that the Japs were using me for target practice. Upon touchdown, I was unable to collapse the chute and was dragged about seventy-five yards across a rice paddy. Lt. William A. Elmore made a low pass while I waved.
The above action took place about 11 A.M. in or near an area known as ‘the pocket’, which was an enclave inside enemy territory presumably controlled by Allied forces. Be that as it may, Chinese puppet troops located me within twenty minutes, and under the guise of escorting me back to friendly territory moved from village to village until about four o'clock the next morning, when Jap infantry placed me in handcuffs.
The next time I saw a white man was two weeks before the surrender in an internment camp located on the outskirts of Peking. Interned there were several dozen British, French, and Dutch civilians - businessmen and consular people from Shanghai. Also, five or six of the Doolittle boys, one of whom died of malnutrition three days after the war. There was a Marine color guard at our embassy in Peking who had been interned December 8, 1941. In addition, three other fighter pilots from other units who had been shot down since I had and were in reasonably fair physical shape.
As for myself, I had been incarcerated in a half-dozen civilian jail cells in towns on the Hankow-Peking railroad. I ended up with beri-beri and dropped from 147 to 104 pounds. On the journey to Peking via train and ox cart, I was paraded through a number of Chinese villages where the populace turned out to see a rare blue-eyed devil΄’. On one occasion, a drunken Japanese cavalry colonel rapped me rather forcibly on the base of the skull with the blunt edge of his samurai sword. Neither the Chinese populace nor the Japanese enlisted men were amused, and the colonel moved on.
While awaiting return to free China (after the truce), several of us were quartered in the Grand Hotel de Peking. The Marine guard and I were roommates. He was visited by two absolutely gorgeous White Russian girls he had known before the war and who had sweated out the war in Harbin, Manchuria. These girls wore silk stockings, high-heeled shoes, cosmetics, Max Factor hairdos, and spoke impeccable English. What they really wanted was to marry us so that they could get into the U.S.A. However, our debilitated condition was so apparent that they were forced to look elsewhere.”

15 April 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out the Pa-Ching pontoon bridge, seven pounded a storage depot at Fang-cheng, four bombed Tunganhsien, and three hit Paoching.

One B-24 from the 14th AF bombed the Canton docks.

Almost 200 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF ranging over all of southern China and up into the northern China plain hit numerous targets including bridges, river shipping, town areas, trucks, railroad traffic, gun positions, storage areas, and general targets of opportunity. The Paoching, Hengyang, Yungfengshih, and Hsihhsiassuchi areas were especially hard hit.
The main Japanese drive from Paoching had been proceeding steadily toward Chihkiang for the past four days before it finally ran up against stiff opposition from units of the 73rd Army. Captain Frank Everest 29th FS (CACW) was leading five P-51s when they were directed to attack Japanese positions about 16 miles southeast of Sinhwa.
Everest found the Japanese in a wooded area, where they had erected tents and staked out horses. The P-51s dove to the attack and dropped their bombs on the area, then came back to strafe what was left. As they came in on the strafing runs, the pilots could see men and horses running in panic. They took advantage of the fact that there was minimal ground fire from the running Japanese and thoroughly strafed the area. Subsequent reports from advancing Chinese troops indicated that some 500 Japanese soldiers and another 500 horses had been killed in that single attack.

15 April 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out the Pa-Ching pontoon bridge, seven pounded a storage depot at Fang-cheng, four bombed Tunganhsien, and three hit Paoching.

One B-24 from the 14th AF bombed the Canton docks.

Almost 200 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF ranging over all of southern China and up into the northern China plain hit numerous targets including bridges, river shipping, town areas, trucks, railroad traffic, gun positions, storage areas, and general targets of opportunity. The Paoching, Hengyang, Yungfengshih, and Hsihhsiassuchi areas were especially hard hit.

16 April 1945
18 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded a storage area at Linfen;.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed targets of opportunity in the Bakli Bay, Hainan Island and Canton areas.

Ten B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Yungfengshih, Kweilin, and Shanhsien, knocking out one bridge and hitting buildings, river shipping, and rail traffic.

About 120 fighter-bombers over southern and eastern China hit river, road, and rail traffic, town areas, troops, and general targets of opportunity at many scattered locations.

17 April 1945
Four B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF blasted river shipping south of Yiyang.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the area around Kwangsi University at Liang-feng.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Bakli Bay dock area on Hainan Island.

70+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit troops, town areas, road traffic, river shipping, and general targets of opportunity at several locations in southern and eastern China including Changsha, Sinning, Sinhwa, Yiyang, Tungting Lake, Paoching, Yungfengshih, Shanhsien, Lingling, Pingsiang, Tsinkong, and Hochih.

18 April 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF hit trucks and other targets of opportunity east of Siangtan.

52 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping, town areas, rail and road traffic, tanks, and bridges at several southern and eastern China locations including Sinhwa, Hengyang, Changsha, Luchai, Paoching, Kweiyang, Yenkou, Sinning, and Siangtan.

19 April 1945
Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF bombed railway repair shops at Taiyuan.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in Bakli Bay on Hainan Island.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF attacked bridges and rail and road traffic north and north-east Anyang and north-east of Taiku, damaging or destroying several locomotives and numerous boxcars.

100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-47s from the 14th AF attacked town areas, troops, river, road, and rail traffic, and general targets of opportunity all over southern and eastern China and hit a few targets of opportunity in northern French Indochina.

20 April 1945
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF hit the town of Neihsiang and attacked railroad targets of opportunity from Saiping to Lohochai and from Linying, Burma to Hsuchang.

Nine B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Loyang and Luchou.

100+ P-51s, P-40s, and P-47s from the 14th AF concentrated attacks against town areas throughout southern and eastern China, also hitting troops, gun positions, river traffic, and other targets of opportunity.

21 April 1945
The seriousness of the Japanese threat to Chihkiang was brought home to the CACW personnel there, when it was reported that the Japanese snipers had reached the base. The following report was filed:

“That the Japs were using plainclothesmen in their intent to take Chihkiang was evidenced by two incidents which took place the night of 20 April, 1945, and the following morning. On the night of the 20th at approximately 2230 hours, gunfire was heard coming from the hills overlooking the American hostel area at Chihkiang Air Base. The shooting at first was ignored, the belief prevailing that American personnel were shooting their carbines. The shooting continued to increase, and several bursts, as if from a machine gun, were heard. At times pieces of tile from the roof were hit and fell rattling to the floors of the hostel rooms. Some tents occupied by enlisted personnel were perforated by gunfire.
A one-ball alert was called, and defense squads assembled by Colonel Dunning patrolled the hills adjacent to the hostel area. After several shots were fired by American personnel toward the gun flashes, the fire on the barracks ceased. It is estimated that the enemy gunfire was maintained for thirty to forty minutes. It is not known how many snipers were involved.
At 0915 on 21 April, Capt. Stan Kelly, operations officer of the 26th F.S,, was shot in the back by an unknown assailant while sitting at the northeast corner of the alert shack at the north end of the runway. The bullet entered his back on the left side near the base of his lungs. Medical officers administered first aid to Captain Kelly speedily as possible. He was flown to Kunming that same day for treatment and from last reports seems to be out of the danger stage.”
Kelly, in fact, survived the shooting, and he was sent home a month later. He had just joined the 26th FS (CACW) when the shooting occurred, having been transferred from the 75th FS, 23rd FG. He had flown an earlier tour with the Royal Air Force in North Africa.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Loyang.

A single B-24 from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in Bakli Bay on Hainan Island.

30 P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF attacked railroad and road targets, barracks area, buildings, and bridges at or near Paoching, Chihsien, Taiku, Hsihhsiassuchi, Shaho, Linfen, Luan, Yutze, and Shanhsien.

22 April 1945
Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed targets of opportunity at Canton and in Bakli Bay on Hainan Island.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hsuchang and hit the area to the north-west.

19 P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF attacked trains, trucks, troops, horses, and town areas at or near Linfen, Luan, Sincheng, Fentingtukou, Taiku, Chenghsien, Sinsiang, and Kaifeng.

Sergeant Keiichi Takeuchi (Sho-9) of the 48th Sentai was killed at Canton.

23 April 1945
Five B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the Hsuchang railroad yards, completely demolishing a locomotive repair shop.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in the South China Sea.

39 P-47s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, trains, and rivercraft at or near Nanyang, Burma and Taiku, Shanhsien, Hsihhsiassuchi, Loning, Sinyang, Chenghsien, Sichuan, Lushan, and along the Pinghan railroad, and rendered a railroad tunnel near Sinyang unusable.

24 April 1945
Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Hongay, French Indochina railroad yards and attacked targets of opportunity in South China Sea.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF damaged a vessel at Bakli Bay on Hainan Island.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity from Siaokan to Sinyang while two damaged a bridge at Kuanshuishih.

50+ P-51s, P-61s, and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked rivercraft, railroad targets, trucks, bridges, troops, horses, and other targets of opportunity at numerous southern and eastern China locations as pressure by allied air and ground forces mounted against enemy movement and supply routes.

25 April 1945
Four B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge and knock out an AA position north of Anyang.

50+ P-47s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit river, road, and rail targets, troops, horses, and buildings in areas around Loning, Hsihhsiassuchi, Linfen, Kuanshuishih, Saiping, Yungcheng, Sichuan, and Tsingsinghsien.

26 April 1945
Ten B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out bridges near Wuchang and north of Taiku and damaged a bridge near Kaifeng.

80+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF blasted troops, horses, road and rail transport, tanks, gun positions, and targets of opportunity at numerous places in southern and eastern China as the campaign against the occupying Japanese intensified.

27 April 1945
Five B-25s and 70+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked bridges, positions, villages and town areas, gun emplacements, and river, road, and rail traffic at many points in southern and eastern China chiefly around Fantung.
The 27th FS, 5th FG (CACW) flew 32 missions between 25-30 April, including ten on 27 April. It was found that the two-plane formations worked best when under the direction of the ground radio crews, and because the distances to the targets were so short, the missions usually lasted only forty-five minutes to an hour. During the month of April, the 27th FS dropped 79,415 pounds of bombs and fired 165,870 rounds of .50-caliber ammunition.

28 April 1945
Ten B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Paoching Airfield and the Shaho railroad yards, knock out a bridge near Kaifeng, and damage a bridge west of Showyang.

About 80 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked troops, airfields, storage facilities, railroad targets, rivercraft, trucks, and enemy positions in southern and eastern China, again concentrating on the Fantung area.
The 27th FS, 5th FG (CACW) flew 10 missions.

A B-24 from the 14th AF claimed a freighter sunk in the South China Sea.

29 April 1945
Three B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF blasted targets at the Taiyuan railroad yards.

About 50 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, operating in forces of one to four aircraft, blasted numerous targets of opportunity in southern and eastern China, hitting especially the Fantung area.
Captain Bill Johnson and Lieutenant Liu L.-C. of 26th FS, 5th FG (CACW) flew east out of Chihkiang in their new Mustangs. They made contact with the liaison team code-named ”Scalding”, who directed them to a small village near Fantung that the Japanese were in the process of occupying. Each pilot picked half the village, and they dropped their napalm directly onto the buildings. Many fires were started, and the village was soon covered by a thick cloud of black smoke. The P-51 pilots then came back over the town on four strafing runs and gunned down still more Japanese troops.

