Sino-Japanese Air War 1937 – 1945

1944

January 1944

The ground war

In January 1944, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters approved the plan for the Ichi-Go Operation calling for the capture of strategic points along the Hunan-Kwangsi, Canton-Hankou and southern Peiping-Hankou railways, with the initial objective the destruction of Kweilin and Liuchowhsien airfields in order to alleviate the threat to Japan.

Chinese Air Force

During 1944 flight testing of the Chinese-built SB bomber began. After several successful flights the aircraft was tested to by different pilot, who crashed with it during a landing, and it was not repaired.
The aircraft factory in Chengdu had undertaken this attempt to copy the Soviet SB bomber in wood. It seems that they might have used documentation from the Soviet wooden SB project, which had been assigned to A. S. Moskolev in the end of the 1930’s.

On 1 January, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek arrived at Erh Tong to inspect the CACW.
A big party was laid on by the 32nd FS (CACW) that night to celebrate William Turner's promotion to Major, and the next day Irving "Twig" Branch was promoted to full Colonel. He had led four pilots with new B-25s for the 1st BG (CACW) in from India the previous day.

The 5th FG (CACW) was activated at Malir on 13 January.

US Army Air Force

On 7 January, the HQ 341st BG (Medium) transferred from the 10th AF to the 14th AF and moved from Kurmitola, India to Kunming, China.
The next day, the 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), transferred from Chakulia, India to Yangkai, China with B-25s.
On 10 January, the 491st BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), transferred from Chakulia, India to Yangkai, China with B-25's.

On 12 January, the HQ 69th Composite Wing transferred from Kunming to Tsuyung.

IJNAF

By the beginning of 1944, the IJNAF remained a skeleton force at Hainan Island, consisting of 32 fighters, 21 bombers and 2 transport aircraft as well as 20 seaplanes (recon).

Operations

1 January 1944
Captain Derward Harper and Captain Winston Churchill of the 1st BG (CACW) flew a mission during the day in their B-25s.

2 January 1944
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed Japanese HQ and barracks at Hopang.

3 January 1944
28 B-24s from the 14th AF attacked the railroad yards at Lampang.

Five fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked the town of Pingkai.

6 January 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a troop ship on the Yangtze River, north-east of Tungting Lake. The vessel was reported as sunk.

7 January 1944
Four B-25s and six P-40s from the 14th AF sunk two large boats on the Yangtze River south of Hukow and sunk a large powerboat, a barge, and a small ore craft at Shihhweiyao.

11 P-38s from the 14th AF claimed between 30 and 40 sampans destroyed along the river from Hankow to Chiuchiang.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep claimed a 300-ft (91 m) passenger vessel sunk south of Hong Kong.

9 January 1944
Nine fighters from the 14th AF strafed six steamboats and many smaller craft on the Yangtze River at Puchi.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep bombed a 200-ft (61 m) vessel south of Swatow, reporting the ship destroyed.

10 January 1944
Eight P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the approach to the Kienchang bridge and attacked a troop train north of Teian damaging the train and killing an estimated 100 soldiers.

Three B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF swept the area from Anking to Chiuchiang, sinking a large motor launch, 2 100-ft (30.5 m) barges, and a tug on the Yangtze River, and attacking a bridge at Teian and tracks south of Chiuchiang.

Two B-25s and four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked shipping on the Yangtze River near Wusueh, sinking a launch and leaving three tankers burning.

11 January 1944
Before daylight, 14 Japanese bombers hit the airfield at Suichan, China.
Three Ki-48 light bombers from the 16th Sentai with 15 fighters as escort followed up with a second strike at 10:40. Two of the bombers were shot down and the flight leader was forced to crash-land at Nanchang, the bomber blowing up right after landing.
Seven P-51s and five P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted the second attack, claiming three medium bombers shot down.

Eight B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the harbour, aluminium plant, and airfield at Takao, Formosa.

One B-24 from the 14th AF bombed oil storage at Swatow, China.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF mined harbours at Takao and Hong Kong. One B-24 was lost.

12 January 1944
Captain Derward Harper and Captain Chester Conrad of the 1st BG (CACW) took off from Erh Tong and headed south toward the coast to look for enemy shipping.
Abouth 100 miles out the B-25s became separated in bad weather, and Harper turned back. Conrad pressed south for the coast, and as they neared Maoming the weather improved to scattered cloud condition.
Conrad's bomber was flying north-east up the coast at about 1,500ft altitude when the crew spotted a brownish-black Japanese Ki-21 Mk. II Sally bomber about 1,000ft above them at one o'clock on a reciprocal course to their own. Conrad immediately made a 180-dgree climbing turn to the right and began chasing the enemy aircraft, which was out of sight by the time he got his bomber turned around.
The Ki-21 was overtaken in about five minutes, and it was now about 500ft lower than the pursuing B-25. Conrad dove and approached from the left rear quarter, firing the four forward .50-caliber nose guns of his B-25H from a range of about 500 yards. The burst missed, and the top gunner in the Japanese bomber returned the fire when Conrad had closed to about 200 yards.
The B-25 continued to close, and it passed over the top and to the right, with only about ten yards separating the two bombers. Conrad took up "formation" about 30 yards off the Ki-25's right wing. The top turret guns, operated by Sergeant J. Hanrahan, jammed on approach, but he was able to charge one of them and opened fire, knocking out the Ki-21's top turret on the first burst.
Hanrahan's next burst drew a lie from the Ki-25'r wing root through the cockpit, and the copilot was seen to slump over in his seat.
At this point, the Japanese pilot nosed his craft over into a dive and Conrad followed. The B-25, however, accelerated too fast, and Conrad found himself sitting out in the front of the Ki-21. He pulled up and banked to the left while Hanrahan continued to fire. The return fire from the Ki-21 hit Conrad's left wing and knocked the B-25 beyond vertical.
As Conrad leveled the B-25, his tail gunner, Sergeant P. Dodge, got in another long burst at the Ki-21. By the time Conrad completed leveling out the B-25, the Ki-21 had disappeared from view. Since tracers from both turrets had been seen to hit the Ki-21, and it apparently never pulled out its dive, the crew claimed it as probably destroyed when they returned to base. Conrad never had found any shipping targets, so the entire combat had taken place while the B-25 carried four 600-pound demolition bombs in its belly.

13 January 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF on a sweep from Hong Kong to Hainan Island attacked four large boats, several warehouses, a radio station, and a car at Fort Bayard, China; 1 of the vessels exploded.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed four pack trains of about 15 animals each between Lungling and Tengchung.

14 January 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF on a coastal sweep from Pakhoi to Haiphong, French Indochina bombed a group of buildings on Weichow Island.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF damaged two vessels near Saint John Island.

Five Ki-48s from the 16th Sentai attacked Keinow airfield.

15 January 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF on a sweep off the south-east China coast sunk a wooden vessel off Swatow and damaged the lighthouse on Nampana Island.

Two B-25s from 14th AF shot down a Japanese bomber north of Chikhom.

In mid January, Sergeant Major Kenji Kato and First Lieutenant Matsumoto of the 11th Sentai were detached to Swatow to undertake reconnaissance flights.
On 15 January, Kenji single-handedly intercepted two B-24s, which were attacking a convoy. He chased them out to sea with his Ki-43 and shot both down with a series of frontal attacks from above.
This achievement greatly impressed the army commander and other who witnessed it.

16 January 1944
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF attacked the town of Pingkai and strafed targets of opportunity in the surrounding valley area.

20 January 1944
The vice-commander of the 23rd PS, 4th PG, Cheng Yishun crashed while taking off in a newly overhauled P-40.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF on sweep from Hong Kong to Swatow attacked a freighter and a tanker, which were reported sinking.

22 January 1944
Eleven P-40s and five P-51s from the 14th AF strafed the newly opened Nanchang airfield, killing about 20 troops and destroying an airplane and a truck.

Twelve P-38s of the 14th AF knocked out bridges at Shektan and Sheklung.

Ten fighters from the 85th Sentai were scrambled when incoming raiders were detected, but were attacked inadvertently over Hong Kong by A6M Zeros of the navy. One of the fighters was damaged.

23 January 1944
28 P-40s and nine B-25s of 14th AF from Kweilin pounded Kai Tek Airfield in the Hone Kong-Kowloon area.
At 14:15, 1st Lieutenant Thomas P. Bennett of the 74th FS claimed a damaged Ki-43 (Oscar Mk.II) over Hong Kong.
Captain James Tyron Bull of the 3rd FG (CACW) claimed a A6M3 (Hamp) over Hong Kong at14:50. This was CACW's only fighter claim in January 1944. Captain Bull was group assistant operations officer and on this mission, he flew Major Turner's P-40 no. 646.

Two B-25s of the 14th AF heavily damaged three merchant vessels south of Wenchow.

24 January 1944
B-25s from the 14th AF on sea sweeps claimed sinking of a merchant ship west of Nampang Island, two freighters, a cargo-passenger vessel, and a coastal cargo boat anchored in Li-Shan Bay, and a cargo-passenger vessel at Paichuan Island.

Major Thomas Foley of the 1st BG (CACW) led a six-plane shipping sweep. The B-25s staged at Suichwan and took off at 06:45. They found their first target, a 300-foot freighter, at 09:15, and Captain Carson sank it with a near miss.
Next, they flew to Lichanoa Bay, where they found six vessels and immediately swung to attack. When it was all over, Captain Foley was credited with sinking two 250-foot freighters; Carson with a 300-foot freighter and a 175-foot freighter sunk, 1st Lieutenant Charles Miles with a 225-foot freighter damaged, Captain Derward Harper and 1st Lieutenants William Daniels and Mark Seacrest with a 300-foot passenger-freighter sunk and finally Captain Harper with a 100-foot oceangoing tug damaged.
As Captain Harper made a diving run toward the oceangoing tug, the Plexiglas blew off the top turret of his B-25H no. 608. He fired at the tug with the 75mm cannon in the bomber's belly, dropped his bomb, and then was pulling out over the bay at 2,000ft when a Japanese E-13 "Jake" seaplane approached head-on.
The Jake opened fire, and Harper returned fire with his four nose guns. The Jake began to smoke, but its pilot made a tight turn over the harbor and attempted to attack the B-25 from behind. The Jake and Harper turned together, and the Japanese aircraft pulled in on the tail of the B-25, but by now its engine was smoking badly. Before the Japanese pilot could open fire, the Jake's engine quit and the pilot made hast water landing.
Seeing the Jake land, Harper brought the B-25 in for a bomb run and dropped two 500-pounders on the helpless Japanese aircraft, sinking it and confirming the second victory for his crew.

25 January 1944
B-25s from the 14th AF on sweeps of the east China coast claimed a patrol boat, a tanker and two freighters sunk south off Wenchow.

Eight Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai from Taiwan took a devious path due to heavy cloud cover over its original flight path, and ended up surprising the defences at the Keinow airfield and heavily damaging the runway.

26 January 1944
18 P-40s of the 14th AF from Kunming bombed and strafed the airfield and barracks at Kengtung.

As Captain Derward Harper of the 1st BG (CACW) was returning from Suichwan to Kweilin, the B-25 got trapped in bad weather and crashed into the side of a mountain, killing Harper and his crew.
Lost besides Harper were Captain Charles Waugh, Master Sergeant Albert Danovitz, Technical Sergeant Sanford Carhart and Frank Leimer and the Chinese co-pilot, Lieutenant Chow. These were the first Americans of the 1st BG to be killed in action.
On 1 April 1944, Captain Harper was awarded a posthumous Silver Star (the first in the CACW) for bravery in aerial combat after the combat on 24 January 1944.

27 January 1944
Sergeant Major Kenji Kato of the 11th Sentai claimed two P-40s over Canton.

February 1944

Chinese Air Force

On 12 February, the aircraft of the 1st BS and 7th and 8th FS (CACW) arrived at Erh Tong.
With the arrival of the new squadrons, there were now some 40 fighters and 20 bombers flying from this base, and it was getting pretty crowded.
On 21 February, the 28th FS (CACW) was sent to Lingling.

On 25 February, Captains James Dale and John DeHaven of the 32nd FS and Captains Charles Wilder and Charlie Martin of the 28th FS were sent back to India to join the 5th FG.
Wilder and Dale would command the 17th FS and 27th FS respectively, while DeHaven and Martin became operations officers for the squadrons.

In the end of February, Captain Chester Conrad, the group operations officer of the 1st BG was assigned to the 3rd BS as commander and Major Thomas Foley replaced him in the group command.
Also going to India to join the 3rd BS were Captains John Hinrichs and Thomas Simpson, and Lieutenants Eugene Dorr, Louis Graves, George Cunningham, Mark Seacrest, William Daniels and Charles Miles.

US Army Air Force

During February, a detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung, operated from Nanning with P-40s.
During the same month, the 449th FS, 51st FG, transferred from Kunming to Suichan with P-38s.

On 16 February, 74th FS, 23rd FG, based at Kweilin with P-40s, sent a detachment to Liuchow.

IJAAF

On 15 February, the 3rd Hikoshidan Headquarters was re-designated the 5th Kokugun (Air Army) Headquarters.
The composition of the Air Force in China at the time was:

5th Kokugun

Headquarters, 5th Kokugun – Nanching
1st Hikodan
Headquarters, 1st Hikodan – Hankou
25th Sentai (Nakajima Ki-43-II) – Hankou
85th Sentai (Nakajima Ki-44) – Canton
16th Sentai (Kawasaki Ki-48) – Anyang
90th Sentai (Kawasaki Ki-48) – Tungshan and Canton
44th Sentai (Mitsubishi Ki-51) – Tachengchen
18th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai (Mitsubishi Ki-46) – Nanching
54th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai (Direct co-operation aircraft) – Yangchu
55th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai (Mitsubishi Ki-46) – Hankou
It was estimated that the fighting strength of each unit (number of crew personnel and aircraft was been 1/3 and ½ of full strength.

In February, the 11th Sentai left for Japan to convert to the Ki-84.

On 28 February, the 9th Sentai with more than 30 Ki-44s on strength arrived at Wuchang from Manchuria.

IJNAF

A new IJNAF squadron was dispatched to Shanghai on 1 February, adding 15 fighters, 8 bombers and 20 transport aircraft to the IJNAF force in China. The group stayed until 29 May.

Operations

5 February 1944
Two B-24s and two B-25s from the 14th AF attacked a convoy east of Hong Kong and claimed two freighters and three smaller cargo vessels sunk.

6 February 1944
11 P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed sampans and power launches between Yoyang and Puchi.

7 February 1944
16 P-40s and four P-51s from the 14th AF damaged railroad bridges at Kienchang and Puchi and strafed warehouses at Teian.

9 February 1944
16 P-40s from the 14th AF strafed and bombed large barracks and oil storage at Chefang and pound town areas of Homun and Mangshih.

10 February 1944
Five B-24s from the 14th AF mined the mouth of the Yangtze River during the night of 9/10.

Eight P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Wanling and vicinity while three others fly top cover; the target area, a supply staging and training center, was heavily damaged.

B-25s from the 14th AF on sea sweeps claimed two freighters sunk near Hainan Island and south-west of Hong Kong.

Twelve P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF strafed boats and parked aircraft in the Chiuchiang area.

Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF strafed power boats and sampans along the Yangtze River from Puchi to Yoyang.

11 February 1944
Twelve P-38s from the 14th AF knocked out one bridge and damaged another at Sheklung.

Six B-25s, escorted by 20 US and Chinese P-40s (including 3rd FG (CACW)), bombed the storage area at Kai Tak Airfield.
20 Japanese fighters (reportedly alternatively as Oscar Mk.IIs, Hamps and Tojos) were met in the air to intercept the formation, and the 32nd FS (CACW) lost two fighters while claiming four and one probable while the 23rd FG claimed three. The fighters managed holding the Japanese fighters off the B-25s.
At 13:15, 1st Lieutenant George W. Lee claimed two fighters (one of them was a Ki-43) over Kai Tak and 2nd Lieutenant Robert N. Gibeault claimed an A6M in the Kai Tak area; both these pilots were from the 74th FS. The 32nd FS claims were made at 13:20 over Kai Tak by 1st Lieutenant Donald W. Kerr, 1st Lieutenant Thomas M. Maloney, Major William L. Turner, 2nd Lieutenant Teng Li-Chun, 2nd Lieutenant Wang Sung-Chin (1 probable) and Lieutenant Yang Y. C.
The two pilots shot down on the mission were Lieutenants Yang Y. C. and Donald Kerr, both from the 32nd FS (CACW). Yang was killed, but Kerr survived and made it back through enemy lines.
Kerr and Lieutenant Teng were attached to the top cover, which was provided primarily by the 23rd FG.
Over the target, about 20 Japanese fighters bounced the formation. Kerr got in a three-second burst on one of them and saw it begin to flame. He lost sight of it after seeing the pilot jettison the canopy, and Teng reported seeing it crash. In the meantime, three more enemy fighters jumped Kerr while he was in midst of rejoining his flight with a dive-and-zoom maneuver. One of them followed his dive, and he took a 20mm hit in his left-wing tank. Fire quickly spread from the wing to the cockpit, and Kerr baled out at 16,000ft, directly over the Japanese air base.
He landed on a low hill on the northern perimeter of the base, and a small Chinese boy immediately appeared. The boy led the burned pilot through the nearby mountains, with Japanese soldiers in hot pursuit. One the approached so close that Kerr had to stop and exchange gunfire with them. The boy stayed with Kerr until near evening, when the Japanese appeared to be closing in. Finally, he ran off, and Kerr was left alone. Kerr found a shallow cave and covered himself with leaves and brush until darkness fell, then treated his burns and moved on. He eluded his trackers for several days, until they gave up the search. Finally, he met four Chinese who led him to a guerilla group. They took over and transported Kerr by sedan chair, boat, and foot through enemy lines. At times, he had to stop and rest because his leg burns had become infected. Eventually the guerillas contacted British forces, who provided escort to led Kerr the rest of the way home. He rode into Kweilin on a bicycle on 29 March, more than a month and a half after he had been shot down.
The 85th Sentai patrolling Hong Kong at 680 m sighted a large incoming formation. Claimed kills included two P-51s, two P-40s, with one P-51 and one P-40 probable. The naval fighters claimed a B-25 and two P-40s shot down.