30 April 1945
Six B-25s and nine P-47s from the 14th AF hit railroad yards at Taiyuan.

50+ P-47s, P-51s, and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked troops, defensive positions, bridges, rail targets, and scattered targets of opportunity in south and east China, concentrating around Laohokow, Hsihhsiassuchi, and Loning.

May 1945

The ground war

During May the Japanese decide to give up their Greater East Asia Corridor and withdraw from south China

With the fall of Rangoon, Burma on 3 May (26th Indian Division elements occupied the city), the war against the Japanese in Burma was successfully concluded. Pockets of resistance remained west of the Irrawaddy River and between that river and the Mandalay-Pegu, Thailand railway. During May, the US Army Air Force operations were reduced drastically due to the lack of suitable air targets and because of the onset of bad weather preceding the monsoon. The 10th AF was withdrawn from combat and moved back to India but one squadron of P-38s remained in Burma to patrol the roads leading into China.

On 26 May, the Japanese complete their withdrawal from Yungning, severing the land connection with French Indochina.
On the same date, the Chinese retook Nanning.

Chinese Air Force

By May, the pilots of the “International Air Brigade” according to Chinese data had shot down or damaged 2054 Japanese aircraft, while losing about 500 of their own machines. (The first figure is very difficult to believe, knowing that the Japanese during the years 1942-1944 maintained in central and southern China only three fighter and three bomber regiments, of less than full strength, with a total of no more than 300 aircraft.)

The 1st BG were beginning to receive B-25Js, some of which mounted eight .50-caliber machine guns in their noses for strafing, to replace their aging B-25Ds and -Hs.

May saw the beginning of staging missions from Valley Field in "the pocket".

During the month, the end of combat tours of three squadron commanders saw them being relieved. Major Reynolds was replaced in the 7th FS by Captain Bert Welch, Major Herman Byrd's replacement in the 32nd FS was Major Jesse Harris and Captain Robert Ferguson took over for Major Keith Lindell in the 28th FS. Captain Mueller remained in command of the 8th FS until the end of the war.

May saw the operations level of the 3rd FG drop, with 71 missions - 250 sorties - flown and only four Japanese aircraft destroyed, two of them on the ground.
The 1st BG flew 234 sorties, dropped 326.9 tons of bombs, and fired 62 rounds of 75mm shells. Quite a bit of the bomb group's total was piled up, however, by the 4th BS, which had its hands full down in Chihkiang with the 5th FG. After a slow winter, April and May had been action-packed for the men at Chihkiang.

US Army Air Force

The 14th AF further concentrated its attacks on rail and road movements and river shipping and thus played a major role in critically reducing the enemy’s mobility and supply lines.

Lieutenant General Albert C. Wedemeyer, Commanding General US Forces China Theatre, selected Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer to command HQ AAF China Theatre, with both HQ 10th and 14th AFs under his command.

During May, the detachment of the 449th FS, 51st FG, operating from Posek with P-38s, returned to base at Chengkung.

On 5 May, the 530th FS, 311th FG, moved from Kwanghan to Pungchacheng with P-51s.

The 21st PRS based at Kunming with F-5s, sent a flight to operate from Laifeng (other flights were at Hanchung, Lulinag and Hsian) on 7 May.

On 13 May, the flight of the 21st PRS operating from Luliang with F-5s, returned to base at Kunming.

The 11th Combat Cargo Squadron moved from Dinjan, India to Yunnani with C-47s on 14 May.
The 21st PRS moved from Kunming to Shwangliu with F-5s (flights operating from Hanchung, Hsian and Laifeng) on the same date.
Also on the same date, the 35th PRS based at Chanyi with F-5s sent a detachment to operate from Kunming.

On 25 may, the 322nd Troop Carrier Squadron moved form Kunming to Loping with C-47s.

The detachment of the 25th FS, 51st FG, operating from Poseh with P-51s, returned to base at Yunnani on 28 May.

IJAAF

On 8 May, the decision was made to move the bulk of the 5th Kokugun (including the 85th Sentai) to Korea. The move, which involved the relocation of some 10,000 ground support personnel, was completed by the end of the month with only minor losses. The following skeleton force remained in China:

Unit Number of aircraft Station
9th Sentai 2 Ki-44s, 4 Ki-84s and 10 Ki-43s Nanking
8th Sentai 20 Ki-43s Tushanzhen
One chutai of the 44th Sentai 8 recon aircraft Chenchow
82nd Sentai 4 recon aircraft Nanking
54th Independent Chutai 6 ground support aircraft Hangchou
90th Sentai 25 light bombers Tsinan
The 9th Sentai moved to Nanking where they remained to the end of the war.

The 48th Sentai moved to Tushanzhen, near Nanking.

Operations

1 May 1945
Two B-25s and 16 P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out bridges near Taiku and Kiehsiu and hit AA positions and locomotives near the bridges, blast gun emplacements in the Loning area, and hit several locomotives, near Shihkiachwang.

2 May 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF mined areas of the Yangtze River.

20+ B-25s and about 130 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked communications targets and supply lines and hit a large variety of targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China as the air campaign accelerated with the aim of disrupting the imminent withdrawal of the Japanese and the abandonment of their Greater East Asia Corridor.

The last confirmed aerial kills scored by the 3rd FG (CACW) came during the day, when a flight of P-51s from the 32nd FS (the same squadron that had scored the CACWs first victory back in December 1943) caught four "Vals" - probably Ki-51 Sonias - over Suchow Airfield at 1,000 feet between 10:00-11:00. First Lieutenant Leo Bugner opened fire first; hitting the No. 4 aircraft and seeing it begin to smoke but then overshooting his target. Captain Robert Ferguson hit the lead enemy aircraft in the cockpit and tail, and it crashed into a field. Second Lieutenant Richard Tonks damaged the No, 2 aircraft, then No. 3. He then put a good twenty- to thirty-degree deflection shot into No. 3, killing the rear gunner and sending the airplane into a glide. Unfortunately, no one saw this airplane crash, so it was claimed as a probable.
Then First Lieutenant Bugner picked up the No. 2 aircraft and began firing from 700 feet dead astern, pulling right up behind it as he continued to fire. The mortally wounded aircraft finally crashed near the airfield.
Bugner was credited with one and one damaged “Val”, Ferguson with one destroyed “Val” and Tonks with a probable “Val”.
During the engagement, Second Lieutenant Tonks flew so low at one point that he scraped the wingtip of his Mustang (44-11439) on the ground, but he was able to maintain control and return safely to Ankang.

3 May 1945
Nine B-25s and six fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked truck convoys in the Hsiang River Valley and near Paoching, Changsha, and Hengyang, and pound railroad targets of opportunity and bridges in the Taiku, Singtai, and Linfen areas.

90+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked troops, town areas, ammunition dumps, river shipping and other targets of opportunity over wide areas of southern and eastern China.

4 May 1945
Twelve B-25s and 180+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, mostly operating in flights of two to four aircraft, attacked town areas, storage, troops, horses, trucks, river shipping, airfields, and many other targets of opportunity scattered over the vast expanse of southern and eastern China.

5 May 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Singtai and hit railroad traffic in the Sinsiang area.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF hit railroad cars and other targets of opportunity at Kaifeng, Hsihhsiassuchi, and in the Tungkuan and Luan areas.

76 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, operating in flights of two to four aircraft, attacked a variety of targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China.

6 May 1945
Three B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Hsihhsiassuchi.

111 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF, operating in flights of two to four aircraft, attacked numerous targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China.

7 May 1945
Three B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge north of Singtai.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF attacked Yellow River targets of opportunity, damaging at least one bridge.

131 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again hit various targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China, concentrating on railroad targets.

A P-47 of the 92nd FS loaded with napalm bombs crashed on takeoff at Ankang and hit three fighters of the 7th FS (CACW). The napalm exploded, destroying all four aircraft and killing scores of ”coolies” that was working on extending the runway.
Later in the month landing crashes by a P-61 and a P-40 repeated the tragedy. Burr Shafer, operations and intelligence NCO in the 32nd FS (CACW), recalled the P-61 crash vividly:

“There was also a night fighter and recon outfit operating out of Ankang during those last months. I can recall a night fighter coming in with a load of napalm still undelivered - the prop blades cut the arms off several coolies, and I can still see them running down the runway holding their arms high as the ambulance crews tried to chase them down to help them. Meanwhile, the P-61 itself crashed into a work gang of about fifty coolies, and the napalm exploded upon impact. I helped gather the bodies afterward, and it was a scene right out of Dante's Inferno”

8 May 1945
13 B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Do Cam and damaged others at Do Len, over the Song Chu River in French Indochina, and north of Kaifeng, China.

A single B-24 from the 14th AF damaged bridges at Huto.

About 100 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over wide areas of southern and eastern China continued to hit numerous targets of opportunity, concentrating on shipping and the dock area at Taku.

9 May 1945
14 B-24s, 14 B-25s, and 26 P-51s from the 14th AF blasted Paoching and various nearby targets of opportunity; some of the fighter-bombers also attacked targets of opportunity west of Hengyang.

10 May 1945
19 B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF attacked bridges at Fengstun and Pinyang, on the Song Chu River, and north of Singtai (a Pinyang, China target was destroyed), hit Yungfengshih and Chingshuping, and bombed the airfield at Paoching.

100-120 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF pounding targets of opportunity over southern and eastern China disrupted enemy movement and supply lines.

11 May 1945
Six B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out the Chungmow bridge and damaged a bridge at Sincheng.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed truck convoys in the Paoching, Hengyang, and Changsha areas.

60+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit troops, artillery positions, communications targets, and general targets of opportunity in southern and eastern China, concentrating on the Yangchi and Fantung areas.

12 May 1945
17 B-25s and eight P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the barracks and storage area at Loyang and hit railroad targets around Sinsiang and Sinyang, from Hankou to Sinyang, from Chenghsien to Szeshui, from Kioshan to Lohochai, and between Hengshan and Yoyang and knocked out a bridge north of Hengyang.

150+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again hit scattered targets in southern and eastern China, concentrating on road, rail, and river traffic and supply lines.

13 May 1945
Five B-24s from the 14th AF laid mines in the Yangtze River.

Ten B-25s and five fighters from the 14th AF knocked out bridges at Hankou and Hengyang but failed to hit a bridge north of Siaokan.

130+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over areas of southern and eastern China attacked troops, bridges, rail traffic, town areas, and other targets of opportunity and generally disrupt Japanese movement and communications.

14 May 1945
B-24s from the 14th AF mined the Yangtze River.

15 B-25s and six fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit river shipping near Hengshan and pounded bridges and other railroad targets around Chushihtien, Sinyang, Kioshan, Kuanshuishih, Hengyang, Chuchou, Changsha, Yoyang, Sintien, Hsuchang, Saiping, and Hengshan.

120+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over southern and eastern China hit numerous targets of opportunity at several locations concentrating on the Liping and Tungkow areas.

15 May 1945
A single B-24 from the 14th AF, supported by two P-51s, seriously damaged three bridges near Singtai and Linmingkuan.

20 B-25s from the 14th AF, some with fighter escort, bombed bridges, barracks, troops, horses, road and railroad targets, and general targets of opportunity around Sinyang, Yoyang, Changsha, Hsuchang, Chenghsien, Sichuan, Pinyang, Tsinkong, Luchou, Kweiping, Tanchuk, Laohokow, Siangyang, Nanying, Paoching, and Hengyang.

150 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over southern and eastern China attack a variety of targets chiefly road, rail, and river traffic, troops, and bridges, at many scattered locations. The Liping and Tungkow areas were again well covered.

16 May 1945
B-24s from the 14th AF continued to lay mines in the Yangtze River.

33 B-25s and 16 P-47s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets, barracks, HQ, bridges, town areas, river shipping, and targets of opportunity at or near Kaifeng, Sinyang, Chungsiang, Chienyangi, Ichang, Chingmen, Yanglowtung, Kiyang, Loyang, Szeshui, Hsihhsiassuchi, Shanhsien, Neihsiang, Liuchow, Kweiping, Nanyo, Shihlipu, Hojung, Mingkiang, and Kioshan.

100+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked river, road, and rail traffic, troops, gun positions, and generally harass Japanese movement and supply lines in southern and eastern China hitting especially targets of opportunity in Yangchi.

Sergeant Rokuro Shikura (Sho-8) of the 85th Sentai was killed over Nanking.

17 May 1945
16 B-25s and about 100 fighters from the 14th AF continued to disrupt communications and supply lines and hinder enemy withdrawal from numerous locations of southern and eastern China, pounding town areas, troop concentrations, storage areas, river, road, and rail traffic and general targets of opportunity.

18 May 1945
Nine B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the Siangtan supply areas.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF, supported by seven P-51s, hit railroad targets and other targets of opportunity around Sinyang, Kiaotow, Sintsiang, and Chenghsien.

About 75 fighter-bomber and reconnaissance aircraft from the 14th AF continued the harassment of enemy movement and supply lines throughout southern and eastern China, escort of C-47 transports, and surveillance of enemy forces.

19 May 1945
Four B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the Kaifeng warehouse area, destroying at least five warehouses, while another hits nearby railroad tracks.

Another B-25 from the 14th AF bombed the town of Shanhsien.

About 90 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked river, road, and rail shipping, troops, supplies and general targets of opportunity, continuing the disruption of troop movement and withdrawal in southern and eastern China.

20 May 1945
55 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded truck concentrations, fuel dumps, gun positions, supply areas, troops, bridges, rail, road, and river traffic, and various targets of opportunity around Liping, Yangchi, Siangtan, Yoyang, Yungfengshih, Paoching, Taohwaping, Hengyang, Tungkow, and Changsha.

21 May 1945
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a bridge approach north of Hankou, one damaged the railroad track between Changsha and Kweiyi, and two scored near misses on a bridge at Kuanshuishih.

Three B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge at Chihsien and hit railroad targets of opportunity in the Anyang area.

50+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance continued attacks against river, road, and rail traffic, positions, troops, bridges, and numerous other targets in southern and eastern China.

22 May 1945
15 B-25s and seven fighter-bombers from the 14th AF knocked out a rail bridge at Hei-Shih Kuan, damaged a bridge approach at Hwayuan, and hit a variety of targets south of Kuo-lueh-chen.

Ten P-51s from the 14th AF dropped napalm on trucks, barracks, storage, trains, and town areas at Sinyang, and Shanyangchen.

45 other fighter-bombers and photoreconnaissance aircraft from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets, bridges, troops, and other targets at several southern and eastern China points and surveyed enemy movements.

23 May 1945
14 B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF attacked a bridge and gun positions north and south of Hwayuan, knocked out a bridge and hit boxcars at Chungmow, damaged a bridge north of Lohochai, damaged a bridge and nearby gun positions at Kuanshuishih, and pounded truck convoys around Paoching, Hengyang, and Changsha.

30+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit various targets of opportunity around Liping, Yoyang, Changsha, Hengyang, Luntangpu, Chingmen, Shasi, and Ichang.

24 May 1945
Five B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a railroad bridge north of Anyang.

30+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets, truck convoys, bridges, and other targets of opportunity around Nanyang, Burma and Anyang, Sichuan, Kuo-lueh-chen, Kuantaokou, Luntangpu, Houpo, Laohokow, Sinsiang, Kiehsiu, Linfen, Taiyuan, Puchou, and Yutze.

25 May 1945
Five B-25s and two P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge north of Kioshan, damaged another north of Changtuikuan, and pounded railroad targets around Sinyang, Saiping, Sinantien, Hsuchang, and Chenghsien.

16 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit various targets of opportunity in the Nanyang, Burma and Anyang, Hantan, Chenghsien, Kaifeng, Linfen, Shihkiachwang, Sinsiang, Miyanghsien, Tenghsien, Loning, Sichuan, and Hsuchang areas.

26 May 1945
Twelve B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF damaged two bridges north of Hankou.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets around Lohochai and between Kinkiang and Kioshan.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF attacked truck convoys in the Siangtan and Paoching areas and along the Paoching-Hengyang-Changsha highway.

80+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF over several areas in southern and eastern China continued to harass Japanese movements, attacking troops and positions and hitting rail and road traffic.

27 May 1945
15 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a textile mill at Chenghsien, attacked trains, railroad track and a bridge in the Lohochai area, and bombed railroad yards at Sinyang.

80+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked town areas, trucks, railroad targets, bridges, and general targets of opportunity at scattered southern and eastern China locations.

28 May 1945
19 B-25s from the 14th AF, along with eight fighter-bombers, hit railroad, road, and river traffic around Vinh, Quang Tri, Dap Cau, and Song Chu, French Indochina, knocked out a bridge at Hwayuan and demolished a tunnel opening near Wuchang, China.

16 P-51s from the 14th AF caused heavy damage and casualties blasting a bridge and military installations near Wuchang.

27 P-51s from the 14th AF hit bridges, troops, storage, trucks, trains, rivercraft, and other targets in the Yoyang area.

65 other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity at several locations throughout southern and eastern China.

15 photoreconnaissance aircraft from the 14th AF continued to maintain good coverage of enemy movements.

First Lieutenant Chozo Okada (Class 56), Hikotai leader of the 9th Sentai, was killed over Nanking.

29 May 1945
A single B-24 from the 14th AF damaged a railroad bridge over the Huto River and four B-25s and four P-51s knocked out a bridge south of Kuanshuishih.

About 30 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked communications and transportation targets around Thanh Hoa, Vinh, Quang Tri, Vinh and Yen, Chenghsien and Yoyang, China

30 May 1945
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards at Sinsiang and knocked out a bridge at Sincheng.

28 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked bridges, enemy positions, trucks, railroad targets, barracks, and general targets of opportunity around Anyang, Liuchow, Chingmen, Chungmow, Linfen, Huluehchen, Kweilin, Hsinganhsien, Leiyang, and Yenkoupu.

31 May 1945
Five B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF hit railroad tracks and cars in the Chenghsien and Kaifeng areas, knocked out a bridge at Sinyang, damaged a bridge at Lohochai, and strafed AA positions at both bridges.

30+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF damaged four bridges, hit several railroad targets and rivercraft, attacked trucks and troops, and strafed numerous targets of opportunity around Shihkiachwang, Changsha, Yoyang, Yenkoupu, Taohwaping, Changanyi, Chiuchiang, Liuchow, Tsinkong, and Pioching.

June 1945

Chinese Air Force

The 27th FS, 5th FG (CACW) become the last squadron to convert from P-40s to P-51s.

Major Don Campbell replaced Captain Richard Ferguson as the CO of the 28th FS.

US Army Air Force

During June, the 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (attached to the 23rd FG), moved from Chengkung to Laohwangping with P-40s and P-51s.

On 20 June, the 11thCombat Cargo Squadron moved from Yunnani to Luliang, China with C-47s.

The 21st PRS based at Shwangliu sent a flight to operate from Ankang with F-5s on 25 June.

On 27 June, the HQ 308th BG (Heavy) and 374th, 375th and 425th BS (Heavy) moved from Hsinching and Kwanghan, China to Rupsi, India with B-24s.

The detachment of the 427th Night Fighter Squadron operating from Kunming, China with P-61s, returned to base at Dinjan, India, on 28 June.
The next day the squadron sent a detachment to Chengkung.

On 30 June, HQ AAF, China Theatre was established by a General Order from HQ, US Forces, China Theatre. Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer was appointed Commanding General; subordinate elements are the 10th and 14th AF, China Air Service Command, and the 8th Reconnaissance Group.

IJAAF

The 25th Sentai moved to Korea.

The 48th Sentai moved to Taixian, south of Nanking, where they remained to the end of the war.

Operations

1 June 1945
Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the Sinsiangrailroad yards while four B-25s and four P-47s damaged a bridge north of Linmingkuan.

18P-51s from the 14th AF hit river shipping, warehouses and other targets in the Yoyang area.

20 other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge near Szeshui, pounded river shipping near Yoyang, and attacked various targets in the Huluehchen area.

2 June 1945
20 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked the airfield at Tsinan, railroad yards and targets of opportunity at Anyang and the warehouse area at Paoching, knock out a bridge south of Singtai, and hit trucks, tanks, and armoured vehicles in the Liuchow area.

3 June 1945
Five B-25s and 25 P-51s from the 14th AF blasted the warehouse area and river traffic at Liuchow.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the Sinyang-Lohochai railroad.

A single B-24 from the 14th AF, escorted by two P-51s, damaged a bridge north of Shihkiachwang.

Four P-51s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge east of Kiehsiu and strafed a train and lumber carts north of Linfen.

Bad weather curtailed other scheduled US fighter-bomber missions.

4 June 1945
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF heavily damaged railroad yards and warehouses at Sinsiang.

Ten B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF in repeated attack on the yards cause numerous fires.

Two B-25s and three P-51s from the 14th AF hit road and railroad targets of opportunity from Sinyang to Hsuchang.

17 fighters from the 14th AF bombed or strafed bridges, railroad traffic, and other targets of opportunity around Chihsien, Linfen, Shihkiachwang, and Liuchow.

5 June 1945
32 B-25s and eight P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the city of Nanyang, Burma, hit railroad yards at Anyang, and damaged a bridge approach at Chuanhsien, China, and bombed ferries at Ninh Binh and Dap Cau, French Indochina.

40+ fighters from the 14th AF bombed and strafed rail, river, and road traffic and general targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China.

6 June 1945
Eleven B-25s and nine P-51s from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards north of Siaokan and damaged bridges, strafe gun positions, and attack general targets of opportunity around Saiping and Hwayuan.

30+fighters from the 14th AF bombed or strafed bridges near Chihsien and Fengstun and hit troops, railroad targets, and targets of opportunity around Linfen, Laohokow, Changsha, Peking, and Kweilin, and Dap Cau and Thanh Hoa, French Indochina.