Japanese aircraft bombed and strafed Namyung putting the field out of use for several days.

Sergeant Major Kenji Kato of the 11th Sentai claimed a P-40 whilst attacking Suichuan. He was then surprised by a P-38, which put 38 bullet holes in his aircraft. He managed to regain his base, but on landing, the fuselage of his fighter folded in half.

12 February 1944
24 P-38s, P-51s, and P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted 25 Japanese fighters near Suichan. They claimed seven shot down. Two US fighters were lost.
The Japanese reported that the 11th and 85th Sentais shared five victories and seven probables but that five of the ten 85th Sentai aircraft failed to return and two more force-landed in bad weather, due to the short-range of the Ki-44. Hironojo Shishimoto’s section from the 2nd chutai, 11th Sentai, fought P-38s, P-40s and P-51s and claimed four shot down between them.
Six Japanese pilots were killed. Five of them from the 85th Sentai; First Lieutenant Kiyoya Kon-I (Class 54), Sergeant Tadashi Kikukawa (Sho-8), Sergeant Haruzo Hayakawa (Sho-8), Sergeant Keiichi Kimura (Sho-6) and Sergeant Major Kenji Takahashi (NCO86) and one from the 11th Sentai; Sergeant Major Kenjiro Kurihara (NCO82)

13 February 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit a convoy east of Foochow claiming three freighters and a transport sunk.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF damaged two vessels south-west off Hainan Island and bombed dock, railroad, and oil dump at Bakli on Hainan Island.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed barracks and hangars at Phu Tho and strafe freight cars at Yen Bay and Suo Ha.

18 February 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF on a sweep of the Gulf of Tonkin damaged two large boats north of Bakli Bay on Hainan Island, destroyed an ammunition dump at Phu Ly and knocked out a nearby railroad bridge.

19 February 1944
B-24s, B-25s, and P-40s of the 14th AF fly sea sweeps over wide-spread coastal areas from the Formosa Straits to French Indochina, claiming three ships sunk and others damaged; railroad bridges, trains, and other targets of opportunity near coastal areas were also attacked.

20 February 1944
Sergeant Susumu Nomura (NCO87) of the 25th Sentai was killed in an accident at Hanyang.

21 February 1944
Twelve B-25s escorted by a number of P-40s approached Hong Kong and six A6Ms from Hainan Island rose to meet them, claiming to have shot down two B-25s, three P-40s (one unconfirmed) while losing two A6Ms.

22 February 1944
P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed the airfield at Kengtung and a nearby truck convoy.

24 February 1944
Warrant Officer Tomiji Saito (NCO72) of the 25th Sentai was killed over Jiujiang.

27 February 1944
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit the railroad bridge at Puchi, China, rendering it unusable.

28 February 1944
Eight Ki-48s from the 16th Sentai from Shanghai attacked Kienow airfield. One bomber was damaged by AA fire.

29 February 1944
Two Mitchells of the 4th BS bombed Japanese ships on the lower course of the Yangtze River. One aircraft was shot down and the crew perished.

23 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the warehouse area at Yoyang, causing several fires and secondary explosions.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Yoyang railroad yards with 16 P-40s providing support.

Two B-25s of the 14th AF on a sweep of the north-east China coast sunk three sampans and damage a merchant ship at Siachwan Tao.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed ammunition dumps at Kunlong.

Twelve P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF sunk a large motor launch north-east of Anking, strafed barracks and three tugs in the Teian area, hit barracks north-west of Nanchang and strafed railroad installations at Yangsin.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF hit a barracks west of Nanchang.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF sunk a large river-craft on the Yangtze River near Chiuhsienchen and damaged two more nearby.

March 1944

Chinese Air Force

On 8 March 1944, Colonel Morse, CACW commander, received urgent orders from Chennault to proceed at once with his staff for a meeting at 14th AF Headquarters at Kunming. Out of the ensuing meeting came the plans for Mission A, code name "Fateful".
For the past sixty days, according to Chinese intelligence, the Japanese had been transporting supplies and troops south from Peking and Manchuria via railroad to the Yellow River Bridge near Chenghsien. When it was determined that the Japanese were going to use this buildup for a push south to take the portion of the rail line from the Yellow River to Sinyang - the last section of track between Peking and Hankou held by the Chinese - Mission A was conceived to help oppose the offensive.
It was easy to see, though the Chinese failed to recognize it at the time, that completing that rail link to Hankou would ease Japanese dependence on the Yangtze River for moving supplies and ultimately threaten the entire network of 14th AF bases in eastern China. And even as Mission A was being planned, the Japanese were building up their forces in the Hankou area via the Yangtze for what would be-come the famous Ichi-Go Operation.
The plan behind Mission A was simple: let the Japanese concentrate their Honan forces, then smash them by air attack just before the offensive begins and continue to strike until the drive is halted. Weather and poor communications, however, conspired against Mission A before it could get off the ground. What was to have been a bold countermove became instead a defensive struggle, and the Japanese could not be prevented from achieving their goals in Honan Province.

The air power assigned to Mission A included the four squadrons of the 3rd FG, one squadron of B-25s from the 1st BG, and two P-40 squadrons from the 4th FG of the Chinese Air Force. This small force (84 aircraft during the rare times when all squadrons were at full strength) was to operate over Honan and the areas immediately west, with the following assignments:
1. Defend Chinese-held airfields and cities from Japanese aerial attacks;
2. Destroy the Yellow River bridges;
3. Destroy rail junctions at Sinsiang and Kaifeng, the key supply centers for the Japanese drive;
4. Destroy the railroad line from Hankow north to Sinyang, and interdict the Hankow railroad yards;
5. Bomb the railroad bed in the Chinese-held portion of the rail line;
6. Attack Japanese aircraft and airfields and traffic on the Yangtze and Yellow rivers;
7. Provide close air support for defending Chinese ground forces.
It was decided that Chinese intelligence would alert the 14th AF to move its squadrons into position four days prior to the date when they estimated the Japanese were ready to begin their offensive. From their new bases, the CACW aircraft would attack the Japanese at Sinyang and Kaifeng, and then continue flying from their bases for about a month until the Japanese were halted. It was estimated that after the thirty-day battle, the CACW squadrons would no longer be needed in North China and could move to Southwest China to fly in support of the Chinese troops in Burma.
With his objectives for Mission A in hand, Colonel Morse returned to Kweilin, then set out for North China on 19 March 1944, to inspect his new bases. His seven-day tour quickly revealed the shortcomings of the airfields at Liangshan, Hanchung, and Ankang. The wing historian noted that the fields were "decidedly inadequate and of a capacity more suited to an air force of World War I."
The 2nd BS and the 7th and 8th fighter squadrons were to be based at Liangshan, along with 3rd FG headquarters. The base consisted of an established grass runway and another one under construction. There were six revetments big enough for B-25s and fifteen more being built for P-40s. There was a 100,000-gallon gasoline dump (less than half-full when Morse inspected the base) and very primitive radio equipment. Hostels and mess halls for the men were under construction, but they were not finished when the CACW arrived, so personnel had to be housed and fed in the ramshackle Kuomintang hostel in downtown Liangshan. On base there was an odd assortment of Russian bombs and Belgian ammunition left over from the early days of the war, as were two gasoline trucks and a station wagon that probably had been used by the AVG in 1942. For aircraft, there were two rickety, leaking P-43 Lancers of the CAF, apparently used for air defense.
The 32nd FS was to be based at the Hanchung base, which had two unpaved runways in place and was big enough to handle B-25s, but it had no revetments, and the gasoline dump's capacity was only 60,000 gallons. There was housing on base for 210 men, as well as an operations building and alert shack; transportation was seven trucks and two cars in fair condition plus three disreputable gasoline trucks. More Russian bombs were stored at Hanchung, but there was no .50-caliber ammunition.
Bad weather during the trip prevented Morse from getting to his easternmost base, Enshih, which the 28th FS would call home. The wing commander did, however, get to Ankang. It would be used as a staging base and was located north of Liangshan, about halfway to Hsian. Ankang had a single runway, no revetments, and the only building was an open-air alert shack. The fuel-dump capacity was only 5,000 gallons, and there was but one ancient truck and one telephone. Ankang was capable of handling only P-40s—and not too many of them.
Other bases to be used for staging were at Hsian, the major northern outpost of the Kuomintang forces on the Wei River, and an isolated strip at Laohokow, about 150 miles east of Ankang and suitable only for emergency use at that time.
After completing his trip, Morse flew to Chungking for a session on 26 March with General Chow Chi-Jou, CAF commander. The general promised support for Mission A in the form of a Beechcraft airplane for liaison, more trucks for the bases, a squadron of CAF P-40s at Liangshan for air defense, and movement of excess P-40s from India to Chengtu to speed replacements. He also promised to furnish intelligence and target information on Japanese military facilities, storage areas, means of communication, and troop dispositions. When he returned again to Kweilin, Morse got busy with his staff planning the actual move north for Mission A. Intelligence, photo processing, and communications centers had to be established at Liangshan; five radio stations had to be established at the bases, and a fighter control net for air defense had to be rushed to completion to protect the bases from Japanese bombers. The work was done at a feverish pace, and the first transports carrying equipment and supplies from Kunming touched down on the Liangshan runway on 1 April.

In March, the 26th and 29th PS returned to China after having received 24 P-40s in India. After a month the 17th and 27th PS were attached to them. All these units were united into the 5th PG fighting in the Changsha, Henyang, and Kweilin regions.

In March the 11th PG began to convert to the P-40N.

On 14 March, the 7th and 32nd FS (CACW) moved to Li Chia Chen Airfield, across the valley from Erh Tong at Kweilin.
The 8th FS (CACW) moved to Lingling on 17 March and joined the 28th FS.
After this move, only 1st BG (CACW) remained at Erh Tong.

On 17 March, the 26th and 29th FS (CACW), led by Lieutenant Colonel Dunning, flew out of Malir with the 4th BS (CACW) with destination China. Because of the limited number of aircraft, the pilots were mostly Americans.
Major Dick's ten B-25s of the 4th BS, plus two others flown by Major Foley and Captain Sheldon of the 2nd BS, got a break in the weather and made the hop over the Hump to Chanyi. They waited there only briefly, then flew on to Kweilin on 6 April to join the rest of the 1st BG at Erh Tong Airfield.
This mass movement of fighters and bombers over the Hump without mechanical failure or mishap was the largest of the war, and it was a genuine indication that the fledgling mechanics of the 4th, 26th, and 29th Squadrons had learned their lessons well.

In March, the final contingent of men bound for the CACW from the U.S. arrived at Malir to form the 17th and 27th FS.

US Army Air Force

On 8 March, the 26th FS, 51st FG, based at Kunming with P-51s sent a detachment to operate from Nanning.

HQ 312th Fighter Wing was activated at Kunming on 13 March.
On 23 March, it moved on to Chengdu.

On 17 March, the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 10th AF, based at Guskhara, India with F-7s, sends a detachment to operate from Hsinching.

IJAAF

It was estimated that by early March 1944, the United States Air Force in China had increased its strength to 340 planes of which 160 fighters and 90 bombers were stationed in south-east China. This force frequently attacked vessels, harbours and airfields along the Yangtze River, particularly in the area around Hsiaochihkou, Huaining and Wuhu. They also attacked the occupied areas in north and south China and French Indochina when weather conditions were favourable.

The fighting strength of the 5th Kokugun at this time was less than one-half its T/O strength. Although an average of 50 aircraft (mostly Ki-43 fighters and light bombers) was being received each month from Japan, it was necessary to dispatch aircrew personnel to Japan to fly them to China. This greatly hindered the training of crews.

The aviation fuel reserve was approximately 25,000,000 litres and about 3,000,000 litres were consumed monthly. Continuing at this rate, the reserve fuel would last only about six months. Therefore, about 10,000,000 litres of fuel were needed before August.

The bomb reserve amounted to about 7,500 tons of which about 200 tons were used monthly so that there was a two-year supply. However, the ammunition supply for 20mm automatic cannon and 12.7mm machineguns were low.

The 9th Sentai left Wuchang for Anking on 13 March.

Operations

1 March 1944
14 B-25s and 16 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded a military zone in the north-east part of Nanchang.
This attack was the first all-Chinese mission, which was flown from Kweilin. Major Yuan Chin-Han led the 3rd FG (CACW) fighter escort for B-25s of the 1st BG (CACW) that were hitting Nanchang. There was no opposition from the Japanese, and all aircraft returned home safely. The bombing accuracy, however, was disappointing.

2 March 1944
Ten P-38s from the 14th AF damaged two bridges and strafed two barracks in areas north of Nanchang.

Two P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the airfield and barracks at Kengtung.

4 March 1944
At 15:00, a number of attacks were made on Wuhu, Shihhweiyao and Kiukiang.
Between 10:40-15:20, the 76th FS (P-51), 23rd FG, was involved in combat over Wuhu and 1st Lieutenant Harry Zavkos claimed a Ki-43 while 1st Lieutenant Donald Hedrick and 1st Lieutenant Elmore Bullock claimed a Ki-43 each as damaged.
The 449th FS, 51st FG, reported combat at 13:05 over Shihhweiyao, Yangtze River, when 1st Lieutenant Lee Gregg claimed one Ki-43 and one damaged, 1st Lieutenant Dale Desper claimed a damaged K-43, 2nd Lieutenant James Nunn claimed a "Hap" and Captain Robert Schultz claimed a Ki-43 and a damaged "Hap".
The 25th Sentai intercepted the intruders, claiming two P-38s (none seems to have been lost) at the cost of one fighter.

Five B-25s and 23 P-40s (16 of them Chinese) of the 14th AF pounded the airfield at Kiungshan. The airfield was heavily damaged and several parked aircraft were destroyed. 17 Japanese aircraft were claimed shot down.
The CACW fighters were from the 7th and 8th FS, which flew their first mission since arriving at Kweilin, when they accompanied six B-25s of the American 11th BS and 23rd FG in a surprise attack against Kiungshan Airfield on Hainan Island.
The low-level strike against the Japanese air base at 12:25 caught the defenders unprepared, and the CACW fighters had a field day. Aerial kills were claimed by pilots from the 8th FS; Captain Liu Meng-Jinn (Chinese commander of the 8th FS), Captain Harvey Davis (Ki-43), Captain Coyd Yost (T/E aircraft?) and 1st Lieutenant Niu Tseng-Sheng (Ki-43). Ground kills reported by the 8th FS were Liu Meng-Jinn one, Major Cords two and a half, Lieutenant Lung C. J. one and a half, Lieutenant Chang Sung-San one plus a Ki-43 damaged in the air. Scoring ground kills in the 7th FS were Captain Hsu Chi-Hsiang (Chinese commander) one, Lieutenant Wilbur Walton three, Lieutenant Tan Kun one.

Four P-38s and two Chinese B-25s from the 14th AF claimed a freighter, a tanker, and a motor launch sunk in the Shihhweiyao and Wuhu areas.

Six waves of Japanese aircraft bombed the airfield at Suichan, causing considerable damage.

Five P-40s from the 14th AF were dispatched to bomb Cao Bang but because of bad weather attacked Chinese-held Lungchow, China, by mistake.

Seven Ki-48s of the 90th Sentai from Hsuchow attacked Hengyang, but only one was able to reach the destination due to poor visibility.

Seven Ki-48s of the 16th Sentai from Nanchang attacked Suichan in a night attack, claiming to set fire to two aircraft on the ground.

5 March 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed Chiengmai Airfield, destroying nine aircraft, the water tower and nearby railroad station. The barracks area was also damaged.

9 March 1944
18 Chinese-American Composite Wing (CACW) B-25s escorted by 24 P-40s from the 3rd FG (CACW) pounded a foundry and floating docks at Shihhweiyao.
The bombs missed their target but the CACW fighters claimed three aerial kills east of Shihweiyao at 14:05. 1st Lieutenant Donald J. Burch of the 7th FS claimed one Hamp shot down and a second as a damaged. 1st Lieutenant Yang Yun-Kuang of the 7th FS claimed a second Hamp while 2nd Lieutenant Liao Tan-Ching of the 32nd FS claimed an Oscar (Ki-43). Liao was forced to land on the short emergency strip at Chaling after his fighter, No. 653, was damaged. The fighter's brakes failed on landing and Liao dumped the P-40 into the river at the end of the runway, causing slight damage to the aircraft. Lieutenant Lin S. C. of the 7th FS was shot down and listed as missing in action.
The Japanese reported that the attack on Shihhweiyao was intercepted by the 25th Sentai and the 9th Sentai, with the former claiming two P-40s shot down.

10 March 1944
Two bombers of the 2nd BS (CACW) bombed Japanese ships on the lower course of the Yangtze River. On the return flight, the fuel ran out in one of the bombers. The forced landing ended in a catastrophe with the pilot and navigator being killed.

Six B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Kowloon Docks.

B-25s of the 14th AF from Suichan sunk a motor launch and damaged two cargo vessels and a barge in the Anking area. Escorting P-38s shot down several interceptors.
Moritsugu Kanai, 25th Sentai, claimed a P-38 over Anking. This was Kanai’s first victory over China (he had claimed seven during the Nomonhan Incident).