7 June 1945
Seven B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge near Anyang, bomb buildings north of Changsha and the airstrip atPaoching, and hit targets of opportunity during a road and river sweep from Siangtan to Yoyang.

45 fighters from the 14th AF bombed or strafed numerous targets including troops, river traffic, town areas, and supplies in southern and eastern China and knocked out bridges at Singtai and Chihsien.

8 June 1945
15 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked bridges near Hankou, north of Sinsiang, and south-east of Tayung, knocking out the latter.
17 other fighters bombed and strafed river-craft, warehouses, trucks, airfield, town areas, and general targets of opportunity around Hwangkang, Ichang, Hengyang, Laohokow, and Tehsien.

9 June 1945
Three B-25s and 60+ P-47s, P-51s, andP-40s from the 14th AF damaged four bridges, hit river shipping, pounded town areas and villages, and attacked various targets of opportunity around Nanyang, Burma and Hwayuan, Changte, Suchow, Sinyang, Hankou, Laohokow, Tatung, Tashihkiao, Pinyang, Luchai, Kiehsiu, Linfen, Tsinan, and Shihkiachwang, China.

10 June 1945
14 P-51s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge near Singtai and attacked barracks, river-craft, fuel dumps, trucks and other targets of opportunity around Taohsien, Lingling, Liuchow, and Kaifeng.

11 June 1945
Four B-25s from the 14th AF, with fighter escort, bombed railroad yards at Kuanshuishih.

29 fighters from the 14th AF attacked bridges, rail and road traffic, river-craft, and targets of opportunity in general around Fenglochen, Liuchow, Samshui, Luchai, Lipu, Leiyang, and Kweilin.

12 June 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge south of Yutze while four escorting P-47s hit nearby AA positions and afterwards pounded railroad targets at Linfen.

Nine P-51s and two P-61s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge north of Hengyang, hit a storage area at Yunganshih, and attack railroad targets, troops, horses, AA positions, and road traffic in Neikiuhsien and Hengyang.

13 June 1945
Eleven B-25s and seven P-51s from the 14th AF considerably damaged the Kaifeng railroad yards and strafed a communications centre south of Puchou.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF damaged two bridges at Fenglochen and Shihkiachwang and hit railroad targets of opportunity around Fenglochen and Suchow.

14 June 1945
42 P-51s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, shipping, AA positions, railroad targets, trucks, and communications around Hengyang, Hankou, Yoyang, Lingling, Anyang, Szeshui, Hohsien, Shihkiachwang, Neikiuhsien and Puchou.

15 June 1945
Three B-25s and 47 P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge west of Shihkiachwang, damaged and attacked others, and hit trucks, barracks, river-craft, storage facilities, gun positions, railroad targets, and targets of opportunity. Targets were the Pinghanrailroad, Kukong, Lingling, Chenhsien, Kuotaichiao, Pakonghow, Kweilin, Anyang, Shihkiachwang, Loyang, Liuchow, and Paoching areas.

16 June 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF hit supply movements on the Paoching-Hengyang road.

41 P-51s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, shipping, road transport, power facilities, and railroad traffic, knocking out bridges near Siangtan, Changsha, and Suchow. Rail, road and river traffic was attacked near Yoyang, Hengyang, Kuanyang, Shou-yang, Peking, and Linfen.

17 June 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed road and rail supply movements in the Paoching and Hengyang areas.

Two B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF severely damaged a bridge at Linmingkuan.

54 P-51s, P-47s, and P-61s from the 14th AF hit road transport, railroad, river traffic, gun positions, bridges, and targets of opportunity around Kukong, Hankou, Lingkuantien, Changsha, Yoyang, Loyunghsien, Luchai, Hwangshapu, Kiyang, Kweilin, Kaifeng, and Shihkiachwang.

Four P-47s from the 14th AF blasted a communications centre at Puchou.

18 June 1945
70+ P-51s, P-61s, and P-47s from the 14th AF continued to disrupt the Japanese withdrawal from southern and eastern China, attacking bridges, villages and town areas, barracks, troop concentrations, motor transport, shipping and rail traffic, and targets of opportunity throughout wide areas.

19 June 1945
Five B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge on the Pinghan (Hankou-Peking) railroad while four P-51s knocked out another north-east of Kihsien on the Tungpu railroad.

70+ other P-51s from the 14th AF damaged several bridges, hit rail, road and river traffic, supplies, troops, and general targets of opportunity throughout southern and eastern China.

20 June 1945
37 P-51s from the 14th AF hit rail, road, and river traffic, bridges, and general targets of opportunity around Liuchow, Kweilin, Juchai, Hankou, Siangtan, Changsha, Hengshan, Sintsiang, Kweiyi, Kueiyangshih, and FtBayard. A bridge at Hankou was destroyed and several others damaged.

21 June 1945
40+ P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit road, rail, and river transport, coastal shipping, troops, supply lines, and targets of opportunity in French Indochina and southern and eastern China.

22 June 1945
23 B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF pounded trucks, trains, and gun positions in the Hanoi, French Indochina area, and in China, bombed railroad yards and barracks area at Sinsiang, hit rail and road targets, buildings, and radar station in the Showyang area, knocked out a bridge south of Saiping, and damaged a bridge north of Hsuchang.

40+ fighters from the 14th AF hit rail, road, and river traffic, artillery emplacements, line positions, and other targets in French Indochina and southern and eastern China.

23 June 1945
Twelve P-51s from the 14th AF strafed airfields in the Canton area.

17 other fighters from the 14th AF strafed railroad targets and river traffic around Wuchou, Siaokan, and Peking, China, and Hanoi, and Vinh, French Indochina.

24 June 1945
13 B-25s and twelve fighter-bombers from the 14th AF knocked out bridges at Lohochai and south of Chenghsien and hit surrounding AA positions, attacked animal-drawn transport at Hsiangcheng, attacked railroad targets of opportunity in the Shihkiachwang area, and hit railroad yards at Siaokan.

40+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF continued harassing enemy withdrawals in southern and eastern China where numerous communications targets, gun positions, bridges, and rail, road, and river traffic were attacked.

25 June 1945
18 B-25s and 14 P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out bridges north of Shihkiachwang and north of Saiping, bombed a power plant, barracks, and warehouse at Sinsiang, bombed the Nanyo-Hengyang road, and hit the railroad yard at Siaokan.

80+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked bridges, gun positions, river, road, and rail traffic, and generally harassed Japanese movements throughout southern and eastern China, particularly around Hengyang, Yoyang, Liuchow, Changsha, Lipu, and Luchai.

26 June 1945
21 P-51s from the 14th AF bombed or strafed road, river, and rail traffic, motor pools, gun positions, and buildings around Yoyang, Hengyang, Chenghsien, Linfen, and Tsinan, and knock out a bridge south-west of Yutze.

28 June 1945
Seven B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Changsha, a troop concentration and supply area, and blasted truck convoys and ammunition trains in the Yoyang area.

28 P-51s from the 14th AF hit a communications centre south of Puchou, knocked out bridges near Kiehsiu and Neikiuhsien, bombed gun emplacements and defensive positions south-east of Hsihsiakou, and attacked railroad traffic and damaged a road bridge in the Suchow and Yoyang areas.

29 June 1945
15 B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Chungmow and damaged another.

18 P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troop concentrations, gun emplacements, villages, bridges, and targets of opportunity around Hsihsiakou, Yutze, Anyang, Puchou, and Szeshuiand and knocked out a bridge at Szeshui.

30 June 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF attacked a bridge at Lohochai, causing little damage.

Four fighter-bombers from the 14th AF pounded hill positions and hit an artillery emplacement south-west of Hsihsiakou while three others bombed and strafed an enemy-held temple and a troop area at Likuanchiao.

July 1945

The ground war

On 1 July, Chinese forces captured Liuchow.

Chinese Air Force

Captain Bert Welch turned over command of the 7th FS to Major Ross Bachley.

US Army Air Force

On 4 July, a group of officers arrived at Chungking to organize HQ, AAF China Theatre.

Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer officially assumes command as Commanding General AAF China Theatre on 6 July. He arrived in China several days later.
On the same date Major General Claire L. Chennault, Commanding General 14th AF, requested permission to retire, which was soon granted.

On 9 July, the detachment of the 1st Combat Cargo Squadron, operating from Liangshan returned to base at Hsinching with C-47s.

The 71st Liaison Squadron began a movement from Piardoba, India to Kunming with UC-64s, L-1s, L-4s and L-5s on 10 July. They arrived at Kunming on 25 July.

On 13 July, the 449th FS, 51st FG, moved from Chengkung to Mengtsz with P-38s.

The 115th Liaison Squadron moved from Nagaghuli, India to Chengkung with L-1s, L-4s and L-5s on 20 July.
On 22 July, the unit moved on to Hsingchiang.

On 26 July, the 427th Night Fighter Squadron, based at Dinjan, India with P-61s, sent a detachment to operate from Nanning, China.

The flight of the 35th PRS, operating from Kunming, China with F-5s, moved to Nanning (the squadron was based at Chanyi) on 31 July.

Operations

1 July 1945
A few B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a bridge and ferry terminal at Chungmow and near Kaifeng and four escorting P-47s strafed Kaifeng Airfield and locomotives in the area.
Four other P-47s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Yuhsiang and four P-51s knocked out a bridge east of Kiehsiu.

Captain Nobuaki Umeoka (Class 55), leader of the 3rd chutai, 26th Sentai, was killed in an accident off Indochina.

2 July 1945
28 P-51s from the 14th AF hit rail, river, and road traffic, bridge, and buildings around Hengyang, Hankow, and Yoyang, attacked a bivouac area and HQ east of Changsha, and bombed a troop concentration and buildings at Yangan. The fighter-bombers pounded HQ, buildings, a fortified compound, barracks, general targets of opportunity around Tartin, and a troop concentration near Sichuan.

3 July 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge near Suicheng while two P-47 escorts hit nearby AA positions.

70+ P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF continued to disrupt the Japanese withdrawal, attacking transport, supply, and communications targets, troops, bridges and Japanese-held points. The targets were near Hengyang, Paoching, Kueiyangshih, Changsha, Kweilin, Lingling, Kukong, Hankow, Siangtan, Isuho, Chiuchiang, Fahsien, Tanchuk, Lohochai, and the Luichow Peninsula.

4 July 1945
30 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF over French Indochina and south and east China attacked docks and shipping at Haiphong, Red River shipping between Hanoi and Hung Yen, French Indochina, small craft between Mon Cay, French Indochina and Pakhoi, China, between Hongay and Pai-lung Wei Cape, and between Pai-lung Wei Cape and Umpo, China. The fighter-bombers also hit road traffic on the Luichow Peninsula and sampans east of Tanchuk, China.

5 July 1945
Two B-25s and two P-47s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge south of Chumatien.

37 P-51s from the 14th AF over French Indochina and south and east China blasted shipping in the Hongay and Haiphong, French Indochina area, and in China, pounded docks and small vessels at Chikhom, knocked out a bridge at Chumatien, blasted a barracks area at Anyang, and hit river and rail traffic around Tanchuk and Chenghsien.