P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance bombed or strafed barracks and shipping at Foochow, airfield and barracks at Nanchang, factory, barracks, and bridge near Sienning, and in French Indochina, freighters at Hongay and Campha Port, barracks at Ha Coi, and the area east of Lang Son.

Two Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai tried to attack Suichan but didn’t find the target.
Four others attacked Kweilin claiming damage to a number of aircraft on the ground.

11 March 1944
During the night, Japanese bombers attacked Erh Tong and P-40 no. 648 of the 32nd FS (CACW) was destroyed by a fragmentation bomb.

In French Indochina, ten P-40s from the 14th AF damaged three barges at Campha Port, hit buildings on Weichow Island, China and attacked the town area at Ha Coi.

13 March 1944
Eight B-24s and four P-40s from the 14th AF attacked the airfield and seaplane anchorage at Kiungshan on Hainan Island.

16 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a bridge at Puchi, scoring direct hits on both approaches.

Five Ki-48s of the 16th Sentai from Nanchang attacked Suichan in a night attack, sending small number of bombers in intervals. Two aircraft were claimed destroyed on the ground, while one Japanese bomber was damaged by AA fire and another damaged on landing.

14 March 1944
20 Japanese bombers hit airfields at Hengyang and Suichan. Surprise prevented effective interception by AAF fighters.

Erh Tong was also attacked during the night after that flares were fired off by "fifth columnists" to mark the field, but no damage was done.

16 March 1944
Seven P-40s from the 14th AF on a Yangtze River sweep damaged two launches near Yoyang and pounded barracks and storage at Sienning.

18 March 1944
16 P-40s from the 14th AF on a Yangtze River sweep sunk one large sailboat and strafed a transport ship at Chiuchiang.

Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance from Nanning sunk a barge and damaged other craft at Quang Yen, sunk a transport vessel at Campha Port and damaged a nearby bridge, attacked a train and several buildings in the Lang Son area, and damaged a railroad bridge between Lang Son and Phu Lang Thuong.

Nine Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai intercepted P-40s near Kiukiang, claiming to have shot down two of the P-40s.

One Ki-46 from the 55th Independent Chutai was shot down over Suichan airfield.

19 March 1944
Two B-25s, nine P-38s and three P-51s from the 14th AF on a Yangtze River sweep damaged several river vessels, hit a fort at Chihchow and bombed Nanchang Airfield.

Warrant Officer Tetsuo Kimura (Sho-2) was killed in an accident on Formosa.

20 March 1944
14th AF flew photoreconnaissance sorties over central China and north-east Burma.

25 March 1944
Six B-24s of the 14th AF from Chengkung bombed a motor pool and fuel dump at Mangshih, demolishing a sizeable portion of the target area.

26 March 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit the Bakli Bay area on Hainan Island. Two merchant vessels were claimed sunk, and damage was done to tracks and loading equipment.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF on a sweep of the north coast of the Gulf of Tonkin sunk an ore boat and damage four barges.

27 March 1944
60+ P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troops and buildings at Sienning and Kwanyinchow, hit a bridge, warehouse, and general area at Anyi, damaged bridges at Kienchang and Puchi and pounded Nanchang Airfield and surrounding areas.

2 Ki-48s from the 16th Sentai launched another night attack on Kienow from Nanking.

29 March 1944
Twelve P-40s and three P-51s from the 14th AF attacked the railroad station area at Nanchang, causing much damage to buildings and yards; the fighter-bombers also strafed the airfield and attack a nearby bridge.
Corporal Yasuzo Tanaka (Sho-11) of the 25th Sentai was killed over Nanchang.

30 March 1944
Two B-24s from the 14th AF flew a sea sweep from Kunming, China around Hainan Island, and across the Gulf of Tonkin to Nam Dinh, French Indochina. En route, a freighter was strafed.

April 1944

The ground war

The Japanese Peiping-Hankou Operation was launched on the night of 17 April.
The Japanese plan was to drive southwest from the Hankou-Tungting Lake area all the way to Indochina. This would provide them with an overland rail link to move raw materials for the war effort north to the great East China ports of Shanghai, Tientsin, and Nanking, then on to Japan, while avoiding the costly shipping losses they were suffering in the South China Sea, At the same time, the Japanese could capture all the important 14th Air Force bases that lay along the route; Hengyang, Paoching, Lingling, Kweilin, Liuchow, Nanning, and others. If enough damage was done, the Japanese hoped Chiang Kai-shek would be forced to sue for peace. This drive would be called the Ichi-Go Operation.
Before the drive could build up much strength, however, the Japanese needed to close the last gap in the Peking-Hankow rail line, improving their routes of supply and communication. When they began this effort in the famine-ravaged province of Honan, the 3rd FG and 2nd BS (CACW) were sent hundreds of miles north from Kweilin to some of the most remote air bases in China to oppose them. This deployment, named Mission A, would have a lasting effect on the history of the CACW.

This was the last large Japanese offensive in China.

On 19 April, the Japanese captured Chenghsien.

Chinese Air Force

The 26th and 29th Fighter Squadrons (CACW) were finally able to move up to Kweilin from Chanyi, again following the earlier squadrons by taking up residence at Erh Tong. The squadrons flew in on 7 April, but flew only a few uneventful local alerts during the next three weeks.

The 3rd FG and 1st BG squadrons were largely grounded during April because of the weather, but the month was far from uneventful for them. More moving plans were being made, because it was clear that the Japanese were preparing to mount a major offensive in the interior of China.

By 21 April, radio stations were operating at Liangshan, Ankang, Enshih, Laohokow, and Hanchung. In addition, five liaison teams, including one behind Japanese lines at Chenghsien, were on the air and transmitting valuable intelligence from their locations to the east.
The CACW units assigned to Mission A were busy as well during April. Captain Bill Black of the Eglin AFB proving grounds in Florida had visited Kweilin in March to demonstrate the use of bazooka-styled rocket launchers that could be hung under the wings of P-40s, and since then the squadrons had been busy installing racks to carry the bulky affairs on their fighters. In the 1st BG, plans were made to split the group between the Mission A assignment and an East China Task Force that would fly missions out of Suichwan against the familiar coastal targets.
The carefully laid plans involving notification by the Chinese four days prior to the peak of the Japanese buildup were quickly discarded when the Japanese crossed the Yellow River in force on 19 April 1944 - with no warning from the Chinese. As the Japanese, spearheading their attack with tanks and cavalry, moved south from Chenghsien, it was clear that an early opportunity to cripple the offensive had been lost. Mission A, and the course of the war in China, had been altered dramatically.

The 26th and 29th FS of the 5th FG were ordered to turn over half their fighters (six from each squadron) to the 3rd FG to fill out the requirements for Mission A.
The receipt of these replacements by the 3rd FG caused a reshuffling of aircraft among the squadrons to get the proper mix of rocket launcher-equipped fighters in each. In some cases their 700-series tail numbers were retained; on other fighters the 3d's 600 numbers were applied.
With all the preparations made, it remained only to wait for good weather to move the squadrons north. The first break came on 22 April, when the first elements of the 2nd BS were able to fly out of Erh Tong for Liangshan. The bombers would be commanded by Majors Tom Foley and Li Hsueh-Yen, with a mix of flight crews from the 1st and 2nd BS. Captains John Sanders, William Carson, John Dierkes, and later Charles Miles were flight leaders; Capt. John Sheldon was lead bombardier; and Captain Wilbur Taxis was lead navigator.
The weather closed back in for another week, but finally on 28 April the combat aircraft were able to begin their deployments. Foley led nine B-25s to Liangshan. In all, the 2nd BS moved seven U.S. officers and 14 U.S. enlisted men, plus 17 Chinese officers and 23 enlisted men, in the B-25s. Six more Chinese officers flew in on transports. Also on that day, the 8th and 28th PS flew to Liangshan, and the 7th PS finally made it to Liangshan on 1 May.

Colonel Irving Branch led eight of his 1st BG B-25s down to Suichwan on 28 April. In addition to the B-25s, Branch’s East China Task Force consisted of 14 U.S. officers, eleven U.S. enlisted men, 19 Chinese officers and eleven Chinese enlisted men. The U.S. officers, drawn from the 1st and 4th bomb squadrons, were: Branch, Majors William Dick and Percy Sutley; Captains Chester Jack and John Washington; First Lieutenants Robert Bell, Samuel Brown, Willbraham Hoffson, Donald Keefe, Moncure Lyon, William Waggaman, and Allen Sweeney; and Second Lieutenants Douglas Budden and Theodore Peters.

US Army Air Force

During April, the HQ 69th Composite Wing moved from Tsuyung to Kunming.
During the same month, the 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung sends the detachment at Tsuyung to Szemao with P-40s.

On 1 April, a flight of the 21st Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron, 14th AF, based at Kunming begins operating from Liangshan with F-4s and F-5s.

The detachment of the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 10th AF, operating from Hsinching, China transferred to Jorhat, India on 9 April with F-7s. The squadron was based at Guskhara, India.

On 10 April, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) informally approve Operation Matterhorn, the plan for the bombing of Japan by B-29s based in the Calcutta, India area and staging through advanced fields in the Chengdu, China area, which had been approved in principle by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 10 November 1943. The operational vehicle is to be the 58th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) (4 bombardment groups) of the XX Bomber Command, soon to be assigned to the newly activated 20th AF, operating under General of the Army Henry H. "Hap" Arnold as executive agent for the JCS.

The HQ 33rd FG moved from Karachi, India to Shwangliu on 18 April.

On 27 April, the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, based at Guskhara, India, sent a detachment to Hsinching with F-7s.

The 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yankai with B-25s, sent a detachment on 29 April to operate from Yunnani.

The detachment of the 74th FS, 23rd FG, operating from Liuchow returned on 30 April to its base at Kweilin with P-40s.

IJAAF

The China Expeditionary Army planned to use part of the 5th Kokugun to support the North China Area Army during the Peiping-Hankou Operation commencing in the middle of April and the main force to co-operate with the 11th and 23rd Armies during the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation in the latter part of May. If required, support was also to be given to the 13th Army’s diversionary operation in the Yushan area.

The 5th Kokugun planned to carry out operations against the enemy air forces in the area east of Kweilin until the rainy season in May and thereafter use its main force to co-operate directly with the 11th Army’s operation.
The Ki-48 light bombers, which were the nucleus of the bomber strength, were considered obsolete and of the three fighter regiments, only one had Ki-43s whose range was comparatively long. Under these circumstances, in order to accomplish its mission, the 5th Kokugun drew up the following plan:

Type 99 light bombers [Kawasaki Ki-48] will assault and destroy enemy planes in night attacks on enemy airfields while the fighters units will shoot down enemy planes over the operational zone.
It was estimated at the beginning of April that as a countermeasure against the Ichi-Go Operation, enemy air activities were:
To counter the Peiping-Hankou Operation, part of the enemy air force will attempt to destroy bridges on the Huang Ho, while at the same time co-operating with enemy ground activities. In addition, their main force is expected to continue disrupting transportation for the concentration of our forces.

In the initial phase of this operation, the main strength of the Chinese Air Force is expected to participate using bases in the Szechwan Province. Thereafter, part of the United States Air Force stationed in south-east China will join the battle. It is estimated that approximately 100 fighters and 20 bombers of the Chinese Air Force and 60 fighters and 40 bombers of the United States Air Force will be used.

The enemy air force will establish bases in the Chungking-Chengdu and Enshih-Liangshan areas with advanced bases at Nancheng, Paochi, Changan, Ankang, Laohokou and Nanyang. Intelligence reports stated that the enemy is endeavouring to repair these advanced bases and is massing fuel and ammunition at these points, but work has not yet been completed. Some restraint therefore will be placed on the use of these fields.

During this operation, the main body of the United States Air Force, after establishing a base in south-east China will strengthen it air power and advance its bases toward the Fukien Province from were it will attempts to interrupt our transportation for the concentration of our forces. In particular, it will attack Japanese vessels on the Yangtze River and the China Sea.

During the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation, the enemy will attempt to disrupt transportation for the concentration of troops during the initial preparations for the operation. After the operation begins, they will try first to check the ground forces and cut our supply routes and then by conducting repeated air attacks, to annihilate our air force. In the course of the operation, their main air force will return to the Szechwan and Yunnan Provinces for replenishment and will then return to attack the newly occupied areas.

It is believed that the United States Air Force, aided by the main body of the Chinese Air Force, will lead the attack. Judging from the present rapid rate of increase in reinforcements and the possibility of further planes being diverted from India, it is estimated that in the early phases of the operation enemy air strength will be approximately 500 United States planes, and 250 Chinese planes. The present condition of enemy air bases in China would allow approximately another 300 planes to be diverted to this area.

During the operation, the enemy air force will use its present bases in the Szechwan Province and along the banks of the Yangtze River as well as establish new bases in south-east China. The enemy air force in the Yunnan Province will primarily reinforce the Kweilin area while the air force around Yunnan and Chengdu will gradually be supplemented and strengthened from India.

As the operation progresses, the 11th Army will occupy Hengyang and the surrounding area but the enemy air force will continue its attacks from air bases at Chihkiang, Kweilin and Liuchowhsein. At this point, the air bases at Chihkiang and the area north of the Canton-Hankou railway will be situated on the flank of our advance. The enemy air force will undoubtedly take advantage of this situation to attack our supply lines.

Should the 11th Army succeed in occupying the Kweilin and Liuchowhsein areas, the main body of the enemy air force will retreat to the Kunming-Kweiyang and Chungking-Chengdu districts from which areas it is expected they will repeatedly attack the newly occupied zones. At that time, the bases in the Chihkiang district and advanced bases at Tanchuhsu and Nanning must not be relinquished.

Although the Ichi-Go Operation will hinder the enemy air force in its attempt to attack Japan or cut our communications and supply lines, judging by the manner in which their strength is being reinforced and their bases equipped, as well as their favourable situation in the Pacific, it appears certain that they will still endeavour to accomplish their mission. B-29s will be diverted to China in the near future when they will attack western Japan from this area as well as from bases in the north and central Pacific. It is probable that, upon receiving reinforcements, an element will move north to attack communication and supply routes and also our main bases of supply to north China and Manchuria.

By the middle of April, the strength of the various air units had been replenished and most important, the 25th Sentai was up to full strength. Many of the 25th Sentai’s pilots had become casualties during previous operations. These were replaced with new pilots from Japan.

In order to support the operation, the 5th Kokugun stationed ten Ki-43s of the 25th Sentai at Ani, ten Ki-44s from the 9th Sentai, the 44th Sentai and the 54th I F Chutai at Xinxiang and about 20 light bombers of the 90th Sentai and the 16th Sentai at Anyang and ordered theses units to co-operate with land operations.
At the same time, it placed the bomber units under the command of the commander of the 44th Sentai.

On 29 April, the headquarters of the 2nd Hikodan arrived at Xinxiang, the main force of the 6th Sentai (Ki-51s) at Anyang and the 48th Sentai (Ki-43s) at Nanching (these units were transferred from Manchuria where they had been under the command of the 2nd Hikoshidan). They were then placed under the command of the 5th Kokugun commander who, in turn, placed all air units in the Honan Province under the commander of the 2nd Hikodan.
Meantime, the main force of the light bombers and fighters attacked important enemy airfields in the Honan and Shensi Provinces and prevented the enemy from advancing in the Honan Province.

The enemy had stationed a powerful element of the United States and Chinese Air Force in the Liangshan-Enshih area and the main force of the United States Air Force in the Kweilin and Suichuan districts. Only a few P-40s conducted reconnaissance flights or attempted to intercept Japanese aircraft in the Honan Province but, the main force frequently flew central China and attempted to disrupt preparations for the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation.

The 5th Kokugun commander, therefore, decided to attempt to secure air supremacy in the Suichuan and Hengyang areas by attacking enemy airfields in that area before the opening of the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation.

In the end of April, the 9th Sentai moved from Anking to Xinxiang.

Operations

2 April 1944
Two B-24s from 14th AF on a sea sweep from Hong Kong to Formosa bombed a 215-ft (66 m) ship (reported sunk) and damaged a large motor launch.

3 April 1944
Four rocket-firing P-40s from the 14th AF, with eight others as top cover, damaged two large riverboats between Hengyang and Ichang.

5 April 1944
23 A6Ms from Hainan Island launched a major day attack on Nanning, claiming to have destroyed two B-25s and three P-40s on the ground and shooting down nine P-40s (two unconfirmed). However, two of the A6Ms exploded and seven did not return.
Known killed pilot were Lieutenant (junior grade) Tsuneo Nakahara (Pilot 12), Corporal Takeo Kume (Otsu 9), PO1c Tasuke Okabe (Otsu 13), PO1c Tomio Kitaoka (Otsu 13) and PO1c Asagorō Ishioka (Otsu 12). These five pilots were all from Sanya Kokutai. The other two killed were Corporal Kaname Yoshimatsu (Pilot 41) and Corporal Sakae Mori (Pilot 50) from Kaiko Kokutai.

6 April 1944
P-40s of 14th AF from Suichan pounded a barrack south-west of Nanchang, causing heavy damage.

A B-25 strike from 14th AF during the night of 6/7 Apr on airfields near Canton was curtailed by bad weather; only one B-25 reached the target, dropping fragmentation bombs on revetments.

7 April 1944
Seven P-40s from the 14th AF strafed three barges and several junks at Saint John Island, leaving them burning.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF on a sweep from Hong Kong to Formosa claimed a large riverboat and a small freighter sunk and two other freighters damaged. One of the B-24s was lost.

The 90th Sentai launched three attacks on Kweilin, two Ki-48s were lost in these attacks.

8 April 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF damaged several small ships in Yulinkan Bay.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF strafed an airfield on Weichow Island.

Eight P-40s from the 14th AF pounded oil dumps at Wanling, leaving the target area in flames.

Nine B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the airfield on Samah Bay, Hainan Island while four others laid mines in the bay.

9 April 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF claimed a 200-ft (61 m) tanker sunk off Cape Bastion and three fighters shot down over Yulinkan Bay.

13 April 1944
28 fighters from the 14th AF attempted to intercept but failed to make contact with 13 Japanese airplanes, which bombed Namyung.

14 April 1944
Four Ki-48s form the 90th Sentai and four Ki-44 escorts from the 85th Sentai from Canton attacked Nanhsiung in a day attack, claiming a small plane destroyed on the ground.

19 April 1944
Sergeant Major Yoshio Tagomori (Sho-5) was killed over Formosa.

20 April 1944
The squadron commanders from CACW who would be participating in Mission A were called to Kweilin to get their final instructions for the move north and the action that would follow. It was planned that the units would fly out as soon as the weather permitted - which, unfortunately, proved to be more than a week later.
Late that afternoon, after the meeting, Major Howard Cords, the high-spirited and popular young commander of the 8th FS (CACW), climbed into his P-40 and headed back to Lingling. It was nearly dark when he reached the field and buzzed the hostel area. But then, Cords misjudged his landing.
As the P-40 lined up on final approach, it faltered and mushed into the top of a tree off the end of the runway. The fighter's left wing broke in half, and the aircraft carried about another 100 yards before it crashed into the side of a hill and exploded. Cords was thrown 200 feet from the P-40 in the explosion and was killed instantly. His stunned squadron mates shipped his body by train to Kweilin, then on to Kunming. Captain Harvey Davis assumed command of the 8th FS (CACW), with Captain Ray Callaway taking his place as operations officer.

21 April 1944
Four IJAAF light bombers with four fighters bombed Chinese airfields at Hanchung and Paochi at 09:30, returning again to Paochi at 14:15.

22 April 1944
One Ki-48 bomber from the 16th Sentai crashed near Kaifeng in one of the many sorties launched against retreating Chinese troops, killing all four on board.

Two IJAAF light bombers and 13 fighter-bombers from Wencheng attacked Sian airfield. Another attack was launched against the airfield at Hanyang near Sian.

23 April 1944
14 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded an artillery post at Sienning and cavalry forces at Kuan-Fou-Chiao.

Two P-40s from the 14th AF strafed barracks south of Tengchung and two P-38s hit a truck convoy and barracks south of Chiengmai.

24 April 1944
B-25s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep hit two small steamers off Cape Bastion with cannon fire, claiming one vessel sunk and the other left burning.

A B-29 piloted by Brigadier General LaVern G. Saunders, Commanding General 58th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy), arrived at Kwanghan, China. Accompanying the B-29 was another carrying Major General Kenneth B. Wolfe, Commanding General XX Bomber Command. These are the first B-29s to fly over the Hump to China.

26 April 1944
Japanese fighters made their first interception of B-29s as they are flying over the Hump. The brief confrontation resulted in no losses on either side.

25 April 1944
Twelve Ki-48 bombers from the 16th Sentai attacked Lushih airfield.

27 April 1944
Rocket-firing P-40s from the 14th AF attacked 20 junks south of Shasi.

28 April 1944
26 B-24s from the 14th AF, escorted by ten P-51s, damaged two bridges over the Yellow River north of Chengchow (the capture of which by Japanese troops is acknowledged by the Chinese who evacuate Hulaokuan), and pounded a nearby storage area.
The 5th Kokugun experienced great difficulties in protecting the Pawangcheng Bridge across the Yellow River. It stationed the 9th Sentai with Ki-44s at Xinxiang to provide aerial defence to this area. However, the Sentai had only about ten fighters, which could be used and its advanced warning radar at Kaifeng was out of order. It was impossible, therefore to carry out interception operations successfully. Finally, 26 B-24s succeeded in bombing and temporarily damaging the bridge (the Japanese reported that the bridge was damaged the following day, 29 April).

Two P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed a troop column north-east of Tengchung.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF on reconnaissance damaged a small steamer off the east coast of Hainan Island.

16 P-40s and six B-25s from the 14th AF pounded Yangsin while 18 P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s strafed Nanchang barracks.

29 April 1944
B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a warehouse and barracks at Shayang and attacked three motor launches at Chiuchiang, leaving them burning.

Twelve IJAAF light bombers were dispatched to help support ground troops in their stalled assault on Hsuchang.

The first mission flown by the East China Task Force was a two-plane sweep along the coast from Foochow to Wenchow led by Captain John Washington.
First Lieutenant William Waggaman led a river sweep near Kuikiang later that day.

30 April 1944
Six Ki-48 bombers form the 16th Sentai and twelve Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai attacked Ankang airfield, claiming to have destroyed many targets and shooting down one of four aircraft taking off.

The first sorties of Mission A, as well as the first casualty, was recorded by the 8th FS (CACW). Captain Davis and Lieutenant Lung C. J. took off in the two P-43s at Liangshan on a local alert, but they failed to find any incoming Japanese raiders. On returning to base, Lieutenant Lung, who had considerable P-43 experience before joining the CACW, crashed into a rice paddy and was killed. The cause of the crash was never determined, but the CACW apparently never used the surviving Lancer again.

May 1944

The ground war

During May, the Japanese pushed south of the Yellow River in several drives. From the infamous bridge at Chungmow they pushed south down the Peking-Hankow rail line to Saiping, with little substantive opposition from the Chinese ground forces. The main drive split off to the west after reaching Hsuchang, then headed back north from Luchow to Loyang. From there the Japanese moved southwest again to Loning and eventually pushed all the way to Lushih, which was only about 100 miles east of the strategic city of Hsian.
Another drive, meanwhile, pushed across the Yellow River north of Mienchih and moved west to Lingpao, also threatening Hsian.

On 9 May, the Peking-Hankow railway resumed operation.

In a drive to free the Burma Road, Chinese troops cross the Salween River on a 100-mile (160 km) front and attacked Japanese positions in north Burma on 10 May.

On 27 May, the Japanese 11th Army opened the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation.
With the development of the operation, the zone of occupation was reduced to a long narrow corridor along the Yangtze River and the Hsiang Chiang, which was constantly subjected to enemy air attacks.

The Japanese Peking-Hankow Operation ended in the end of May.

Chinese Air Force

The new 5th FG squadrons, the 26th and 29th, moved from Kweilin up to Lingling on 1 May with their twelve remaining P-40s.
They were pulled out of Suichwan on 30 May. They next went to Hengyang, where they joined the 23rd FG (USAAF) for twelve missions in the next six days.
The B-25s had been pulled out of Suichwan on May 22, when the gas supply there began to run low, and resumed operations from Kweilin after the B-25s had been serviced at Yang Tong.

Colonel Morse moved the CACW wing headquarters down to Liuchow on 11 May.

In the face of the Japanese attacks on the ground, the Mission A forces attacked relentlessly from the air throughout the month.

At the beginning of May the 11th PG were rushed to Sian to participate in the battle for western Hunan and Hubei provinces. They were equipped with P-40s and took part till the end of the campaign, completing 685 sorties, but achieving no notable successes.

On 5 May, the 28th PS traded places with the 7th PS and flew to its new home at Enshih from Ankang.

Toward the end of the month a detachment of B-25s from CACW moved up to Hanchung to be closer to the Japanese advance on Hsian.

During May, the 28th FS flew 36 missions from its base at Enshih and lost nine fighters and several key personnel.
Located as it was, with only about 100 miles from the Japanese lines at I-ch'ang, the 28th FS was responsible for keeping the IJAAF away from the CACW bases to the west. The squadron was successful in denying the Japanese daylight use of their airfields at I-ch'ang, Shasi, Yangyang, and Kingmen. As a result, the Japanese carried out only night attacks against the key base at Liangshan.
Dick Daggett, a pilot who would join the 28th FS later in May, recalls the base at Enshih:

“The base was good. The fighter strip had mountains on three sides, so we usually took off and landed in one direction. At dusk the P-40s were taxied to the caves. These caves in a nearby mountain were dug out by hand by the Chinese, and these caves helped to keep the few planes we had safe from the Jap bombers, which only came over at night, usually only one bomber at a time. We would usually stay in the sack until we started to hear the bombs going off, and then we would dive for the trenches.”

After the death of Captain Jim Bush of the 28th FS on 27 May, he was replaced as operating officer of the unit by Captain James Sagmiller.

The 8th FS spent the first half of the month mostly pinned down to air-defence duties at Liangshan, but finally seven P-47s of the 33rd FG (USAAF) arrived from Chengtu to help out, and the 8th FS went north to join the 7th FS at Ankang.
The two squadrons commenced to wage a furious, four-day campaign of ground attacks against the Japanese Yellow River advance. In one strafing mission near Loning, they wiped out an entire cavalry regiment with their low-level attacks. The hectic pace took its toll on aircraft, however, and by 22 May, the two squadrons together only had nine P-40s operational.

Unlike the 26th and 29th fighter squadrons, the last two squadrons of the 5th FG did not cross the Hump into China together. The press of operations against Ichi-Go, coupled with the loss of half the 5th’s P-40s to Mission A in May, made it imperative that the CACW pilots and fighters in India be sent to China as quickly as possible. The 17th FS, under Major Charles Wilder, was ready to go first, and its pilots flew into China on 29 May. While the P-40 pilots had flown across India, the bulk of the squadron, as well as many of the men assigned to 5th FG headquarters, had a long, dusty train ride across India to endure before reaching Chabua and a transport flight over the Hump. Jim Bennie, who was a crew chief with the 17th, remembers the trip well:

”I was one of the people who was designated to go with what they called the ‘support force.’ The Chinese and Americans and all of our baggage and our tools and all the junk it takes to operate a squadron were put on a train in Karachi… The train trip took about ten days, and we went up to Lahore, over to Delhi, down to Calcutta, and then changed trains and found our way finally up to Chabua.
We all rode together, Chinese and Americans, in the same kind of a passenger car with wooden seats. It was really crude. We were on that train for ten days with the exception of a layover we had at Lahore. While we were on the train we were given American rations: we had C- rations one day and K-rations the next. That is what we lived on on the way across.
We did have quite a few things kind of ingenious, I think. We needed water for coffee, and somebody got the bright idea that we had a steam engine up front loaded with it. Every time the train would stop we would all run up front with our canteen cups, and the engineer would fill our canteen cups out of the boiler. When we wanted to take a bath we would run up to the front end and shower. The water the engine takes on at water stops would be pulled for us, and we would have an instant shower. That is how we got across India. It was a wonderful experience for a young person to see India that way.
Anyway, we got into Chabua, and it was hot and miserable. We flew C-46s across the Hump into Luliang and eventually got some air transportation on up into Chihkiang with all of our junk and everything.
The Chinese, when they got into Luliang, had all kinds of black market material they were selling, and they just had a field day counting their money. I have to admit that I managed to sell a couple of cartons of cigarettes at $23 a carton, and I thought that was absolutely beyond belief. Inflation, at the time we arrived in China, was 200 Chinese dollars to one American dollar, and ultimately the inflation figure was 2,000 to 1, but hovered around 1,700 to 1,800 at the very latter part of the war, which in eighteen months was just a fantastic inflation rate.
When we got to Chihkiang, which was a fighter strip about 3,000 feet long and carved off the top of a hill, they had two squadrons on each end of the runway, and we operated that way. We in the 17th operated from the far end of the runway; we were farthest away from everything. The 27th was the other squadron with us.
We had our P-40s there, and the other two squadrons had the other end. About a half-mile away was the revetment area, which was down in a kind of rice paddy area away from the main part of the runway. We used to put our airplanes there every night – take them down and park them.”
Another 17th crew chief, Glen “Red” Burnham, recalled the difficulty the crew chiefs had moving the P-40s from the alert areas to the revetments. A narrow taxi strip between two rice paddies connected the revetments from the runway, and the crew chiefs had to taxi the nose-high fighters across it every morning and back every night. Burnham said this required even more skill than might be expected because the P-40 seats were designed for pilots wearing seat-pack parachutes, so the crew chiefs had to stand in a half-crouch while they operated the rudder pedals, because if they sat down on the seat they wouldn’t be able to see out of the cockpit. Burnham also recalls incurring the wrath of his squadron commander one morning when he gave his P-40 a bit too much throttle and taxied down the runway with the tail wheel off the ground.
Again, Jim Bennie recalls the layout of Chihkiang:
”Approximately a mile from the revetments was the living area. That was divided, the Chinese in one area, the American enlisted in one area, and the officers in one area. They had a couple of buildings there that were designated for the orderly room, the medic’s clinic, and the dining hall. The dining hall was set up where the kitchen was in the middle; one side was enlisted and the other side for the officers. The food was predominantly Chinese: rice and water buffalo meat, caribou, bean sprouts, et cetera. We did have eggs in the morning and lived on them quite a bit.
The quarters initially were just the wooden barracks, but later on the base got kind of crowded as they moved other units in, and they put up some winterized tents. Our barracks were not that bad really. They were not airtight by any stretch of the imagination, and the cold air pretty well blew through. We had a potbelly stove that kept us reasonably warm, and we did have electric light and bunk beds. The beds were two by fours with cords slatted between them and net mattresses, just a cotton pad. You had your two blankets and a mosquito net, which was obviously used to keep out mosquitoes but also to keep out rats. Rats were always a problem. I had one that woke me up in the middle of the night that was eating on my hand. I threw him out of bed, washed my hands with rice wine, and went back to sleep. Nothing ever came of it.”

US Army Air Force

During May, the 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-40s, sent a detachment to Yunnani. The 26th FS based at Kunming with P-40s, sent a detachment to Liangshan.

On 6 May, the detachment of 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Yunnani with B-25s returned to base at Yangkai.

The HQ 33rd FG moved from Shwangliu to Pungchacheng on 9 May.

On 12 May, the HQ 81st FG moved from Karachi, India to Kwanghan.
The 92nd FS moved from Karachi, India to Kwanghan on 15 May with P-47s.

The 27th Troop Carrier Squadron, 443rd Troop Carrier Group, moved from Sylhet, India to Yunnani on 21 May. During the next nine months, detachments will operate from Chanyi, Chengdu and Kunming at various times.

On 29 May, the 19th Liaison Squadron, 14th AF, attached to Y Force, moved from Ondal, India to Kunming with L-1s and Stinson L-5s.

IJAAF

Because of the difficulty in repairing airfields, and the delay in shipment of fuel and ammunition, the 5th Kokugun was unable to advance its bases. In consequence, the fighter units, which were charged with protecting the long lines of communication, were compelled to use Pailochi as their base. This meant that they had to fly long distances to engage the enemy and so were limited in the number of flights made each day.

During this period, the enemy air attacks against vessels, vehicles and railways were so severe that daytime transportation of supplies to the front became increasingly difficult.

On 18 May, the 5th Kokugun advanced its command post to Hankou and made the following general disposition of its units in order that it might co-operate to the best advantage with ground operations:

The 1st Hikodan (25th and 48th Sentais (Ki-43s)) was charged with the air defence of the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation zone (including strategic points), the protection of bomber units participating directly in this operation and the protection of vessels on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River from Hsiaochihkou.

The Provisional Air Unit, composed of the 6th Sentai (minus one chutai) (Ki-51s) and the 44th Sentai (minus an element but with the 54th I F Chutai (reconnaissance and direct co-operation aircraft)) was to co-operate directly with the 11th Army.

The 2nd Hikodan, composed of the 85th Sentai (Ki-44s), one chutai of the 6th Sentai (Ki-51s), a part of the 90th Sentai (light bombers), a part of the 44th Sentai (direct co-operation aircraft) and a part of the 18th I F Chutai (Headquarters reconnaissance aircraft) was to give direct co-operation to the ground operation of the 23rd Army and aerial defence to strategic zones. After the completion of the Peiping-Hankou Operation, it was to conduct air battles in the Kweilin and Liuchowhsien areas.

The air units under the direct command of the Army, comprising the 16th Sentai (light bombers), the 90th Sentai (minus an element) (light bombers), the 18th I F Chutai (minus an element) (Headquarters reconnaissance aircraft) and the 55th I F Chutai (Headquarters reconnaissance aircraft) were to take part in the major attacks during the Hunan-Kwangsi Operation, to destroy enemy airfields and to engage the enemy in air battles, whenever possible.

The strength of the force and the airfields used were as bellow:
    From the beginning of Operation to the occupation of Changsha From the occupation of Changsha to the occupation of Hengyang
1st Hikodan 25th Sentai
48th Sentai
Pailochi Pailochi
2nd Hikodan 85th Sentai
Elements of the:
6th Sentai
44th Sentai
90th Sentai
18th I F Chutai
Canton Canton
Provisional Air Unit Main force of:
6th Sentai
44th Sentai
54th I F Chutai
Puchi
(Pailochi)
Changsha
(Pailochi)
(Saingtan)
  9th Sentai
16th Sentai
90th Sentai
18th I F Chutai
55th I F Chutai
Xinxiang
Anyang (Wuchang)
Tungshan (Hankou)
Hankou
Hankou
Xinxiang
Anyang (Wuchang)
Tungshan (Hankou)
Hankou
Hankou
( ) Indicates airfields used for staging.