6 July 1945
98 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF over French Indochina and south and east China continued to disrupt the Japanese retreat and hit transport and supply targets. Rail, road, and river traffic, coastal shipping, bridges, troops, Japanese-held areas, and general targets of opportunity were blasted at many locations chiefly around Kweilin, Kukong, and Yangso, China, and Haiphong, and Hanoi, French Indochina.

7 July 1945
80+ P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF over French Indochina and south and east China continued to disrupt the Japanese withdrawal, pounding numerous communications and transport targets and general targets of opportunity particularly in the Yangso, Kweilin, and Fenstun areas.

8 July 1945
Six B-25s and four P-47s from the 14th AF severely damaged a bridge north of Sinsiang and hit nearby trains.

60+ P-38s, P-47s, and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded river shipping, rail traffic, supplies, and troops at Haiphong, Do Son, and Tourane, French Indochina and at numerous locations in south and east China.

9 July 1945
Five B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out two bridges in the Sinantien area. 10 July 1945
14 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Dong Anh and the railroad shops at Phu Lang Thuong, French Indochina, and truck convoys moving through the Siang Chiang Valley, China.

22 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF bombed warehouses at Wuchang, hit railroad targets of opportunity near Yoyang, strafed three railroad stations north of Chuanhsien, bombed buildings north of Kanchou, knocked out a bridge approach south of Chuting, damaged a bridge near Hengyang, and hit targets of opportunity at Weichow Island, Laohokow, China, and Tourane, French Indochina.

11 July 1945
25 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, troops, gun positions, rail traffic, rivercraft, coastal shipping, and various scattered targets at or near Nanchang, Kweiyi, Puchi, Tanchuk, and the Luichow Peninsula.

12 July 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF blasted supply convoys moving through the Siang Chiang Valley.

43 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, rivercraft, barracks road traffic, and coastal shipping around Changsha, Hsinching, the Luichow Peninsula and Nanchang and in French Indochina, Hamrong, the Tonkin area, and Cao Bang. Two bridges were knocked out and others damaged, airfields were strafed at Vinh, French Indochina and Kiungshan, China.

13 July 1945
14 B-25s and twelve P-51s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, railroad yards, AA guns, and targets of opportunity at Anyang and Puchi, China, and Do Cam, French Indochina.

33 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping, buildings, road traffic, rail targets, and general targets of opportunity around Trung Khanh Phu, Tonkin, the Delta area, Cao Bang and Thanh Hoa, French Indochina and Wangypan, the Luichow Peninsula, Pinglo, Changsha, and Wuchou, China.

14 July 1945
25 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF bombed or strafed ammunition and supply dumps, river, road, and rail traffic, and coastal shipping around Laohokow, Tinpak, Koyiu and Yutze, China and Hung Yen, Bac Ninh, Hongay, Mon Cay and Vinh, French Indochina.

15 July 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF blasted truck convoys moving through the Siang Chiang Valley of China.

39 P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF attacked rivercraft, troops, coastal shipping, bridges, railroad yards, gun positions, trains, and other targets around the Luichow Peninsula, Anyang, Yutze, Sinsiang, Fentingtukou, Paoching, Tanchuk and Kweiyi, China, and Pac Muong and Haiphong, French Indochina.

16 July 1945
Five B-25s from the 14th AF pounded enemy truck convoys moving supplies through the Siang-Chiang Valley and south of Kweilin.

60+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-47s from the 14th AF continue to hit river, road, and rail traffic, bridges, troops, supplies, and other targets at many points in French Indochina and south and east China.

17 July 1945
A single B-25 from the 14th AF attacked three truck convoys in the Siang Chiang Valley and bombed the area along the river at Hengyang.

70+ P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF continued to disrupt enemy movement in French Indochina and south and east China, attacking bridges, railroad yards, rail, road, and river traffic, airfields, gun positions, and many other targets at various locations, especially around Suichwan, Linfen, and Sinsiang, China.

18 July 1945
36 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit river traffic, rail targets, coastal shipping, enemy positions, trucks, and other targets around Viet Tri, French Indochina and other areas of French Indochina and near Yoyang, Suichwan, Lingling, Chikhom, Kukong, and Dosing, China.

19 July 1945
20 B-25s, 16 P-51s, and four P-47s from the 14th AF blasted railroad yards at Shihkiachwang.
Seven other B-25s and two P-51s hit bridges south of Yoyang and bombed truck convoys in the Siang Chiang Valley, particularly around the Siangtan area.

37 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF disrupted enemy movement over wide areas of French Indochina and south and east China, attacking numerous targets of opportunity.

20 July 1945
Ten B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF hit truck convoys around Hengyang and Wuchang, and storage on an island near Changsha, China, locomotive shops at Phu Thuong, and power plant and railroad targets in the Vinh, French Indochina area.

50+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-61s from the 14th AF disrupted enemy movement and general withdrawal in Indochina and south and east China, attacking river, road, and rail traffic, coastal shipping, supplies, and other targets.

21 July 1945
Fourteenth Air Force: In China, 11 B-25s and 2 P-51s attack truck convoys in the Siang Chiang Valley, bomb a HQ near Wuchang, and hit a bridge, trains, warehouses, and AA positions in the Sienning area. 40+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-61s again attack numerous targets and disrupt enemy movement in French Indochina and south and east China, hitting communications targets, supplies, transport, and other targets of opportunity.

22 July 1945
16 B-25s and eight fighter-bombers from the 14th AF blasted truck convoys moving supplies through the Siang Chiang Valley, bombed railroad yards at Siaokan, and knocked out two bridges south of Sincheng and Lohochai.

50+ P-51s, P-47s, and P-38s from the 14th AF continued the campaign to disrupt enemy movement and withdrawal in French Indochina and south and east China, pounding numerous rail, road, and river targets, supply dumps, and coastal shipping.

23 July 1945
Eight B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Sinyang and hit a warehouse at Ichang.

100+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked numerous targets, including rail, road, and river traffic, airfields, coastal shipping, bridges, storage facilities, and railroad yards, at many locations over south and east China, especially in the Paoching area and, to a smaller degree, over French Indochina.

24 July 1945
Eight B-25s and six P-51s from the 14th AF pounded truck convoys in the Hengyang area, hit river shipping near Pakonghow, and damaged a bridge and storage area and knocked out AA positions at Puchi and 15 P-51s blasted the Changsha area, destroying an estimated 28 warehouses and 8 fuel storage buildings.

80+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-47s from the 14th AF over French Indochina and south and east China continued to disrupt the Japanese withdrawal, pounding dozens of targets of opportunity at numerous locations.

25 July 1945
Ten B-25s and three P-38s from the 14th AF knocked out bridges at Tho Linh and Quang Tri, French Indochina and damaged a barge and a river steamer in the Wuchou, China area.

30 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked river, road, and rail traffic, railroad yards, and other targets in the areas of Duc Tho, Bac Ninh, Vinh, and Hanoi, French Indochina, and Kukong, Samshui, Wuchou, and the West River, China.

26 July 1945
Eight B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Lohochai and hit a storage area and animal transport in the Pinking area.

100+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-61s from the 14th AF pounded enemy movement and withdrawal in French Indochina and south and east China, hitting supplies, troops, river, road, and rail traffic, coastal shipping, railroad yards, bridges, town areas and other targets at numerous locations.

27 July 1945
13 B-25s from the 14th AF, some with P-51 support, hit a supply movement in the Siang Chiang Valley, bombed railroad yards at Siaokan and Sinyang, and hit coastal shipping in the Do Son, French Indochina area.

50+ P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF concentrated on attacking river shipping at numerous points of French Indochina and south and east China also hitting road and rail traffic, coastal vessels, storage areas, and bridges.

The 23rd FG (USAAF) suffered its last combat fatality of the war. Four P-51s of 76th FS led by Captain Bill Evans encountered heavy 20mm ground fire during a dive-bombing attack on a railroad bridge near Tajunghsiang. Lieutenant William R Brokaw’s P-51K-5 44-11574 was hit as he pulled up from his second bomb run. His plane rolled over on its back and then nosed down, dived straight into the ground and exploded. The pilot did not have a chance to bail out. Brokaw, who hailed from Clearwater, Florida, had done a great job of work on developing the 76th’s rocket installations on its Mustangs and was greatly missed by his fellow pilots.

28 July 1945
Seven B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF attacked a supply movement through the Siang Chiang Valley, hit a freighter and two smaller vessels off Shuitang, and pounded troops near Kian.

About 90 P-51s, P-47s, and P-61s from the 14th AF disrupted the Japanese movement throughout south and east China and in French Indochina. The fighter-bombers concentrated on river transport.

29 July 1945
Four B-25s and two P-51s from the 14th AF hit shipping off Luichow Peninsula near Cape Kami, barracks at Chingmen, and cannon-strafed trucks at Kuanshuishih and oil storage at Yingtak.

About 100 P-51s, P-38s, and P-61s from the 14th AF attacked a variety of targets over a vast area from Haiphong, French Indochina to Peking, China, continuing the steady campaign against enemy movement and withdrawal.

30 July 1945
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed supply convoys moving through the Siang Chiang Valley of China.

40+ P-51s, P-38s, and P-61s from the 14th AF hit various targets in south and east China, and in French Indochina, chiefly river transport, but also troop concentrations, railroad traffic, and many targets of opportunity; target areas include Nanyang, Suchow, Hankow, Sinyang, Anking, Anyang, Lohochai, Kukong, Takhing, Koyiu, Samshui, Pingsiang, Kian, Yungcheng, Yingtak, and Wuchou, China.

31 July 1945
Three B-25s from the 14th AF continued to bomb supply convoys moving through the Siang Chiang Valley.

52 P-51s and P-61s from the 14th AF over south and east China attack rivercraft, trucks, railroad traffic, coastal shipping, ammunition dumps, and other targets at several locations including areas around Yanglowtung, Changsha, Siangyin, Hengyang, Hankow, Paoching, Nanyang, Nanking, Kulo, Hoihow, and Yoyang.

A Japanese transport aircraft suffered an accident over the Formosa Strait. Among the killed were Sergeant Major Yoshiichi Sekiguchi (NCO84) and Sergeant Major Sanae Hotta (NCOR).

August 1945

The ground war

At 09:15 (08:15 Japanese time) on 6 August, the first atomic bomb was released by B-29 ‘Enola Gay’ flown by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets over Hiroshima from 9,632 meters. It exploded 50 seconds later. More than 80% of the city’s buildings were destroyed and over 70,000 people were killed.

On 9 August, the second atomic bomb was dropped from 8,809 meters on Nagasaki at 11:58 hours by B-29 ‘Bockscar’ flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney. More than 24,000 were killed.

Japan’s unconditional surrender was announced on 15 August.

On 2 September, hostilities with Japan ended officially with the signing of the instrument of surrender aboard the USS Missouri (BB-63) in Tokyo Bay.

US Army Air Force

During August, the HQ 23rd FG, 74th and 75th FS moved from Luliang to Liuchow with P-51s (the detachment of the 74th FS operating from Tushan also moved to Liuchow). The 528th, 529th and 530th FS, 311th FG moved from Shwangliu and Pungchacheng respectively to Hsian with P-51s.