The 5th Kokugun made every endeavour to regain its fighting capacity and by the beginning of this operation, had regained its power:

Unit Number of usable aircraft Number of Officers Number of WO and NCO
5th Kokugun HQ   1 (1) 4 (5)
1st Hikodan HQ   1 (1) 1 (3)
9th Sentai 11 Ki-43s
14 Ki-44s
   
25th Sentai 22 Ki-43s 8 (17) 36 (40)
48th Sentai 26 Ki-43s    
85th Sentai 8 Ki-43s
32 Ki-44s
8 (17) 38 (40)
16th Sentai 19 Light bombers 8 29 (36)
90th Sentai 20 Light bombers 9 (12) 24 (36)
6th Sentai 18 Attack aircraft    
44th Sentai 11 Reconnaissance aircraft
14 Direct co-operation aircraft
12 (8) 36 (40)
54th I F Chutai 2 Reconnaissance aircraft 4 (4) 11 (12)
18th I F Chutai 7 Ki-46 6 (4) 11 (6)
55th I F Chutai 5 Ki-46 5 (4) 8 (6)
15th Field Air Repair Depot   1 (1) 2 (4)
23rd Field Air Repair Depot   1 (1) 1 (2)
24th Field Air Repair Depot   0 (1) 3 (4)

( ) is nominal strength.

Totally 217 aircraft:

Ki-43 67 aircraft
Ki-44 46 aircraft
Light bombers 39 aircraft
Attack 18 aircraft
Reconnaissance 13 aircraft
Direct Co-operation 22 aircraft
Ki-46 12 aircraft
64 (83) Officers and 188 (219) WO and NCO.

Also at the same time, the 2nd Hikodan Headquarters and the 6th, 9th and 48th Sentais were under the command of the 5th Kokugun.

In order to strengthen the air bases in the Wuhan and Pailochi areas, construction was begun on a second field at Hankou, two new fields at Wuchang and two at Pailochi before the beginning of the Ichi-Go Operation. These fields, however, were not completed in time to be used during the operation. Operations were begun in the Hunan-Kwangsi area using Pailochi as the principal field and the fields in the Wuhan area as rear air bases. With the development of the situation, bases were established at Hsinshih, Paishachou, Changsha and Hsiangtan. The bases at Hsinshih and Paishachou were used only temporarily while those at Changsha and Hsiangtan were constructed or restored as permanent airfields. Although the bases were poorly supplied with construction tools and supplies, the men made extraordinary efforts to prepare the bases and this, combined with the ingenuity of the air units, made it possible to conceal a few aircraft on each airfield. The narrowness of the occupied area, together with insufficient equipment and poor intelligence facilities, made it impossible to advance the greater part of the fighter units to the forward bases. The 1st Hikodan, therefore, used Pailochi as the base of operations. When the focus of battle moved to the Hengyang area, the fighters found it difficult to advance within striking distance of the battlefield. This permitted the enemy air force to move freely.

Operations

1 May 1944
92 P-40s from the 14th AF hit targets over wide areas of south China, Burma and French Indochina. In China, they strafed the railroad station and airfield at Yuncheng.

Seven B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Tangyang Airfield and nearby cavalry post.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF over Amoy claimed a small freighter sunk.

A reportedly 15 Japanese aircraft bombed the airstrips at Ankang and Hengyang.

The 7th PS, 3rd FG (CACW) arrived to Liangshan and quickly removed the drop tanks and rocket tubes from its P-40s after the 2r/2-hour flight, then went on alert and scrambled at 13:15 to intercept a reported incoming raid. No contact was made with the enemy, however, and the fighters returned to Liangshan.

2 May 1944
Three B-24s from the 14th AF claimed two freighters sunk in the south end of Formosa Straits.

Eight fighters of the 7th FS (CACW) were sent to Enshih to stage for a mission, but the weather turned nasty again, and the planes went nowhere for three more days.

3 May 1944
Seven CACW B-25s bombed the Mihsien town area and also hit numerous vehicles and troops north-east of Mihsien, between Yochou and Hsuchang, at Chihsien and north of Yenling. The B-25s also strafed the town of Hsiangcheng.
Major Foley led three B-25s from the 2nd BS (CACW) in a withering attack against tanks and trucks south of Hsincheng.

Four B-25s and eight P-40s pounded storage area at Tangyang airfield.

Ten P-40s from the 32nd FS (CACW) flew the first strike against the Yellow River Bridge north-west of Chenghsien, dive-bombing the storage area at the single-rail, two-mile-long span. They reported eleven direct hits on the bridge, and destroyed 15 trucks and many troops between Loyang and Luchou. This bridge would remain a major target for the remainder of the war. Heavily defended and simple to repair, the bridge was hit over and over again, but it was never closed for more than a few days.

Ten CACW P-40s scored eleven direct hits on a bridge over the Yellow River north-west of Chenghsien, and destroyed 15 trucks and many troops between Loyang and Luchou.

4 May 1944
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit gun positions at Pailochi.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF strafed twelve sampans between Hong Kong and the Luichow Peninsula, killing many soldiers on board.

The 3rd FG (CACW) lost its Chinese executive officer in a gruesome accident at Hsian when Captain Wang T. C. was killed on the field when he backed into the spinning propeller of a 32nd FS P-40.

5 May 1944
Eight B-25s and 23 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked the warehouse area at Chiuchiang, causing large fires.

25 CACW B-25s and P-40s (8 P-40s from 7th FS taking off from Enshih) thoroughly pounded Sinyang marshalling yard and storage area while ten P-40s sweep the road from Loyang to Juchou, claiming 40-50 vehicles and numerous troops destroyed.
The fighters from the 7th FS landed at Ankang.

The 32nd PS (CACW) registered the first aerial kill claims of Mission A. Eight P-40s were strafing a section of the Luchow-Loyang road at 07:10, which would become known as ”Slaughterhouse Alley” by the end of the month, when Major William Turner and First Lieutenant Keith Lindell spotted a single-engine Japanese dive-bomber reported as a “Val” and teamed up to shoot it down. Then Captain Thomas Maloney and Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Summers, who was assigned to fly with the 32nd FS as fighter control officer, exploded a twin-engine transport.
Several planes were hit during the strafing, and Summers was forced to bail out and walk back to base. Lieutenant Wang S. C. was wounded when an explosive shell hit his P-40 in the cockpit, and he crash-landed near Loyang.
In the strafing, the 32nd FS destroyed 40 to 50 trucks, four armoured cars, and two pillboxes, and killed about 200 Japanese troops.

6 May 1944
61 P-40s and five B-25s from the 14th AF attacked targets throughout south China and French Indochina. In China, numerous vehicles and troops were destroyed in the Hsiangcheng, Loyang and Luchow areas. Main buildings at Nanchang mines were destroyed, Sienning Bridge was damaged and several railroad cars and vehicles were destroyed near Puchi.

The 32nd FS (CACW) returned the Luchow area (”Slaughterhouse Alley”) and shot up 50 more trucks, plus five tanks. Lieutenant Chung H. C. was hit and had to crash-land between Chinese and Japanese lines. He made his way to safety and met up with Lieutenant Colonel Summers (force-landed the day before) at Loning. They hitched a ride into Lushih, where they caught a plane back to Han-chung, arriving on 11 May.

The 8th FS also hit ”Slaughterhouse Alley”, destroying some 100 trucks in a devastating attack. One of the pilots on that mission was Ray Callaway, who recalled:

“We caught a Jap convoy slowed at a river crossing. I had four P-40s with Capt. [Coyd] Yost on my wing and two Chinese in the second element. The convoy consisted of stake trucks carrying troops, tank trucks, and I suppose regular supply ones.
As we started in on them, they held up a large Jap flag, apparently thinking we were friendly planes. As they realized we were not friendly, they piled off the trucks and - to my surprise - did not run for cover but started firing at us with rifles. I recall it clearly as it was the first time I had been hit by rifles. It sounds like stones hitting your fender when driving on a gravel road.
Yost called to me he was hit, and his oil pressure had gone to zero. Expecting him to go down shortly, I went with him and we headed for our staging field. Apparently it was just the line to the oil pressure gauge, and we got to the field okay.
Didn't know my hydraulic system had been hit until I put the gear handle down and I could smell the fluid. No pressure on the hand pump, so I had to belly it in. The prop snapped off and caught under the wing - thought she was going to go over - but luck or someone was with me, and she settled back. The landing tore the gun camera out of the wing and a Chinese coolie picked up the film, which was uncoiled and lying in the path I made in landing, and started running across the field. Chinese guards took after him in a truck and shot him - no questions asked.”

The bombers of the CACW attacked Hsiangcheng with escort from the 7th FS. The town was heavily bombed, and then Major Reed’s fighters swept the road out of town and caught a concentration of troops traveling in motorized columns. These Japanese also apparently mistook the P-40s for friendly aircraft and began cheering and waving flags at them. They quickly realized their mistake when the fighters returned their greeting with a hail of machine-gun fire. Two swift passes were made, in which 25 vehicles were destroyed and about 250 troops killed. Between 11:40 and 11:55. Lieutenant Chang Lo-Min of the 7th FS claimed a probable Japanese fighter (reported as a “Zero”) that ventured near the P-40s in the Hsiangcheng area.

The East China Task Force flew a major strike against airfields at Hankou. Eight of Colonel Irving Branch’s B-25s plus six more from the 11th BS were escorted by 40 fighters from the 23rd FG, and good hits were reported while all the B-25s got home without damage despite heavy antiaircraft fire and fighter interception. Three P-38s and a P-51 were lost by the escorts, however.
The Japanese reported that approximately 45 enemy fighters and bombers carried out a daylight attack against the Wuhan area, inflicting heavy damage.

Major Toshio Sakagawa, commander of the 25th Sentai, claimed three P-51s over Hongchung in a single combat.

Second Lieutenant Moritsugu Kanai of the 25th Sentai returned from Hanzhong due to a drop in hydraulic pressure, but here he took off again to intercept an incoming raid, claiming two P-38s over Xindi.

The Japanese attacked Suichwan during the night.

7 May 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit vehicle concentrations west and north-west of Hsiangcheng and bomb the town of Chiahsien and four P-40s destroyed at least 25 trucks between the two towns.

Eight P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed or damaged 40-60 trucks, tanks and other vehicles during road sweeps from Loyang to Yenshih and from Yehhsien to Paofeng.

Eight P-40s from the 14th AF strafed forces and equipment east of Luchou,

Major Strickland's fighter (28th FS CACW) was hit in the windshield by ground fire. He was wounded in the face, requiring treatment at the big hospital in Chengtu.
Captain Frank Smiley, operations (ops) officer, took temporarily command of 28th FS in Strickland’s absence.

The Japanese attacked Suichwan twice.

10 May 1944
P-40s from the 14th AF sunk six large junks and damaged several others in Fan Tou Bay.

28 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Tengchung, China town area, strafed a nearby truck convoy, damaged bridges at Tingka, China, Bac Le, French Indochina and Hsenwi, Burma. They also hit a power dam at Tasa, French Indochina and bombed a tank and truck dispersal area at Hsiangcheng, China

The 9th Sentai, in supporting the major land offensive against Loyang, destroyed a large number of trucks in a convoy. Its Ki-44s also claimed to have shot down one P-40 in a mixed P-40/B-25 formation near Loyang.

Nine Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai encountered about 5-6 P-40s and P-51s and near Mianchi and claimed to have shot down one P-51.

Twelve Ki-48 bombers of the 16th Sentai started out near midnight from Kingmen to launch a long range attack on the Liangshan airfield. Five failed to locate the target, the rest claimed to have hit part of the airfield.

11 May 1944
24 P-40s from the 14th AF knocked out the main bridge north of Mangshih, bombed the town area of Lungchwanchiang, and in French Indochina, damaged a radio station on Cat Ba Island and destroyed several large junks off shore, and attacked a power dam west of Cao Bang, buildings at Dong Dang, and boxcars and oil drums at Lang Giai.

Six B-25s and 24 P-40s (some firing rockets) from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards and depot at Sinyang, blasted a warehouse area 30 miles (48 km) to the north and sunk a small freighter, three motor launches and several sampans between Siaokan and Chienli.

Two B-25s and four P-40s from the 14th AF hit troops, tanks and trucks in the Yenshih-Tengfeng-Mihsien area and in the Luchou-Hsiangcheng vicinity.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF pounded supply dumps at Mienchih and 13 P-40s sunk at least five supply boats on the Yangtze River in the Hosueh area.

Shortly after lunch, the 7th FS (CACW) provided top cover for a dive-bombing mission by the 32nd FS (CACW) against rail targets at Mienchih. Seven Ki-43s jumped the P-40s just as Major Turner’s fighters were releasing their bombs. Major Reed’s fighters held off the Oscars while the lower P-40s climbed up into the fight. According to one account, Turner climbed up at the diving Oscars while Reed was chasing them down. As a result, the 32nd FS historian noted, ”The two Bills almost shot each other’s pants off.”
Captain Keith Lindell claimed an Oscar Mk. II with a head-on shot that flamed its engine and Second Lieutenant Teng Li-Chun (both from 7th FS) claimed another. These two claims were made at 12:20 near Mienchin.
The 7th FS claimed four Oscars and one damaged at 12:50 over the Yellow River near Pailung. These were made by Captain Yang Yun-Kuang, Captain Yieh Won-Fie, First Lieutenant Tan Kun (2 Oscars) and Major Reed (one damaged).

Captain Frank Smiley, operations (ops) officer and acting commander of 28th FS (CACW) in Major Strickland’s absence, was shot down and killed during a rocket attack on a supply boat at Lichiakou.
Captain Smiley was replaced by Captain Jim Bush as ops officer and acting commander until Strickland could return to duty.

The 9th Sentai recorded its first victory over a P-40 at Luoyang.

Three night attacks were launched against the Suichan airfield by the 16th Sentai to keep the defenders busy in preparation for the major attack on the following day. Several planes were hit on the ground for the loss of a single bomber.

12 May 1944
35 Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai, 18 Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai and six Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai started out from the Wuhan area at 07:00 to attack Suichwan at around 09:00. Catching most of the bombers and fighters on the ground, the attackers also claimed to have shot down one P-40 and one P-51 (with one more probable) besides destroying a large number of bombers and fighters on the ground. The 48th Sentai lost two Ki-43s when Sergeant Katsuji Kurosaka (NCO90) and Sergeant Nobuyuki Hoshi (NCO90) were killed.
The CACW reported the attack at 08:00 and Bob Kruidenier of the 29th FS recalled:

”We were up at 4:40 A.M. and on the line by five o’clock, after a breakfast of cold eggs and horrible coffee. We started getting plots on the Jap planes at 5:30, and it was not long before we knew that they were coming for us. The Chinese warning system informed us that there were seventy-two fighters and around twelve to eighteen bombers on their way to wipe us out.
We had eight P-38s on the field, and they took off with a roar and climbed up to altitudes that a P-40 can never get to. There also were four P-51As, and they took off just ahead of our nine fighters. We were at close to 9,000 feet when the Japs came in. Their bombers came in low, while the sky above them was full of Jap fighters.
This was the first actual combat with the enemy for us, and it was a real scrap for a while as we were badly outnumbered. We dropped our belly tanks and opened the throttles wide. The next few minutes were busy ones for us.
I fired at plenty of Jap fighters that day, and while I was squaring away for a sure kill, a Nip let me have it with all he had. Holes appeared in the canopy; oil and smoke filled the cockpit. In a flash I knew I had let myself become a ‘sitting duck’ for some Jap pilot. I rolled the plane over on its back and headed for Mother Earth, knowing that my would-be killer would not follow down in a high dive as the Jap planes were not capable of withstanding terrifically high diving speeds.
I found that my wheels and flaps would still function, and I was able to make a safe landing on our own field. Not until I viewed the holes in my plane did I realize what a lucky boy I had been. Except for five small needle-like steel splinters which had entered my right leg I was still all in one piece.”
Some of the other pilots had better luck than Kruidenier in the fight and the US and CACW fighters claimed totally five Oscars, 2 probables and four damaged over Suichwan.
Between 06:30-08:00 the P-40s and P-51s of 76th FS claimed three Oscars (1st Lieutenant Stephen Jacob Bonner Jr. (P-40), 1st Lieutenant Charles A. Gibson Jr. (P-51) and Captain Lester K. Murray (P-51)), two probables (1st Lieutenant Wendell C. Stoneham (P-51) and 1st Lieutenant Stephen Jacob Bonner Jr. (P-40)).
1st Lieutenant Fred Scudday Jr. of 449th FS (P-38) claimed an Oscar 10m north-east of Suichwan airfield between 06:30-08:00.
Between 06:50-08:00, the P-40Ns of the 29th FS, 5th FG (CACW) claimed one and four damaged Ki-43s over Suichwan. 1st Lieutenant ‘Ken’ Elston pulled up behind a flight of twelve Ki-43s as they crossed the field and gave one of them a long burst. The Oscar, badly hit, did a half- roll, went into a spin, and crashed. This was the first confirmed victory for the 5th FG. He also claimed an additional damaged. The three other damaged Ki-43s were claimed by Major William Hull, 2nd Lieutenant Wang Pin-Lin and 1st Lieutenant Leng Pei-Su.

31 Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai, 15 Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai and six Ki-48s each from the 16th and 90th Sentai returned in the afternoon at around 15:45 and claimed to have shot down two P-40s (two more probable) out of the six P-38 and more than ten P-40 interceptors, beside destroying some 20 aircraft on the ground. Two light bombers of the 90th Sentai crashed and three other aircraft crashed-landed on the way back.
The 25th Sentai was criticized for not protecting the light bombers properly, leading to the losses.
The CACW reported this second alert at 13:30 and that this raid consisted of twelve Ki-48 Lily bombers and 35 fighter escorts. Again 76th FS, 449th FS and 29th FS were involved in the combat claiming 2 Lily, 1 probable and 3 damaged with an additional Oscar damaged.
Between 13:20-15:05, 1st Lieutenant Wendell C. Stoneham of 76th FS (P-51) claimed one Lily, one probable and one damaged over Suichwan.
Between 13:30-14:30, Captain ‘Fred’ Ploetz of 29th FS (CACW) (P-40N) first damaged a Lily and then chased one of the bombers across Suichwan airfield, firing from behind during its bomb run, and shot it down. His own fighter, however, was damaged by return fire from the bomber and he crash-landed about fifteen miles from the field. He walked into base the next morning. Major William Hull from the same unit claimed a second Lily as a damaged.
The last claim was made at 14:00, when 2nd Lieutenant Keith Mahon of 449th FS (P-38) claimed a damaged Oscar 10m north of YK9, Suichwan area.