On 1 August, Major General Albert F. Hegenberger become Commanding General 10th AF and HQ 10th AF moved from Piardoba, India to Kunming, China (HQ at Kunming was officially opened on 23 July). The scheduled role of the 10th AF in China is almost identical with its completed Burma mission: to act as the tactical AF giving direct support and providing air supply to Chinese ground forces operating south of the 27th parallel N.

On 1 August, the 26th FS, 51st FG moved from Kunming to Nanning with P-51s. The 322nd Troop Carrier Squadron moved from Loping to Liangshan with C-47s.

The detachment of the 490th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Hsian with B-25s, returned to base at Hanchung on 4 August.

On 7 August, the HQ 14th AF moved from Kunming to Paishiyi.
16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate at Pakhoi on the same day.

HQ 10th AF moved from Kunming to Liuchow on 9 August. When the war ends, the deployment of the 10th AF units to China was still in progress; so, for the 10th AF the war ended amidst a major reorganization.

On 10 August, Major General Charles B. Stone III assumed command of HQ 14th AF, replacing Major General Claire L. Chennault.

The 115th Liaison Squadron based at Hsingchiang with L-1, L-4s and L-5s, begun operating primarily from Peishiyi on 11 August.

On 13 August, the 27th Troop Carrier Squadron, 443rd Troop Carrier Group, moved from Chengkung to Liangshan with C-47s while the 427th Night Fighter Squadron moved from Dinjan, India, to Liuchow with P-61s (detachments were at Chengkung and Nanning).
The flight of the 21st PRS at Hanchung with F-5s, returned to base at Shwangliu on the same date (other flights were at Hsian and Ankang).

HQ 81st FG and 91st FS moved from Fungwansham to Huhsien with P-47s on 15-17 August.

Operations

1 August 1945
Bad weather severely curtails operations.
P-61s from the 14th AF effectively swept rivers in the Wuchou, Canton, and Tsingyun areas, sinking several large junks and sampans.

2 August 1945
Ten B-25s, escorted by two P-47s from the 14th AF, knocked out a bridge at Sinyang and severely damaged a bridge at Lohochai.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Sinning, and hit several truck convoys between Siangtan and Changsha and in the Siang Chiang Valley.

31 P-51s from the 14th AF also bombed the town of Sinning.

40+ P-47s and P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out at least three bridges and damaged others and attacked shipping, fuel dumps, gun positions, trucks, railroad yards and general targets of opportunity around Sichuang, Shangkao, Yoyang, Hankow, Mingkiang, Sincheng, Yutze, Houmachen, Yuncheng, Anyang, and Kaoyi.

3 August 1945
16 B-25s from the 14th AF pounded various railroad targets in east China.

50+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked bridges, railroad yards, storage areas, enemy troops, river and rail traffic, and various other targets as the campaign to disrupt the Japanese retreat from south and east China continues in spite of considerable bad weather.

4 August 1945
Bad weather hampered operations however, four B-25s from the 14th AF damaged the Sincheng Railroad Bridge, four B-25s and two P-51s bombed Pailochi Airfield and hit trucks in the area, and seven P-51s damaged twelve locomotives between Taiyuan and Tsinan, destroyed or damaged several trucks near Shihkiachwang, and bombed a bridge near Chihsien.

5 August 1945
20 P-51s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge north-west of Anyang and damaged another north-east of Kiehsiu, attacked railroad targets during sweeps from Taiyuan to Suchow and Tehsien to Pengpu, and strafed rivercraft between Ichang and Lokehang.

6 August 1945
Ten P-51s and P-47s from the 14th AF damaged ten locomotives between Tehsien and Suchow and five around Anyang, Kaifeng, and Loyang, and lightly damaged bridges north of Chihsien and south of Houmachen.

8 August 1945
Ten P-51s from the 14th AF hit buildings, trucks, rivercraft, and other targets of opportunity in the Paoching, Hengyang, and Chuanhsien areas.

9 August 1945
Five B-25s, with P-51 escort from the 14th AF, damaged the Puchi railroad bridge, and hit rail traffic north of Sinsiang. The P-51s strafed AA positions and targets of opportunity near the bridge.
Four other B-25s operating individually, attacked truck convoys and targets of opportunity south of Changsha, south and north of Yoyang, and in the Siang Chiang Valley, and hit the south end of the town of Siangtan.

10 August 1945
Five B-25s and four P-51s from the 14th AF bombed a bivouac south of Siangyin, hit convoys south of Siangtan and in the Siang Chiang Valley, pounded a storage area and AA positions at Nanchang, and hit a truck concentration north of Hengshan.

50+ P-47s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked rivercraft, railroad targets, troops, trucks, and bridges at several points in south and east China.

11 August 1945
Nine P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troops, trains, and rivercraft around Chenhsien, Tehsien, and Hengyang.

15 August 1945
All offensive action against Japan ended.

18 August 1945
On 18 August, when the vice-commander of the 24th PS Guo Fengwu was flying over Guisui to drop leaflets with the text of Emperor Hirohito’s surrender decree, Japanese antiaircraft shot him down anyway. He became the last casualty of Chinese aviation in the eight year long Sino-Japanese war.

Known units taking part in combat during 1945

Chinese Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
12th RS       Lockheed F-5E Lightning  
  1st BG (CACW) Austin Russell (US) (12/44 – )
Wang Yu-Ken (Ch) (08/44 – )
Baishi (09/44 – )
Ankang
North American B-25 Mitchell  
1st BS 1st BG (CACW) Raymond L. Hodges (US) (09/44 – 05/45)
Richard Varney (05/45 – )
Huang Ho-Sheng (Ch) (12/44 – )
Hanchung
Hsian (det. 02/45 - )
North American B-25 Mitchell  
2nd BS 1st BG (CACW) Lawson Horner (US) (09/44 – )
Song Shou-Ch’un (Ch) (02/44 – 07/45)
Yang Leu-Shyang (07/45 – )
Liangshan North American B-25 Mitchell  
3rd BS 1st BG (CACW) Chester M. Conrad (US) (03/44 – 02/45)
Mark Seacrest (02/45 – 04/45)
Hamilton (04/45 – )
Wu Ch’ao-Chern (Ch) (07/44 – 07/45)
Mao Shang-Chien (07/45 – )
Liangshan
Laohokow (det. 02/45 - 26/03/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
4th BS 1st BG (CACW) Lieutenant Colonel William H. Dick (US) (01/44 – 04/45)
Major Henry Stanley (04/45 – )
Tung Kai-Shyuan (Ch) (09/44 – )
Chihkiang North American B-25 Mitchell  
  3rd FG (CACW) William L. Turner (US) (12/44 – 01/45)
Lieutenant Colonel J. Gilpin Bright (01/45 – 31/03/45)
Colonel Eugene L. Strickland (04/45 – )
Major Yuan Chin-Han (Ch) (10/43 – 08/45)
Yang Ku-Fan (08/45 – )
Liangshan (- 04/45)
Ankang (04/45 - )
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )
North American P-51 Mustang
 
7th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Armit W. Lewis (US) (12/44 – 01/45)
Mayor Thomas A. Reynolds (US) (01/45 - 05/45)
Captain Bert Welch (US) (05/45 - 07/45)
Major Ross Bachley (US) (07/45 - )
Yieh Wan-Fie (Ch) (11/44 – 22/03/45)
Wang Kuang-Fu (Ch) (03/45 - )
Ankang
Liangshan (det.)
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )
North American P-51 Mustang
 
8th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Captain Frank Klump (US) (12/44 – 23/01/45)
Captain Eugene H. Mueller (US) (02/45 - )
Niu Tseng-Sheng (Ch) (09/44 – )
Liangshan (- 04/45)
Ankang (04/45 - )
Liangshan (det.)
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )
North American P-51 Mustang
 
28th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Major Keith Lindell (US) (12/44 – 05/45)
Captain Robert Ferguson (US) (05/45 - 06/45)
Major Donald Campbell (US) (06/45 - )
Captain Cheng Sung-Ting (Ch) (09/43 – 12/44)
Yang Yun Kuang (Ch) (12/44 – )
Ankang
Liangshan (det.)
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )
North American P-51 Mustang
 
32nd FS 3rd FG (CACW) Major Herman Byrd (US) (12/44 – 05/45)
Major Jesse Harris (US) (05/45 - )
Captain Hung Chi-Wei (Ch) (08/43 – 08/45)
Hanchung ( - 04/45)
Ankang (04/45 - )
Liangshan (det.)
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )
North American P-51 Mustang
 
  4th FG        
  5th FG (CACW) John A. Dunning (US) (11/44 - 06/45)
Charles C. Wilder (US) (06/45 - 07/45)
Howard M. Means (US) (07/45 - )
Chang Tang-Tien (Ch) (09/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (01/45)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – )
North American P-51 (03/45 – )
 
17th FS 5th FG (CACW) Major Glyn W. Ramsey (US) (11/44 – 04/45)
Captain Frank W. Stevens (US) (04/45 - )
Hsiang Shih-Tuan (Ch) (06/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (01/45)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – )
North American P-51 (03/45 – )
 
26th FS 5th FG (CACW) Robert L. Van Ausdall (US) (01-44 – 03/45)
William J. Johnson (US) (03/45 - )
Chu Fu-Hua (Ch) (07/44 – 02/45)
Wei Hsien-Ko (Ch) (02/45 - )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (01/45)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – )
North American P-51 (02/44 – )
 
27th FS 5th FG (CACW) James A. Dale (US) (03/44 – 01/45)
Major Irving A. Erickson (US) (01/45 - 04/45)
Major Winton E. Matthews (US) (04/45 - 08/45)
William H. Joyner (US) (08/45 - )
Liao Kuang-Chia (Ch) (11/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (01/45)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – 06/45)
North American P-51 Mustang (03/45 – )
 
29th FS 5th FG (CACW) Major William T. Hull (US) (01/44 – 02/45)
Major Frederick F. Ploetz (US) (02/45 - 05/45)
Captain Frank K. Everest (US) (05/45 - 05/45)
Richard Turner (US) (05/45 - 06/45)
Byron E. McKenzie (US) (06/45 - 07/45)
Henry W. Lawrence (US) (07/45 - )
Ho H. H. (Ch) (01/44 – 07/45)
Chang C. M. (Ch) (07/45 - )
Malir (15/01/44 – )
Chihkiang (01/45)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – )
North American P-51 Mustang (03/45 – )
 
  8th BG        
  11th PG        

US Army Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
11th Combat Cargo Squadron     Dinjan ( – 14/05/45)
Yunnani (14/05/45 – 20/06/45)
Luliang (20/06/45 – 12/10/45)
Douglas C-47  
19th Liaison Squadron     Kunming (29/05/44 – 28/03/45)
Chengkung (28/03/45 – 18/08/45)
Stinson L-1 Vigilant
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
21st PRS     Kunming (22/08/43 – 14/05/45)
Hanchung (det. 18/10/44 – 13/08/45)
Suichwan (det. 12/11/44 – 22/01/45)
Luliang (det. 26/11/44 – 13/05/45)
Hsian (det. 05/02/45 – 05/10/45)
Laifeng (det. 07/05/45 – 16/08/45)
Shwangliu (14/05/45 – 18/10/45)
Ankang (det. 25/06/45 – 05/10/45)
Lockheed F-4 Lightning
Lockheed F-5 Lightning
Curtiss P-40
 