A sharp battle on the ground and in the air began at the end of spring. On 12 May five P-40Ns led by the commander of the 23rd PS (CAF), Chen Lokong attacked a Japanese motor column on the Transcontinental Highway at Loyang. Near the target, the P-40s came under heavy antiaircraft fire. One pilot was seriously wounded and made a forced landing, but the other four vanished without a trace. Nobody returned to base.

That same day seven aircraft from the CAF completed an attack on Luoyang and Yichuan, attacking a Japanese armoured column. According to Chinese sources, they managed to burn more than thirty armoured vehicles. The flight commander was shot down over the target and two more damaged aircraft made forced landings.

The 1st BG lost its first crew in several months on a sea sweep along the coast. Lieutenant L. G. Sheppard, a former Royal Air Force pilot on his first mission in China, was hit by antiaircraft fire during an attack on a gunboat east of Hong Kong. His B-25 hit the mast of the boat and exploded, killing the entire crew. Lost, besides Sheppard, were Lieutenant Wu W.W., the navigator, plus Staff Sergeant A. R. Kerlin, Sergeant W. A. Grimes, and Corporal H. G. Sarver.

16 P-40s and 11 B-25s from the 14th AF hit several targets in south China and in French Indochina. In China, military installations, artillery positions and tank concentrations were pounded in the Yoyang area, a bridge and several trucks were damaged at Sienning, a naval vessel was attacked at Hong Kong.
As the Japanese drive continued, the 2nd BS (CACW) flew all of its missions in mid-May on ground support near Loyang. One mission during the day was flown with Captain Churchill leading five B-25s against artillery emplacements.

13 May 1944
19 B-25s from the 14th AF hit storage and warehouse areas at Mangshik and Lungling, a bridge at Hsenwi, truck and tank concentrations south-west of Loyang, and town area of Lungling.

39 P-40s from the 14th AF hit military installations at Mengta and Tating, a village north of Kaitou Bridge at Tingka and a truck concentration at Yingyangchen.
Captain Sanders of the 2nd BS (CACW) returned from a mission to Loyang with 75 holes in his B-25.

14 May 1944
60 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit trucks at Yoyang, river shipping, boxcars, and trucks at Pailochi and Sienning and a storage area at Shayang.

20 other P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed towns near Mamien Pass, Pingkai and areas around Mengta and Tating.

The 25th Sentai claimed four victories over Bailuqi.

Six Ki-48 bombers from the 2nd Chutai of the 16th Sentai hit Kenow at 22:58, and six more from the 1st Chutai hit Yushan.
The airfield at Kenow was rendered temporarily unusable.

15 May 1944
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed troops near along Mamien Pass and in the Mengta area.

First Lieutenant Shinji Tatsu (NCO81) of the 6 Kyoiku Hikotai was killed in an accident on Formosa.

From 15 May until 23 May, bad weather scrubbed all missions for the 2nd BS (CACW). Several were tried, but each time the B-25s were forced to return to Liangshan.

16 May 1944
Eight B-24s from the 14th AF blasted the motor pool and warehouse areas at Mangshih.

During the day, Major ‘Bill’ Reed’s 7th FS (CACW) was out to find a P-40 of the Chinese 4th FG that was down behind Japanese lines and destroy it before it could be captured. Reed and Captain Armit W. ‘Bill’ Lewis took off that morning to look for the P-40 in a mission between 07:40-11:15. They found a lone Japanese dive-bomber (reported as a Val) instead and promptly took turns shooting at it until the stricken craft went down five miles north-west of Loyang.
Later that day Reed led another flight out to look for the missing P-40. 15 miles north-west of Loyang, Reed and Captain Wilbur Walton spotted a Ki-43 Oscar and shot it down at 15:45, sharing credit for it. Then another dive-bomber was seen, and Reed shot it down by himself five miles south-west of Loyang at 16:00. Finally the flight ran into three Ki-44 Tojos eight miles south-west of Loyang and attacked. Reed claimed one destroyed and another damaged. Walton claimed the third enemy fighter destroyed. First Lieutenant Tan Kun was shot down but later returned to the 7th FS.
The CAF P-40 never was found, but Reed was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for the day’s work.

The 9th Sentai lost two pilots when Sergeant Shin-ichi Bando (Sho-8) and Corporal Hiroyasu Ito (Sho-10) were killed over Luoyang.

17 May 1944
P-40s from the 14th AF supported ground forces at Mamien Pass, hit Japanese positions at Tatangtzu, damaged a bridge and several trucks at Shweli, Burma, strafed troops at Luchiangpa and bombed and strafed a horse pack train near Tengchung.

Seven B-25s and 13 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded the Shayang barracks area and hit troops and vehicles north-east of Shasi.

25 Ki-43s of the 25th Sentai tailed enemy planes bombing Shasi and got into a major dogfight over Hengyang. The Sentai lost two pilots when First Lieutenant Koji Morita (Class 55) and Corporal Fukuji Tagami were killed over Hengyang and two more Ki-43s were damaged. In exchange they claimed two P-40s destroyed.

18 May 1944
Six B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF pounded barracks and warehouse areas at Chienyangi, causing many fires.

Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the towns of Lungling and Tengchung.

25 CACW and CAF P-40s attacked trucks, armour and troops at Chueh-shan and Loning, causing widespread destruction.

19 May 1944
13 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the Puchi area and 16 P-40s and P-38s damaged a bridge at Tayeh and hit military installations and other buildings at Yangsin.

Eleven P-51s from the 14th AF bombed a village near Anking, causing large explosions and fires.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep seriously damaged two freighters south of Hong Kong.

16 CACW P-40s pounded trucks, tanks and troops in the Ichang-Tangyang-Loyang area and attacked river traffic at Itu on the Yangtze River.

20 May 1944
19 B-24s from the 14th AF attacked a convoy south of Hong Kong claiming two motor launches sunk and damaging several larger vessels. Three B-24s were lost at sea.

37 P-40s from the 14th AF hit trucks, armoured vehicles, river traffic and troops in or near Shasi, Ichang, Tangyang, Chingmen, Loyang and Loning.

21 May 1944
Japanese antiaircraft shot down a P-40N of the 22nd PS, 4th PG, which was flying a reconnaissance mission on the outskirts of Hancheng.

22 May 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF attacked a large concentration of sampans in Honghai Bay. Two others heavily damage a 150-ft (45.7 m) cargo vessel near Hong Kong.

22 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the town of Anking and military area north-east of Nanchang.

24 P-40s from the 14th AF hit the Sienning area, bombing a factory west of town, damaging a bridge near town, and strafing numerous trucks in the vicinity.

23 P-40s from the 14th AF hit road and river traffic in areas around Loyang, Loning, and Itu.

Five P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Yangsin.

The 28th FS (CACW) scored two aerial victories in a mission between 09:50-10:35 when a pair of Ki-43 Oscars attacked a formation that was strafing boats on the Yangtze River. Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Strickland (CO) turned his flight head-on to the Oscars and hit one of them in the first pass. Then he turned right and came around behind the crippled fighter and shot it down with another burst. The flight concentrated next on the other Oscar and sent it down in flames, too. Captain Bush described the attackers in a precise yet artistic manner: ”They were Oscar lIs and painted like speckled trout.” First Lieutenant Meng Shao-Yi and Second Lieutenant Chao Yen-Kun shared credit for the second Oscar. Both victories were reported on the east bank of the Yangtze River, north of Hosueh.

During the week prior to 22 May the 32nd FS (CACW) was grounded at Hanchung by the weather. During that time rocket tubes were installed on the fighters. Then on the 22nd the squadron staged through Ankang to make a rocket attack on armoured cars, tanks, and cavalry at Loyang.
The squadrons landed from the mission at Hsian.

23 May 1944
The 22nd PS’s vice-commander, Ji Chengtao went missing in action.

The Chinese airfield commander refused to gas up the P-40s of the 32nd FS (CACW) at Hsian because he hadn’t been allowed to pick that day’s target for the fighters. The planned mission had to be postponed for a day while the feathers were unruffled.

24 May 1944
The 32nd FS (CACW) dive-bombed and rocketed a target on Yuncheng.

Captain Armit Lewis of the 7th FS (CACW) made the ultimate statement of his feelings about his enemies during an attack on anti-aircraft batteries at Shanhsien. The young officer, according to squadron lore, accomplished a feat worthy of Houdini by somehow lowering his pants, defecating into a brilliant orange scarf, then dropping his stink bomb out of the cockpit onto the surprised Japanese gunners below! ”Yes, it is true,” Lewis confirmed in 1985. ”Being an old farm boy at heart, I was used to having my ‘morning constitutional’ on time, every morning. For some reason on that particular day our takeoff was moved up a couple of hours. When we got over the target area I found I was becoming more interested in a call of nature than I was in looking out for Zeroes. Off with the parachute harness, removal of my fine embroidered silk scarf, and the movement was accomplished - along with frequent interrogations from my Chinese wingman: ‘Whassa matter? You all light?’ Disposed of the debris, back on with the parachute, and on with the mission. It wasn’t easy! And, of course, I never lived it down. Never did get another scarf as fine as that one was, either.”

26 May 1944
23 P-40s from the 14th AF sunk several supply boats on the Yangtze River near Shihshow, strafed troops at Shasi, hit road traffic near Loyang and strafed pontoon bridges, supply dumps and troops at Shanhsien.

Seven P-40s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Hsing-tzu.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF damaged a small tanker north of Swatow.

13 Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai encountered eight P-40s over Kingmen and claimed to have shot down one P-40.

Six Ki-48s from the 16th Sentai escorted by 18 Ki-42s from the 48th Sentai hit Changsha at 18:52, destroying major military targets include the radio station.

27 May 1944
Six Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai escorted by ten Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai attacked the airfield at Laohokao at 08:11.

At 10:30, eleven Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai intercepted three P-40s over Shihshou, claiming one shot down.

24 rocket-firing P-40s from the 14th AF hit the barracks area west of Sinyang, military installations and trucks at Nanchang, and troops, trucks, barracks, and warehouse area in the Puchi vicinity.

The 44th Sentai launched major ground support attacks in conjunction with the land offensive, totalling more than 300 sorties between May 27 and June 2. In particular, the Sentai claimed to have destroyed dozens of Chinese boats trying to ferry retreating Chinese troops to safety.

Captain Jim Bush of the 28th FS (CACW) was shot down and killed when he was jumped by enemy fighters during a strafing attack on riverboats (25th Sentai?).

28 May 1944
14 P-40s from the 14th AF in support of ground forces in the Salween area strafed oil storage at Hsiangta, bombed and strafed the Watien area, and destroyed a bridge and damaged another on the Shweli River north of Tengchung.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF sunk a patrol boat and damage another near Saint John Island.

The 54th Independent Chutai played a crucial role in guiding a fleet of 170 motor boats which was heading in the wrong direction in Tungting Lake, allowing the troops to reach their destination on time.

29 May 1944
Seven B-24s from the 14th AF pounded areas along the Burma Road, three bombed the town of Wanling, Burma, and two attacked a convoy of Hainan Island claiming a 250-ft (76 m) freighter sunk.

26 P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked troops at Lushan, pounded barracks and demolished seven trucks at Yuanchu, bombed and strafed the general area at Nanchang and destroyed several buildings along the Hsiang River north of Changsha.

30 May 1944
48 fighters from the 14th AF supported ground forces in the Mamien Pass-Watien-Chiangtso area.

31 supply aircraft from the 14th AF dropped food and ammunition to friendly forces in the Mamien Pass area.

13 B-25s from the 14th AF damaged the Wan Pa-Hsa, Burma bridge and bombed Lungling, destroying six warehouses and starting several big fires.

Eight P-51s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets of opportunity on sweeps from Peking, Chengting, Pingting, Linfen and Puchou.

16 P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF dive-bombed installations at the west end of the Nanchang bridge, causing much damage.

Five B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF strafed troops, supplies, and occupied strongpoints at Loyang and at several locations along the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers.

Japanese air strikes on Hengyang and Liangshan Airfields destroyed four USAAF aircraft, damaged several others, and blew up a fuel dump.
The Japanese attacked the CACW in night-bombing raids against Liangshan throughout the month. On the night of 30 May, Master Sergeant Clyde “Pop” Casto, the 3rd FG’s engineering chief was killed by a bomb blast, just days before he was due to return to the United States at the end of his tour in China.
Technical Sergeant McAdams, who had been manning a .50-caliber machine gun mounted near the runway, was knocked out by the bomb blast. In the same raid one CACW P-40 and a P-47 of the 33rd FG (USAAF) were destroyed, and two P-40s, a P-47, and a P-51 of the 51st FG (USAAF) were damaged. In addition, two P-40s collided while they were trying to intercept the raiders, and both were damaged.

Major William Turner, CO 32nd FS (CACW) led a rocket attack on Linfen Airfield. Major Turner and Keith Lindell hit the field first while Maloney and Captain Herman Byrd, who had transferred from the 8th FS (CACW), covered. When the four had finished, six Oscars and a transport had been destroyed. Then the four flew to Hotsin Airfield, where a P-51 had been captured when its pilot had landed there by mistake, and strafed the U.S. fighter into ashes.

31 May 1944
51 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded shipping along the Yangtze River, claiming direct hits on five small ships.

16 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Kweiyi and Yoyang and installations on the river to the south.

Ten P-38s from the 14th AF bombed the bridge and warehouse area at Nanchang.

Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Pingkiang.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hankou airfield, Pailochi, and motor convoy at Yoyang.

Six other B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out the bridge at Kengluang.

13 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the town of Lungling, causing big fires.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed several aircraft during strafing runs on Linfen and Hohsien Airfields.

June 1944

The ground war

The Battle of I-ch’ang opened on 9 June.

The Japanese were making steady progress down the Hsiang River Valley in the Ichi-Go Operation. The Japanese bypassed the Chinese General Hsieh Yueh (nicknamed ”The Tiger of Changsha” in honour of his previous defences of the city) at Changsha and then set out for Hengyang. Despite continuous rain, the Japanese 11th Army occupied Changsha on 18 June.

The base at Hengyang was evacuated and destroyed on June 21 when it became impossible to fly any more missions there because of the Japanese advance. The Chinese army held out at Hengyang until August 8, however, long after the Ichi-Go drive had passed them by but the Japanese 11th Army occupied the Hengyang airfield on 26 June.

Chinese Air Force

June 1944 was as a month of transition of the CACW. The Mission A squadrons were constantly in flux, staging from one base to another for their next crack at the Japanese; the wing headquarters was settling in at Liuchow, where it was expected the CACW would concentrate soon to support the Chinese forces in South China; the 5th FG was moving from Lingling to its new home at Chihkiang, and the 1st BG was getting ready for a move from Kweilin up to Peishiyi, near the Chinese capital at Chungking. Then, just as the wing headquarters was getting to know its way around Liuchow, orders were received to move again up to Peishiyi and join the 1st BG there. This move couldn’t have been mourned much by the headquarters personnel: the rain at Liuchow had been so bad in June that telephone poles had sunk in the soggy ground on either side of a railroad line and began to lean toward each other; when a train came by one night, it snagged the drooping lines around the engine’s stack, pulled up the poles by their roots, and dragged them down the track as they banged against the sides of the cars.

Very serious losses were inflicted on the 3rd and 4th FG in June and when the 4th FG was rebased to Chungking, they only had 21 fighters left.

Despite the disappointing performance of the all-Chinese units and the fact that the CACW had not been able to deny the Japanese their objectives, the squadrons had extracted a tremendous toll from the enemy during Mission A. As a result, the CACW units involved were honoured with a unit citation for their action from 1 May to 30 June 1944. The citation quoted the following totals for Mission A:

”In two months’ battle, the wing accounted for 2,317 enemy troops killed or wounded; 1,321 cavalry and packhorses destroyed or damaged; and 110 riverboats – two of them more than 100 feet in length – destroyed or damaged. In addition, extensive destruction and damage was wrought on railroad marshalling yards, dock areas, gasoline dumps, gun positions, and other installations.”
This was by no means the sum total of the CACW’s toll on the Japanese since 1 May, however, because the 5th FG and the other B-25 crews of the 1st BG had been busy down south fighting a similar battle against the massive new Ichi-Go offensive.

From Hengyang, the 5th FG fighters flew escort and intercept missions, as well as shipping strikes on Tungting Lake, against the main thrusts of the Ichi-Go offensive, which had jumped off 26 May. The offensive initially consisted of six lines of attack, which greatly confused the Chinese, then consolidated into three thrusts. One force moved directly south from Yochow toward Changsha while two others ran parallel, one on each side, headed toward points south of Changsha on the Hsiang River. As the offensive pushed south, the fighters were used to attack the advance itself, the final Hengyang mission on 5 June being a strafing attack on Japanese troops west of Yuankiang.
The offensive moved south with such speed that it was soon decided to move the 5th FG back to Lingling and then on to Chihkiang, which was about 175 miles northeast of Hengyang. While C-47s were beginning to transport 5th FG ground personnel out of Lingling, Captain Sam Carran lead a Jeep convoy toward the same destination.

The 5th FG completed its move to Chihkiang on 9 June. It wasn’t long afterward that Captain Sam Carran was moved to write this description of his new base in the 26th FS history:

”Our field was a picturesque spot. Situated at the western base of the Paima Shan Mountains, it lies in a small, fertile valley formed by the Hung Kieng River as it flows about the feet of the surrounding mountains. Heavy rainfall keeps the valley green … colors are vivid and contrasting, sudden strange fogs and brilliant sunsets are frequent. The rugged, off-shaped peaks, with clouds floating through them, form an eerie backdrop for a ‘Land of Oz’-like scene.
These mountains serve for us a useful purpose but represent, too, a difficult problem. They present a reassuring barrier, lying as they do athwart the path the Jap would need to follow should he choose to veer his advancing columns toward our base. However, each mission we run must necessarily cross these towering heights, and they provide a formidable obstacle, with the consequence that many and varied weather as well as navigational difficulties daily confront our airmen.”
Bob Kruidenier was another who recorded his impression of Chihkiang:
”At Chihkiang we had 40,000 coolies working on the field repairing runways and building revetments to park our planes in at night. There were coolies everywhere you looked. They carried two baskets hung on the end of a pole, which they carried balanced across their shoulders. The loads they carried were surprisingly heavy, and how they stood up under the hard labor with only a little rice to eat each day will always be a mystery to me.
There were whole families of Chinese, and everyone worked, including the women and children, with the women carrying loads just as heavy as the men. The picture made by these 40,000 coolies was one of a colony of ants moving in single file, each carrying his load in silence and with one thought in mind, that of completing a task.”

The last fighter squadron to fly to China was the 27th FS, which left Malir on 22 June. Colonel Frank Rouse and his group executive officer, Major Clifford Condit, led the formation of twelve fighters. The ground echelon of the 27th FS left Malir during the first week of July.
Condit had been at Malir since the very beginning of CACW training, spending nearly a year at the base in charge of keeping the war-weary training P-40s and B-25s in the air. He recalls finding out what a small world aviation was in the 1940s:

”The first unusual experience was my introduction to the Chinese training commander who lived in the barracks next to ours: Colonel Li, whom I immediately recognized as a Chinese I had taught to fly in Chicago in 1926. He had served in World War I with the Americans in France. The U.S. government gave him a college education at the University of Pittsburgh, and during his final summer in the U.S. he took a pilot’s course with the Heath Airplane Co. in Chicago.
When I asked him a few questions about his education, et cetera, to prove I was not mistaken, he said, ‘You have a remarkable memory.’ I saw much of him during the next year as he remained C.O. of the Chinese at Malir.”
The maintenance problems he had faced in Malir continued after his move up to Chihkiang, Condit remembers:
”Again lots of maintenance problems as supply lines were so long. The Chinese had an overhaul base headed by a colonel, graduate of MIT, and who proved most helpful to me and our units. They had been dismantling P-40s for quite some time and storing them for use after the war. These planes would be new ones, so when we had to have an engine, prop, or wing I could get them.
This was a chore as they were stored randomly within fifteen miles of our base in old barns and buildings they had taken over. I always wondered how Lend-Lease was balanced out over there as I had to sign for all parts, yet they went on Chinese-American planes with Chinese insignias. They wouldn’t accept the signature of my Chinese counterpart group engineering officer.”

US Army Air Force

During June, the 449th FS, 51st FG, moved from Suichan to Kweilin with P-38s.

On 1 June, the 76th FS, 23rd FG, moved from Suichan to Lingling with P-51s.
On the same day, the 91st FS, 81st FG, moved from Karachi, India to Fungwanshan with P-47s.

The 75th FS, 23rd FG, moved from Hengyang to Lingling with P-51s on 10 June.

On 12 June, the 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 14th AF, moved from Gushkara, India to Chengkung with P-51s.
The air echelon of the Squadron, which was attached to the 23rd FG, based at Chengkung, begun operating from Kweilin on 16 June.

The 491st BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai, sent a detachment to operate from Kweilin and Liuchow with B-25s on 13 June.

On 16 June, the 14th AF abandoned its forward airbase at Hengyang, and the P-40 squadrons retreated to Kweilin and Liuchow.

On 20 June, a detachment of 26th FS, 51st FG, moved from Liangshan to Kweilin with P-40s.

The 75th FS, 23rd FG, moved from Lingling to Kweilin with P-40s on 25 June.

The flight of the 21st Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron operating from Suichan with F-5s returned to base at Kunming on 26 June.

On 28 June, the 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), moved from Kweilin to Yang Tong with B-25s (detachments were operating from Kweilin and Liuchow).

The detachment of 26th FS, 51st FG, operating from Kweilin with P-40s, returned to base at Kunming on 30 June.

The 23rd FG (USAAF) took part in the effort to halt a Japanese force that pushed down the Hsiang Valley in June 1944. In the latter battle, the group, despite bad weather and heavy flak, repeatedly struck boats, trucks, aircraft, troops, and other objectives, receiving a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for its operations in the Hunan Province, China, 17-25 June 1944.

IJAAF

In mid June, the 25th and 48th Sentais moved forward to Bailuqi.

Operations

1 June 1944
The 92nd FS, 81st FG, flew their first mission in China.

25 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit the Chenghsien railroad yards.

18 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF bombed docks, a gunboat, and barracks in the Chiuchiang area and strafe about 300 troops at Sanyenchiao.

The 44th Sentai claimed to have destroyed a 300-ton and a 50-ton boat near Siangyin, as well as three bridges.

2 June 1944
At the height of the battle for the central plain, seven P-40Ns of the 7th PS, 3rd PG (CAF), made an attack on an aerodrome where a Japanese transport air unit was based. Over Zhengzhou occurred an air battle in which the flight commander First Lieutenant Zhang Lemin perished.
The Japanese reported that seven Ki-44s from the 9th Sentai led by Captain Kobayashi intercepted the Chinese-flown P-40s, claiming five shot down including the one flown by the leader. Second Lieutenant Yoshitaro Yoshioka made two of these claims over Xinxiang during his first combat.
The 9th Sentai lost Sergeant Fumio Oguri (Sho-7) over Bawangcheng.

80+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded troops and vehicles at Tungcheng and Chungyang and strafed a concentration of about 75 sampans on Tungting Lake.

3 June 1944
P-40s from the 14th AF supported ground forces at Watien and Tatangtzu, destroyed two barges and damaged others in the Gulf of Tonkin, and strafed 40 barges carrying horses and troops in the Tungting Lake area north of Nanhsien.

B-25s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the Pingkiang area.

4 June 1944
While attacking a tank column at Daine (Shanxi), a P-40N of the 32nd PS was shot down.

5 June 1944
29 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked numerous oil barges near Yuankiang, leaving 16 of them burning.

6 June 1944
A pilot of the 21st PS, 4th PG, was killed while attacking a Japanese auto column.

50 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked shipping, horses, and troops in the Fulinpu Kweiyi vicinity.

Ten P-51s and six B-25s from the 14th AF pounded Tayang Chiang.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Pailochi Airfield.

Nine P-40s from the 14th AF hit road and rail targets of opportunity in the Yellow River area.

Two P-40s from the 14th AF sunk a junk and damage others at Kwangchow Wan.

Sergeant Hiroshi Fukushima (Sho-8) of the 25th Sentai was killed over Hunansheng.

7 June 1944
Four B-25s of the 2nd BS flew into a mountain while returning from Chungking to Liangshan. None of the crews survived.

Three B-25s and 15 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF bombed tank concentrations at Taying, destroyed several locomotives at Linfen, and pounded railroad yards at Chenghsien.
Major Wiliam Reed’s (CO 7th FS (CACW)) P-40 was hit in a gas line during a strafing run on the railroad station at Chenghsien, and he was forced to belly it in 15 miles southeast of the town.
Armit Lewis was flying with Reed on the day. He went down and recalled:

“He and I had been up around Chenghsien on a recce and target- of-opportunity mission when we both picked up a lot of ground fire. He apparently got hit in the fuel pump area as a visual observation by me showed a lot of liquid streaming back from his ship. Heading for friendly territory, I kept telling him he ought to bail out if his ship conked out completely, which it did about that time, and he decided to belly it in on a sandbar.
I circled him a few times, saw he was out of the cockpit and apparently OK. I don’t believe Bill had ever bailed out, and he seemed to have an inordinate fear of doing so, since bailing out would have been far safer than trying to belly in in that area. He was absolutely fearless in all other aspects, so maybe I am imagining that he had a fear of bailing out. We will never know.”
Lewis and a new pilot, 2nd Lieutenant Ed Mulholland, searched for Reed that afternoon but found only the burned-out remains of his fighter. Reed had managed to make good his escape from behind the lines, however, and reached Chinese ground forces. Upon his reaching Laohokow, Chinese generals presented him with a captured samurai sword and put him aboard a B-25 headed for Liangshan on 24 June.

P-40s and B-25s from the 14th AF strafed sampans at Fort Bayard and sunk a schooner off Nampang Island.

8 June 1944
19 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed docks, warehouses and military installations at Ichang and Shasi and strafed two cavalry units at Nanying.
Sergeant Major Takuma Hashimoto (NCO90) of the 48th Sentai was killed over Yichang.

Four P-51s from the 14th AF attacked railroad traffic in the Singtai-Chengting area.

The 6th Sentai claimed to have destroyed 15 loaded Chinese boats near Siangyin.

9 June 1944
The Battle of I-ch’ang opened and the 8th FS and 28th FS (CACW) were in the thick of the action. Also, the Chinese 4th FG flew in to Enshih to provide top cover for the CACW’s ground assault fighters.
On the missions flown the first day, however, the CAF escorts never appeared.
At 13:30, the Ki-43s jumped the CACW formation during one missions, but the P-40 pilots fended them off. 8th FS claimed two, two probable and one damaged Oscars; Captain Raymond Leonard Callaway claimed one and one probable, 2nd Lieutenant Chung Chu-Sheh claimed one and one probable, 2nd Lieutenant Ku Po claimed a damaged. Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Strickland of the 28th FS claimed one Oscar/Hamp as a damaged in the same combat which was fought over I-ch’ang, Yangtze River.
It seems that eight P-40Ns of the 28th FS led by squadron commander Cheng Sung-Ting took part and that they lost two P-40s and one pilot. Zhang Yongzhang baled out of his burning fighter but the parachute failed to open and he was killed. The other pilot Zhao Yuankong made a forced landing in his badly damaged fighter and survived.
The escort provided by the CAF improved over the following days, but in the words of the 28th FS historian: ”It never came up to the standard that we had reason to expect.”
The American forces’ disappointment with their Chinese allies came into focus during the I-ch’ang campaign. Rumours circulated that the Chinese pilots were ordered to avoid combat to conserve their planes, and the information the ground forces provided was often inaccurate concerning the locations of their ”advancing” troops.

The pilots of the 5th FG (CACW) flew 22 missions from Chihkiang during June 1944, the first of these during the day. On the second mission flown the day, the P-40s caught two steamboats, each pulling a barge loaded with Japanese troops, plus other vessels at a Hsiang River crossing ten miles northwest of Siangyin.
The P-40s blew up one steamboat and one gas-carrying barge, sank three sampans, and killed or wounded about 200 troops. Lieutenant Bill Johnson of the 26th FS was hit, and he bailed out while his wingman, Lieutenant Phil Colman, watched. Johnson walked into Chihkiang a few days later.

P-40s, P-51s and B-25s from the 14th AF flew 200+ sorties against numerous targets throughout the Tungting Lake area; river shipping of all description was pounded, several troop concentrations were attacked, airfields at Hankou and Wuchang were bombed, and the towns of Ichang, Siangyin, Yuankiang and Kiaotow were hit.

Four B-24 and fighter-bomber sorties from the 14th AF over the South China Sea resulted in claims of three sea going vessels, a tug and a barge sunk.

10 June 1944
23 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit railroad traffic and tracks at Linfen and Loning and a tank concentration at Lingpao.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF hit a bridge at Tasa.

B-25s, P-40s, P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF carried out 150+ sorties against numerous targets throughout the Tungting Lake area; numerous rivercraft were destroyed or damaged, Kukang and other villages near Changsha were bombed, Hankou-Wuchang Airfield revetments and buildings were pounded, the Changshowkai area was blasted and several river landings and storage installations in the lake area were attacked.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF on a South China Sea sweep claimed one small cargo ship sunk.

11 June 1944
In the Tungting Lake area 80+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF pounded the towns of Lanchi and Anking, hit a cavalry compound at Kintsing, attacked Japanese HQ, positions, and river traffic north of Changsha, destroyed or damaged several boats, barges, and sampans at Changsha, and strafed numerous targets of opportunity throughout the entire region.
The Japanese reported that the 1st chutai of the 9th Sentai from Anking, intercepted 12 P-38s, but lost two Ki-44s flown by the chutai leader Captain Michio Iwata (Class 53) and Sergeant Kazuyasu Kamidozono (Sho-8), who were both killed.

In the Yellow River area, 27 B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded barracks, fortifications, tank concentration, several armoured vehicles, and cavalry forces at Iching and Lingpao.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep in the South China Sea claimed a 600-ft (183 m) freighter sunk.

The 48th Sentai claimed three victories over Baishazhou.

Fifteen Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai tangled with some 18 P-40s and P-51s near Paishachou, claiming three P-40s and one P-51.

Five Ki-43s of the 25th Sentai ran into more than ten P-40s at 10:47 around the same area without losses on either side.

12 June 1944
50 P-40s, P-51s and B-25s from the 14th AF hit troop concentrations in the Yellow River area at Lingpao and south of Loyang.

In the Tungting Lake area about 100 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked numerous supply boats and other river and lake traffic, and hit dock areas and warehouses at Lanchi, Yuankiang and at scattered points; also hit were villages and troops in the Changsha and Kuanchuang areas.

13 June 1944
13 Ki-48s bombers from the 16th Sentai and seven more from the 9th Sentai attacked Kienow airfield at 14:20.

18 B-25s and 56 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF pounded the marshalling yard at Wuchang.

About 70 B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked a variety of targets in the Tungting Lake region, including many river vessels, the airfield at Pailochi, troop positions north-east of Changsha, warehouse and factory area at Shasi and numerous general targets of opportunity.

Twelve fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit Japanese HQ and barracks at Luoyang.
Sergeant Kazuo Miyasaki (Sho-8) of the 9th Sentai was killed over Luoyang.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the South China Sea claimed one cargo vessel sunk.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF pounded Japanese positions at Watien and Kaitou.

Near midnight 26 light Japanese Army bombers raided airfields at Lingling and Hengyang.

The weather turned sour, which caused the CACW operations against the Ichi-Go offensive to temporarily stop until 17 June.

14 June 1944
43 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping, troops and villages in the Tungting Lake area, at or near Lanchi, Changsha, Chulianchiao and Linyang.

15 June 1944
24 P-40s from the 14th AF hit Japanese cavalry forces at Chuchou and several supply boats on the Siang-Chiang River.

Ten P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed or damaged several tanks, trucks, and train cars between Loyang and Shanhsien.

24 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the warehouse area at Canton, causing heavy damage.

The CO of the 74th FS, Major Arthur Cruikshank, was shot down by AA fire in P-40 42-105000 (MACR 6086).
He returned, however, within days.

B-29s from the 20th AF bombed Japan. With the exception of the 11th AF’s raids on the Kurile Islands, this was the first air attack against Japan since the Doolittle's raid in April 1942.
47 B-29s operating out of Chengdu, bombed the primary target, the Imperial Iron and Steel Works at Yawata, Japan.
The 20th AF’s first combat loss during a bombing mission results when Japanese fighters destroyed a B-29 down with engine trouble at Neihsiang Airfield, China.

17 June 1944
B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked large troop concentrations at Shanglishih and Fenglinpu, bombed the town of Lanchi and nearby villages, attacked four villages in the Chuchou area, hit troop barges at Changsha, damaged several supply boats at Yiyang, and bombed military installations at Ichang.
At 07:00, 16 CACW P-40Ns flew to Yoloshan Mountain, just west of Changsha, where the Chinese were making a stand against the attacking Japanese. The mission was to dive- bomb, frag-bomb, and strafe the Japanese attackers at the base of the mountain. At 08:20, the attack was intercepted by twelve Ki-44 Tojos, and in the ensuing air battle 1st Lieutenant Loo Yu-Piao of the 29th FS fired a four- to five- second burst into a Tojo at close range. The enemy fighter began to smoke, and then spiralled into the ground, giving the Chinese pilot a confirmed kill. The 29th FS claimed an additional Ki-44 (1st Lieutenant Yuen Kung-Chen) and two more damaged (1st Lieutenants Feng Pei-Chin and Shen C-T). Lieutenant Yoh was shot down, but he parachuted safely from his burning P-40.

Air attacks wrought havoc on Japanese ships on Siangkiang carrying a heavy field artillery regiment, causing two 10cm and two 15cm heavy guns to be lost and major casualties due to ammunition explosion.

Between 04:30-08:30, Captain John Coleman Herbst of 76th FS, 23rd FG, claimed a Ki-43 Oscar just north-east of Kiatow.

2nd Lieutenant Dai Rongju of the 17th FS, 5th FG (CACW) was killed in battle at Anhua.

18 June 1944
B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Yoyang and hit shipping and boats in the Siang-Chiang River delta area.