35th PRS     Chanyi (17/09/44 – 18/09/45)
Yunnani (det. 16/09/44 – 10/02/45)
Chihkiang (det. 19/10/44 – 01/09/45)
Suichwan (det. 19/11/44 – 22/01/45)
Chengkung (det. 10/02/45 – 13/05/45)
Laohwangping (det. 27/02/45 – 01/09/45)
Kunming (det. 14/05/45 – 31/07/45)
Nanning (det. 31/07/45 – 01/09/45)
Lockheed F-5 Lightning  
71st Liaison Squadron     Piardoba (12/05/45– 10/07/45)
Kunming (10/07/45 – 21/08/45)
Noorduyn UC-64 Norseman
Stinson L-1 Vigilant
Piper L-4 Grasshopper
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
115th Liaison Squadron     Nagaghuli (09/05/45– 20/07/45)
Chengkung (20/07/45 – 25/07/45)
Hsingchiang (25/07/45 – 02/09/45)
Peishiyi (11/08/45 – 03/10/45)
Stinson L-1 Vigilant
Piper L-4 Grasshopper
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron     Chengkung (12/06/44 – 06/45)
Suichwan (det. 12/11/44 – 22/01/45)
Laohwangping (14/04/45 – 25/08/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
322nd Troop Carrier Squadron     Kunming (09/09/44 – 25/05/45)
Loping (25/05/45 – 01/08/45)
Liangshan (01/08/45 – 25/08/45)
Douglas C-47  
426th Night Fighter Squadron     Chengdu (05/11/44 – 03/45)
Hsian (det. 27/11/44 – 17/08/45)
Shwantliu (03/45 – 09/45)
Laohokow (det. - 26/03/45)
Liangshan (det 04/45 – 19/08/45)
Ankang (det 04/45 – 21/08/45)
Northrop P-61 Black Widow  
427th Night Fighter Squadron     Myitkyina (12/44 – 25/05/45)
Kunming (det. 18/12/44 – 28/06/45)
Dinjan (25/05/45 – 13/08/45)
Chengkung (det. 29/06/45 – 16/08/45)
Nanning (det. 26/07/45 – 16/08/45)
Liuchow (13/08/45 – 09/45)
Northrop P-61 Black Widow  
  1st Combat Cargo Group Lieutenant Colonel Robert Rentz (21/04/44 – 28/04/45)
Dohazari (30/01/45 – 15/05/45)
Tsuyung (20/12/44 – 30/01/45) Douglas C-47  
1st Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Tsuyung (12/12/44 – 29/01/45)
Hsinching (29/01/45 – 16/08/45)
Liangshan (det. 11/03/45 – 09/07/45)
Douglas C-47  
2nd Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Tsuyung (12/12/44 – 01/02/45)
Dohazari (01/02/45 – 16/05/45)
Douglas C-47  
4th Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Chengkung (21/12/44 – 01/02/45) Dohazari (01/02/45 – 15/05/45) Douglas C-47  
436th BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Madhaiganj (06/10/44 – 01/06/45)
Luliang (det. 01/12/44 – 01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Ferried gasoline to Suichwan in December 1944 – Janaury 1945.
492nd BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Madhaiganij (06/10/44 – 01/06/45)
Luliang (det. 20/12/44 – 30/01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Ferried gasoline to Suichwan in December 1944 – Janaury 1945.
493th BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Pandaveswar (05/10/44 – 07/12/45)
Luliang (det. 17/12/44 – 26/01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Ferried gasoline to Suichwan in December 1944 – Janaury 1945.
24th Combat Mapping Squadron 8th PRG   Guskhara 05/01/44 – 23/12/45
Chanyi (det. 22/09/44 – 17/02/45)
Consolidated F-7 Liberator Operated only a detachment in China.
  23rd FG Colonel Edward F. Rector (12/12/44 – 12/45) Luliang (14/09/44 – 08/45)
Liuchow (08/45 – 10/10/45)
North American P-51  
74th FS 23rd FG Captain J. Herbst (27/06/44 – 17/02/45)
Major Philip Chapman (17/02/45 – 28/03/45)
Captain F. Finberg (28/03/45 – 10/06/45)
Major B. Downs (10/06/45 – 12/45)
Luliang (12/09/44 – 08/45)
Tushan (det. 03/45 – 08/45)
Liuchow (08/45 – 15/10/45)
North American P-51  
75th FS 23rd FG   Luliang (12/09/44 – 08/45)
Liuchow (08/45 – 10/10/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
76th FS 23rd FG   Luliang (12/09/44 – 24/08/45) North American P-51 Mustang  
  51st FG Colonel Louis R. Hughes Jr. (27/05/44 – 02/45)
Lieutenant Colonel William E. Blankenship (02/45 – 13/12/45)
Kunming (02/10/43 – 09/45) North American P-51 Mustang
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
 
16th FS 51st FG   Chengkung (25/11/43 – 19/08/45)
Kwanghan (det. 24/12/44 – 30/01/45)
Laohokow (det. 01/01/45 – 16/03/45)
Poseh (det. 01/02/45 – 13/04/45)
Pakhoi (det. 07/08/45 – 19/08/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
25th FS 51st FG   Yunnani (14/09/43 – 09/45)
Poashan (det. 30/11/44 – 01/45)
Leangshan (det. 10/01/45 – 04/02/45)
Poseh (det. 04/02/45 – 28/05/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
26th FS 51st FG   Kunming (07/10/43 – 01/08/45)
Poseh (det. 01/45 – )
Liangshan (det. 01/45 – 01/45)
Liangshan (det. 01/45 – 01/45)
Laohokow (det. 01/45 – 04/02/45)
Liangshan (det. 03/45 –03/45)
Nanning (01/08/45 – 09/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
449th FS 51st FG   Chengkung (16/07/44 – 13/07/45)
Yunnani (det. 23/07/44 – 03/45)
Mengtsz (det. 03/45 – 03/45)
Posek (det. 12/04/45 – 05/45)
Mengtsz (13/07/45 – 09/45)
Lockheed P-38 Lightning  
  81st FG Colonel Oliver G. Cellini (24/10/44 – ) Kwanghan (12/05/44 – 12/02/45)
Fungwansham (12/02/45 – 15/08/45)
Huhsien (15/08/45 – 12/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
91st FS 81st FG   Fungwanshan (01/06/44 – 17/08/45)
Hsian (det. 09/04/45 – 15/08/45)
Huhsien (17/08/45 – 27/12/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
92nd FS 81st FG   Kwanghan (12/05/44 – 12/02/45)
Fungwansham (12/02/45 – 20/08/45)
Ankang
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
Curtiss P-40
 
93rd FS 81st FG   Gushkara (10/44 – 16/10/45) Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
  308th BG (Heavy) Colonel John G. Armstrong (19/10/44 – 01/07/45)
Colonel William D. Hopson (01/07/45 – )
Kunming (20/03/43 – 10/02/45)
Hsinching (10/02/45 – 27/06/45)
Rupsi (27/06/45 –15/10/45 )
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
373rd BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy)   Luliang (14/09/44 – 21/07/45)
Yontan (21/07/45 – 19/12/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for operations over East and South China Seas, Straits of Formosa and Gulf of Tonkin 24 May – 28 April 1945.
374th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy)   Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45)
Kwanghan (18/02/45 – 27/06/45)
Rupsi (27/06/45 – 14/10/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for operations over East and South China Seas, Straits of Formosa and Gulf of Tonkin 24 May – 28 April 1945.
375th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy)   Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45)
Rupsi (27/06/45 – 14/10/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for operations over East and South China Seas, Straits of Formosa and Gulf of Tonkin 24 May – 28 April 1945.
425th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy)   Kunming (20/03/43 – 18/02/45)
Kwanghan (18/02/45 – 27/06/45)
Rupsi (27/06/45 – 14/10/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for operations over East and South China Seas, Straits of Formosa and Gulf of Tonkin 24 May – 28 April 1945.
  311th FG Colonel Charles G. Chandler Jr. (25/11/43 – 12/02/45)
Colonel Gabriel P. Disosway (24/05/45 – 05/08/45)
Colonel Allen R. Springer (05/08/45 – )
Pungchacheng (28/08/44 – 14/12/45) North American P-51 Mustang  
528th FS 311th FG   Shwangliu (24/08/44 – 08/45)
Hangchung (det. 09/44 – 01/45)
Liansshan (det. 09/44 – 01/45)
Hsian (det. 15/02/45 – 08/45)
Hsian (08/45 – 22/10/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
529th FS 311th FG   Pungchacheng (23/08/44 – 08/45)
Hsian (det. 30/03/45 – 08/45)
Hsian (08/45 – 22/10/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
530th FS 311th FG   Kwanghan (21/10/44 – 05/05/45)
Hsian (det. 30/10/44 – 21/02/45)
Pungchacheng (05/05/45 – 08/45)
Hsian (08/45 – 14/10/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
  341st BG (Medium) Colonel Donald L. Clark (01/12/44 – 16/04/45)
Colonel James W. Newsome (16/04/45 – )
Yangkai (13/12/44 – ) North American B-25 Mitchell  
11th BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Yangkai (02/11/44 – 09/45)
Laowhangpin (det. 28/02/45 – 03/45)
Chihkiang (det. 28/03/45 – 01/04/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
22nd BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Yangkai (08/01/44 – 09/45)
Yunnani (det. 05/11/44 – 20/01/45)
Laohokow (det. 02/45 - )
Peishiyi (det. 27/02/45 – 23/03/45)
Chihkiang (det. 29/03/45 – 01/04/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
490th BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Warazup (29/11/44 – 13/04/45)
Hanchung (13/04/45 – 13/09/45)
Hsian (det. 16/04/45 – 04/08/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
491st BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Yangkai (10/01/44 – 13/09/45) North American B-25 Mitchell  
27th Troop Carrier Squadron 443rd Troop Carrier Group   Yunnani (21/05/44 – 15/02/45)
Chanyi (det.)
Chengdu (det.)
Kunming (det.)
Chengkung (15/02/45 – 13/08/45)
Liangshan (13/08/45 – 27/12/45)
  Douglas C-47

IJAAF

Known units, commanders and stations
Regiments Squadrons Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
1st Sentai   Captain Hironojo Shishimoto (12/45 end of war) Porac (12/44 – 01/45)
Chaochou (01/45 – 02/45)
Shimodate (03/45 – 04/45)
Nakajima Ki-84  
9th Sentai   Major Iesuke Taira (01/45 – end of war)
Captain Isao Kobayashi (Hikotai leader 11/44 – 15/01/45)
Captain Tadahito Umeno (15/01/45 – 24/03/45)
First Lieutenant Chozo Okada (24/03/45 – 28/05/45)
Captain Takeji Kitagawa (28/05/45 – end of war)
Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nanyuan (03/45 – 05/45)
Nanking (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (in small numbers) (02/45 – end of war)
 
9th Sentai 1st chutai   Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nanyuan (03/45 – 05/45)
Nanking (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (in small numbers) (02/45 – end of war)
 
9th Sentai 2nd chutai   Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nanyuan (03/45 – 05/45)
Nanking (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (in small numbers) (02/45 – end of war)
 
9th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Isao Kobayashi (03/44 – 15/01/45) Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nanyuan (03/45 – 05/45)
Nanking (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (in small numbers) (02/45 – end of war)
 
11th Sentai   Major Yuji Mizoguchi (10/44 – end of war) Porac (12/44 – 01/45)
Chaochou (01/45 – 02/45)
Takahagi (03/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84  
16th Sentai       Kawasaki Ki-48-I
Kawasaki Ki-48-II
 
17th Sentai   Captain Yoshiro Takada (12/44 – end of war)
Captain Masaru Hiratsuka (Hikotai leader 01/45 – end of war)
Komaki (01/45 – 02/45)
Hualien (03/45 – 06/45)
Ishigaki (det. 03/45 – 05/45)
Pakuai (05/45 – end of war)
Ilan (06/45 – 06/45)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (02/44 – 07/45)
Kawasaki Ki-100 (06/45 – end of war)
 
19th Sentai   Captain Masaaki Yoshida (12/44 – 02/45)
Captain Kazuo Fukami (02/45 – 04/45)
Captain Miharu Kuriyama (04/45 – end of war)
Taichung (01/45 – 03/45)
Clark (01/45)
Pingtung (03/45 – 04/45)
Ilan (04/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (06/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (02/44 – end of war)  
19th Sentai 1st chutai Lieutenant Tadatoshi Takahara (10/44 – end of war) Taichung (01/45 – 03/45)
Clark (01/45)
Pingtung (03/45 – 04/45)
Ilan (04/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (06/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (02/44 – end of war)  
19th Sentai 2nd chutai Lieutenant Masataka Mitsui (02/45 – end of war) Taichung (01/45 – 03/45)
Clark (01/45)
Pingtung (03/45 – 04/45)
Ilan (04/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (06/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (02/44 – end of war)  
19th Sentai 3rd chutai Lieutenant Kesashige Ogata (02/45 – end of war) Taichung (01/45 – 03/45)
Clark (01/45)
Pingtung (03/45 – 04/45)
Ilan (04/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (06/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (02/44 – end of war)  
20th Sentai   Major Hideo Muroka (10/44 – 08/45)
Major Kazuo Fukami (08/45 – end of war)
Captain Hisashi Ohsato (Hikotai leader (10/44 – end of war)
Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Taichung (02/45 – 03/45)
Lungtan (03/45 – end of war)
Ilan (03/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (03/45 – 06/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (02/45 – end of war)
 
20th Sentai 1st chutai   Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Taichung (02/45 – 03/45)
Lungtan (03/45 – end of war)
Ilan (03/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (03/45 – 06/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (02/45 – end of war)
 
20th Sentai 2nd chutai   Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Taichung (02/45 – 03/45)
Lungtan (03/45 – end of war)
Ilan (03/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (03/45 – 06/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (02/45 – end of war)
 
20th Sentai 3rd chutai   Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Taichung (02/45 – 03/45)
Lungtan (03/45 – end of war)
Ilan (03/45 – 06/45)
Hualien (03/45 – 06/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (02/45 – end of war)
 
21st Sentai   Major Hiroshi Sato (03/44 – end of war)
Captain Isao Mori (Hikotai leader 04/45 – 07/45)
Captain Masami Suganami (Hikotai leader 07/45 – end of war)
Taoyuan (07/45 – end of war)
Taipei (det. 07/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-45kai (02/42 – end of war)  
22nd Sentai   Major Susumu Jimbo (03/45 – 31/05/45)
Captain Takuro Inoue (Hikotai leader 01/45 – end of war)
Suwon (03/45 – 04/45)
Hsuchow (25/03/45 – 05/45)
Kimpo (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)  
24th Sentai   Captain Koichi Shoji (12/44 – end of war)
Captain Yokichi Ikegami (Hikotai leader 12/44 – end of war)
Taichung (12/44 – 02/45)
Hong Kong (det. 07/02/45 – 25/03/45)
Canton (det. 02/45 – 04/45)
Swatow (det. 02/45 – 03/45)
Miyako (03/45 – 05/45)
Ilan (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (02/43 – spring/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (spring 45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (05/45 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai   Major Katsumi Mukaidani (28/10/44 – 07/45)
Captain Shin-ichi Ukawa (Hikotai leader (12/44 – end of war)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 06/45)
Shanghai (det. 01/45 – 05/45)
Nanyuan (05/45 – 06/45)
Suwon (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Hiroshi Kusano (09/44 – end of war) Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 06/45)
Shanghai (det. 01/45 – 05/45)
Nanyuan (05/45 – 06/45)
Suwon (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Shin-ichi Ukawa (07/44 – end of war) Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 06/45)
Shanghai (det. 01/45 – 05/45)
Nanyuan (05/45 – 06/45)
Suwon (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 3rd chutai   Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 06/45)
Shanghai (det. 01/45 – 05/45)
Nanyuan (05/45 – 06/45)
Suwon (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
26th Sentai   Major Ryohei Nagata (12/44 – end of war)
Captain Takashi Yamaguchi (Hikotai leader 01/45 – end of war)
Akeno (12/44 – 03/45)
Taipei (26/04/45 – 04/45)
Hualien (04/45 – 07/45)
Singapore (03/45 – 06/45)
Taitung (07/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (01/ 45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (four received in spring 45)
 
26th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Tomoki Tsukagoshi (01/45 – end of war) Akeno (12/44 – 03/45)
Taipei (26/04/45 – 04/45)
Hualien (04/45 – 07/45)
Singapore (03/45 – 06/45)
Taitung (07/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (01/ 45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (four received in spring 45)
 
26th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Takashi Yamaguchi (02/44 – end of war) Akeno (12/44 – 03/45)
Taipei (26/04/45 – 04/45)
Hualien (04/45 – 07/45)
Singapore (03/45 – 06/45)
Taitung (07/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (01/ 45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (four received in spring 45)
 
26th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Nobuaki Umeoka (12/44 – 01/07/45) Akeno (12/44 – 03/45)
Taipei (26/04/45 – 04/45)
Hualien (04/45 – 07/45)
Singapore (03/45 – 06/45)
Taitung (07/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (01/ 45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-44 (four received in spring 45)
 
29th Sentai   Captain Isamu Ono (01/45 – end of war)
Lieutenant Tomio Shirai (Hikotai leader 01/45 – end of war)
Taoyuan (01/45 – 02/45)
Taichung (02/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (12/44 – end of war)  
30th Sentai   Major Shin-ichi Sato (02/44 – 04/45)
Captain Fukuo Takahashi (Hikotai leader 06/44 – 13/02/45)
Captain Masao Hara (Hikotai leader 13/02/45 – 04/45)
Chiatung (01/45 – 03/45)
Lop Buri (03/45 – 05/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (summer 44 – 05/45)  
44th Sentai     Chenchow Mitsubishi Ki-51  
48th Sentai   Major Tateo Kaburagi (08/44 – end of war)
Lieutenant Masukichi Kimura (Hikotai leader 05/44 – 14/01/45)
Captain Koji Shimura (Hikotai leader 14/01/45 – end of war)
Wuchang (11/44 – 02/45)
Canton (02/45 – 02/45)
Wuchang (02/45 – 03/45)
Canton (03/45- 05/45)
Tushanzhen (05/45 – 06/45)
Taixian (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (08/44 – end of war) Between 12 May 1944 and 8 August 1945, the unit claimed 55 destroyed and 40 damaged for the loss of 16 pilots.
48th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Koji Shimura (01/45 – end of war) Wuchang (11/44 – 02/45)
Canton (02/45 – 02/45)
Wuchang (02/45 – 03/45)
Canton (03/45- 05/45)
Tushanzhen (05/45 – 06/45)
Taixian (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (08/44 – end of war)  
48th Sentai 2nd chutai Lieutenant Masukichi Kimura (05/44 – 14/01/45)
Lieutenant Kinya Nakajima (14/01/45 – end of war)
Wuchang (11/44 – 02/45)
Canton (02/45 – 02/45)
Wuchang (02/45 – 03/45)
Canton (03/45- 05/45)
Tushanzhen (05/45 – 06/45)
Taixian (06/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (08/44 – end of war)  
50th Sentai   Major Tatsujiro Fujii (12/43 – 28/03/45)
Major Koki Kawamoto (04/45 – end of war)
Captain Koki Kawamoto (Hikotai leader 04/44 – 04/45)
Captain Hajime Kawada (Hikotai leader 04/45 – end of war)
Sanya (det. 02/45 – 04/45)
Taichung (07/45 – 07/45)
Chiai (07/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (08/44 – end of war)  
81th Sentai     Nanking (det.) Mitsubishi Ki-46  
82nd Sentai     Nanking Mitsubishi Ki-46  
85th Sentai   Major Togo Saito (11/43 – end of war)
Captain Morio Nakamura (Hikotai leader 12/44 – 11/08/45)
Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 05/45)
Tsinan (05/45 – 05/45)
Kimpo (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war) Between July 1943 and the end of the war, the unit claimed 250 destroyed and damaged for the loss of 62 pilots.
85th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Nobuyuki Hironaka (10/44 – 17/01/45) Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 05/45)
Tsinan (05/45 – 05/45)
Kimpo (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)  
85th Sentai 2nd chutai   Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 05/45)
Tsinan (05/45 – 05/45)
Kimpo (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)  
85th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Morio Nakamura (09/43 – 11/08/45) Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nanking (01/45 – 05/45)
Tsinan (05/45 – 05/45)
Kimpo (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)  
90th Sentai     Tsinan Kawasaki Ki-48  
105th Sentai   Major Cho-ichiro Yoshida (08/44 – end of war) Ilan (06/45 – end of war) Kawasaki Ki-61 (1944 – end of war)  
(Makoto) 204th Sentai   Captain Hiroshi Murakami (01/45 – end of war)
Captain Wataru Takahashi (Hikotai leader 01/45 – end of war)
Taichung (03/45 – 04/45)
Songshan (04/45 – 04/45)
Hualien (05/45 – end of war)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (12/44 – end of war)  
Independent 23rd Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai Captain Fusakichi Babazono (10/44 – end of war) Hualien (04/45 – 06/45)
Peipu (06/45 – end of war)
Kawasaki Ki-61 (1944 – end of war)  
Independent 24th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai Captain Kanji Kikuchi (11/44 – end of war) Ilan (07/45 – end of war) Nakajima Ki-84 (01/45 – end of war)  
Independent 41st Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Canton
Paoan (det.)
Hong Kong (det.)
Swatow (det.)
Mitsubishi Ki-51  
Independent 42nd Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Shanghai Mitsubishi Ki-51  
Independent 43rd Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Shanghai Mitsubishi Ki-51  
Independent 54th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Hangchou
Hengyang (det.)
Shaoyang (det.)
Direct co-operation aircraft  










Last modified 21 August 2014