P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked about 100 supply boats in the lower Tungting Lake area, strafed cavalry forces between Siangyin and Changsha, and hit a village just east of Changsha.
On the morning mission this day, the P-40Ns of 5th FG (CACW) escorted four B-25s to Changsha and over the lower Tungting Lake region. At 08:30, twelve Ki-43 Oscars intercepted about 15 miles northwest of Changsha, and Lieutenant Thomas Brink, assistant group operations officer, was credited with three confirmed kills during the fight. Captain Lin Y-P of the 17th FS was also was credited with one victory while Lieutenant Colonel John Dunning (5th FG) claimed a damaged Oscar as did Second Lieutenant Chang C-K of the 17th FS; Lieutenant Tai was shot down and listed as missing.
On another mission by the 5th FG that same day, Captain Glyn Ramsey of the 26th FS led twelve P-40Ns loaded with demolition bombs on a sweep of the lower Tungting Lake channel. They found a big concentration of boats near Siangyin and attacked, causing heavy damage. Lieutenant Philip Colman (26th FS) caused the biggest fireworks when he dropped his bombs on a camouflaged area near the river’s edge. Violent explosions sent boats, supplies, and wreckage flying in all directions. He had made a direct hit among some 175 boats that had been tied together under the camouflage.

Anticipating a repeat attack, the 25th Sentai massed in the vicinity of Paishachou to provide air cover for the transport ships, intercepting two flights of attacking bombers. One Ki-43 of the Sentai crashed and Sergeant Major Kesamitsu Komatsu (NCO87) was killed while three others did not return.
14 Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai also got involved, claiming one shot down and one damaged for the loss of one of its own.

19 June 1944
About 150 fighter-bombers and eight B-25s from the 14th AF pounded a variety of targets throughout the Tungting Lake area. Targets included much shipping from Siangyin to Chuchou, and at various points along the Siang-Chiang River, villages and compounds between Yiyang and Changsha, and boats and river area at Anking.

18 P-40s from the 14th AF damaged two bridges and destroyed about 20 fuel trucks at Yuncheng.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kengluang bridge.

20 June 1944
In the Yangtze River-Tungting Lake area, about 120 B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again attacked a wide variety of targets, pounded river shipping at numerous points, hit villages and supply lines in the Pinkiang area, and bombed the towns of Changsha, Pingsiang and Ikiawan.

In the Yellow River area, eight P-40s from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards and strafed about 75 trucks, destroying 20+ of them.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF over the South China Sea attacked shipping, claiming a 5,000-ton commercial ship sunk.

21 June 1944
Eleven fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit river shipping, barracks, and cavalry forces at Siangtan and Hengshan.

22 June 1944
18 P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed 20+ trucks between Hsuchang and Lohochai.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF damaged a troop steamer in Tungting Lake.

13 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Bakli harbour, Hainan Island, damaging dock facilities and claiming one freighter sunk.

23 June 1944
20 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed docks at Hankou.

In the Tungting Lake area 70+ B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked a wide variety of river shipping at several locations, bombed a runway at Hengyang, strafed cavalry troops in the area, and hit the towns and villages of Chuchou, Ikiawan, Chuting, Chwanchishih, and Siangtan.
The gunner Li Yifu of the 1st BG (CACW) was wounded by return fire when his bomber was attacking transports on Lake Tungting.

30 B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit various targets of opportunity along the Yellow River.

24 June 1944
60+ P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF bombed the towns of Siangsiang and Yuankiang, attacked cavalry forces in the Hengyang area, and damaged a pontoon bridge between Tungcheng and Pingkiang.

Four B-25s and a few P-40s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge north of Chenghsien.

Two P-40s of the 28th FS, 3rd FG (CACW) flew an interception mission that was as unusual as it was symbolic of the differences between the CACW and the other CAF units. Their target was a Chinese P-40 that had taken off from Chungking headed for Japanese territory, its pilot apparently planning to defect. The 28th FS historian noted:

“Unfortunately, the traitor was able to escape before we could make our interception.”

Lieutenant Bill Johnson, just back after being shot down (on 9 June), led eight P-40s from the 26th FS, 5th FG (CACW) to Siansiang. The fighters caught a Japanese support column on the road and shot it up unmercifully. It was estimated that 800 to 1,000 men were killed or wounded and another 200 to 300 pack animals killed. The weather closed in between the formation and Chihkiang, so Johnson led his P-40s into Paoching to spend the night before returning to Chihkiang.

25 June 1944
31 B-25s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF hit the towns of Siangtan and Ichang, attacked sampans at Wukou, destroyed about 50 trucks and strafed concentrations of troops and horses in the Tangyang-Pingkiang and Siangtan-Yungfengshih areas, and pounded river dock and sampans at Xingxiang.
Yoshitaro Yoshioka of the 9th Sentai claimed two P-40s, but whilst pursuing a third, his engine stopped and he had to carry out a force-landing. The Sentai lost three pilots over Xingxiang when Sergeant Yoshinori Kudo (Sho-6), Sergeant Tadashi Ito (Sho-8) and Corporal Hisakichi Yanagisawa were killed.

Seven CACW B-25s bombed the Shayang storage area.

23 B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area and damaged a bridge at Chenghsien.

Eight Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai on escort duties for the 6th Sentai over Hengyang claimed one P-40 shot down.

26 June 1944
14 B-24s from the 14th AF blasted Hankou, causing heavy damage and fires.

180+ B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked river shipping and several villages in the Tungting Lake area. The towns of Yuankiang, Sinshih, Siangtan, Liling, and Hengshan were bombed, as was the warehouse area at Yuhsien. Numerous troop and truck concentrations and other targets of opportunity throughout the entire region were attacked.

The CO of the 74th FS, Major Arthur Cruikshank, was shot down by AA fire for the second time during the month in P-40 42-105276 (MACR 11969).
He returned on 30 June with the assistance of the Chinese underground.

Captain Lin Yao of 29th FS, 5th FG (CACW), was killed in aerial combat over Hsianghsiang.

The Japanese bombed Lingling Airfield, damaging the runway and destroying a P-51.
However, the 48th Sentai lost two pilots over Lingling when Second Lieutenant Masaki Nihei (Class 56) and Corporal Masao Sawada (Sho-11) were killed.

27 June 1944
In the Tungting Lake area, 160 B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit troop concentrations, supplies, and river and road traffic between Changsha and Hengyang, bombed artillery concentrations at Sinsiang, attacked waterfront and docks at Hengshan, pounded villages near Chuchou, and attacked numerous targets of opportunity throughout the lake region.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF over the Formosa Strait claimed two cargo vessels sunk and others damaged.

Major Situ Fu of the 4th PG was wounded when his aircraft crashed during landing at Tungkou.

First Lieutenant Chen Xiangrong of the 21st PS, 4th PG, was wounded when baling out of his aircraft, which had developed mechanical problems over Hengyang.

28 June 1944
Liu Mengqin, 3rd PG, was killed during take-off while flying a new P-40N from India.

In the Yangtze River-Tungting Lake area, B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF flew 160+ sorties attacking river shipping at several locations, bombing the towns of Hengshan, Liling, and Pingkiang, and bombing Japanese HQ and gun sites in the Siangsiang area.

In the Hengyang area, the B-25s and fighter-bombers of the 14th AF hit rear supply bases and cavalry and infantry concentrations.

Seven Ki-44s led by Captain Eiji Yuzuki of the 9th Sentai were ‘surrounded’ by P-40s and P-51s losing three of their number near Xinxiang.

The 44th Sentai focused on ground support and recon duties around Hengyang.

15 48th Sentai Ki-43s on a sweep near Yungan attacked two dozen P-40s and P-51s as well as six B-25s, claiming one P-40 shot down in the process.

29 June 1944
Tao Youhuai, a flight commander of the 21st PS, 4th PG, crashed on take-off and was killed at Hengyang.

First Lieutenant Zhao Songyan of the 29th FS, 5th FG (CACW), was wounded when his P-40 crashed during landing at Chihkiang while returning from a sortie over Hengyang.

First Lieutenant Leng Peishu of the 26th FS, 5th FG (CACW), was wounded when his P-40 crashed during landing at Changde while returning from a sortie over Hengyang.

In the Tungting Lake area, 60+ B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit shipping, gun positions, troop concentrations, and general targets of opportunity at several locations, including Lingvang, Liling, Hengyang, Yuhsien, Hengshan, Siangsiang, Chaling, and Yiyang.
14 Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai intercepted some 20 P-40s and P-51s over Hengyang, claiming one P-51 shot down and three more planes damaged.

On Formosa, three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Takao docks.

30 June 1944
B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again pounded numerous targets in the Tungting Lake area, concentrating on river shipping, town areas, troop concentrations, and road traffic. Towns bombed included Pingkiang, Hengshan, Liling, Yuhsien, Siangyin, and Chuchou. Also hit was the airfield at Hengyang and bridges at Leiyang and Liling.
The 25th Sentai attacked half a dozen B-25s and 8-9 P-40s over Hengyang, claiming to have shot down one of the P-40s.

July 1944

The ground war

Due to the Japanese advance in the Ichi-Go Operation, General Casey Vincent ordered the destruction of the Paoching base on 3 July.

US Army Air Force

In July, the detachment of the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, operating from Hsinching with F-7s, returned to base at Guskhara, India.
During the same month, the detachment of the 71st Liaison Squadron, AAF, India-Burma Sector, operating from Kunming, China with L-4s and L-5s, returned to base at Ledo, India.
Also during the month, the detachment of the 16th Fighter Squadron, 51st Fighter Group, operating from Yunnani with P-40s returned to base at Chengkung while the 76th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, moved from Lingling to Liuchow with P-40s.

On 10 July, the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, based at Guskhara, sent a detachment to operate from Liuchow with F-7s.
The detachment of the 491st Bombardment Squadron (Medium), 341st Bombardment Group (Medium), operating from Kweilin and Liuchow with B-25s returned to base at Yangkai on the same day.

The 93rd FS, 81st FG, moved from Karachi, India to Kwanghan with P-47s on 11 July.

On 16 July, the 449th FS, 51st FG, moved from Kweilin to Chengkung with P-38s.

On 23 July, the 449th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-38s, sent a detachment to operate from Yunnani until March 1945.

IJAAF

During July, the 85th Sentai, which had been engaged in the air defense of Canton and in making attacks in the Danzhu area, had lost seven pilots. This unit now began converting to the Ki-84, sending two pilots at a time to Hankou for this purpose over the next two months.

During the month, Major Toshio Sakagawa resigned as CO of the 25th Sentai and returned to Akeno.
He was replaced by Major Kiso-o Beppu.

Operations

1 July 1944
The 44th Sentai attacked artillery positions near the southern part of Hengyang at daybreak.

B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again pounded targets throughout the Tungting Lake region. River shipping was attacked on a large scale at numerous locations and 250-300 trucks were strafed between Tungcheng and Pingkiang. Hengyang Airfield was bombed as were the towns of Pingkiang, Hengshan, Liling, and Yuhsien. A pontoon bridge and Japanese positions at Leiyang were also hit.

B-24s from the 14th AF lay mines in the river at Canton during the night

2 July 1944
11 B-25s and 42 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF again attacked river shipping, compounds, and troop concentrations in the Tungting Lake region.
The town of Hengshan was also bombed.

B-25s and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the airfield and town area at Lupao.

The 16th, 90th and 6th Sentais all focused on ground support attacks in the battle at Hengyang

3 July 1944
Four B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Yoyang railroad yards in the Tungting Lake area.

B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded river shipping, bridges, gun sites, compounds, and villages at several locations, including Leiyang, Ssutang, Yungfengshih, and Tsungyang.

B-25s from the 14th AF dropped ammunition to Chinese ground forces at Hengyang.

16 Japanese Army aircraft hit Chihkiang airfield in a midnight attack, claiming nearly 20 aircraft destroyed or damaged on the ground.

4 July 1944
38 B-25s and 74 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF pounded targets throughout the Tungting Lake-Yangtze River region and in the Yellow River and Canton areas. River shipping was hit hard, particularly along the Siang-Chiang River. Troop concentrations, road traffic, and general targets of opportunity were hit at many locations. Towns bombed included Shasi, Lukou, Yungfengshih, Liling, Siangtan, and Yuhsien. Hengyang Airfield was bombed and supplies were dropped to Chinese troops in the area. Airfields and warehouses in the Canton area were bombed and targets of opportunity at Linfen, Wenhsi, and Puchou in the Yellow River region were strafed.

14 Japanese Army aircraft from Yuncheng attacked the Hanchung airfield and claimed ten aircraft destroyed on the ground.

A recon plane of the 18th Independent Chutai attempted to reconnoitre Chengdu airfield in preparation for attacks on the B-29s stationed there. However, it was shot down and both crewmen were killed.

5 July 1944
The five P-40Ns remaining in the 21st PS, 4th PG, flew to the Yongfeng region to bomb Japanese positions. On the return trip, one of the pilots for unknown reasons attempted a forced landing, but lost control and crashed into the ground.

136 fighter-bombers and 64 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked targets throughout the Tungting Lake area. Targets include river shipping, warehouses, troops, artillery, trucks, and other targets of opportunity at Liling, Lukou, Pingkiang, Yungfengshih, Siangyin, and Chuting. Hengyang Airfield was bombed, and supplies were dropped to Chinese forces in the vicinity.
Nine Ki-43s of the 25th Sentai tangled with four B-25s and eight P-51s over Hengyang, claiming to have shot down two of the P-51s and damaged two others. A second encounter near Hsinshih with more than ten P-40s and P-51s cost them one fighter in return for two P-40s claimed as destroyed.

22 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a supply and ammunition depot at Canton while six B-25s attacked airfields in the area.
The 85th Sentai tried to intercept B-24s and B-25s in the Hong Kong and Canton areas, without success. Although the airfields were unscathed, there were a number of casualties in the city areas.

Five B-24s from the 14th AF lay mines in Shanghai harbour.

6 July 1944
During an attack on the bridge at Fuqiao, First Lieutenant He Guoduan of the 22nd PS, 4th PG, was killed in aerial combat over Hsianghsiang.

B-25s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF continued to pound river shipping, bridges, troop concentrations, road traffic, and general targets of opportunity throughout a wide area around Tungting Lake and along the Yangtze River. Particularly hard hit were the town area and supply depot at Sinshih.

B-25s from the 14th AF near the Burma border caused considerable damage at Tengehung and drop supplies to Chinese ground forces on the Salween front.

Twelve Ki-43s of the 25th Sentai returned the following day to Hsinshih, catching five B-25s and six P-51s, claiming two P-51s shot down.

During the night of 6/7 July, the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho Airfield at Canton.

The 44th Sentai concentrated on night bombings of the Hengyang city centre, as well as ammunition drops.

7 July 1944
In the Tungting Lake area, B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit Yoyang, Siangtan, Liling, and Yungfengshih, strafed cavalry forces north of Yuhsien, hit river shipping, troops, and a pontoon bridge at Siangsiang, attacked compounds in the Leiyang area, and bombed storage at Shihshow.

10 miles (16.1 km) east of Ichang on the Yangtze River, P-40s from the 14th AF thoroughly blasted a Japanese post.

B-25s and P-51s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields and pounded the town of Tsingyun.

14 B-29s, operating out of Chengdu during the night of 7/8 July, bombed Sasebo, Omura, and Tobata, Japan (most of the bombers hitting the Sasebo area).
Three others attacked secondary and last resort targets at Laoyao and in the Hankou area of China.

8 July 1944
B-25s and fighter-bombers from the 14th AF flew nearly 100 sorties against targets in the Tungting Lake area. River shipping was hit hard throughout the whole lake area. Trucks, bridges, warehouses, supply dumps, troop concentrations, Japanese posts, and targets of opportunity were attacked at Sinshih, Sinyang, Leiyang, Liling, Chuchou, Puchi, Siangsiang, and Yuhsien.

18 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed military area near Canton, and 37 P-40s attack Japanese-held villages and river shipping north-west of Canton.

Ai Xuezhi of the 4th PG was wounded when his aircraft crashed during landing near Chiyang after a sortie over Hengyang.

20 Japanese aircraft bombed Suichwan Airfield, rendering it temporarily unusable.
Japanese aircraft also damaged Kanchou Airfield.

Attacks were launched on the Liangshan airfield by Japanese Army aircraft, and a number of B-25s were claimed destroyed on the ground.

9 July 1944
40 P-40s and eight B-25s from the 14th AF hit the town area, trucks, and supply sampans at Shayang and damaged tunnel entrances and a highway bridge at Sinyang.

Wu Guodong of the 23rd FS, 4th FG, was wounded while baling out of his burning fighter during aerial combat over Hengyang.

Finally, all four squadrons of the 5th FG (CACW) were in action, the 27th FS making its debut as a separate unit (some pilots had been flying while attached to other squadrons) when Major James Dale led eight of his P-40s on a Hsiang River strafing mission.

13 light Japanese Army bombers attacked Kweilin airfield, claiming to have destroyed or damaged some 28 aircraft (!) on the ground.

10 July 1944
A pilot of the 32nd FS, 3rd FG (CACW) was shot down by antiaircraft and killed.

70 P-40s and six B-25s from the 14th AF hit river shipping between Siangtan and Siangsiang, between Changsha and Chuchou, and north of Hengyang, strafed and bombed posts and trucks in the Pingkiang, Tungcheng, and Tsungyang areas and in the Changsha-Kweilin area and bombed airfields at Hankou and Wuchang.

”Dusk patrols” were initiated in hopes of catching the Japanese forces that had been holing up during the day and moving at night to avoid air attacks. The tactic proved successful as Captain DeHaven of the 27th FS, 5th FG (CACW) and the three P-40s he led found and blew up a 150-foot steamer, as well as damaging several other vessels.

Two light Japanese Army bombers attacked Tanchu airfield in a night attack after receiving intelligence that more than ten P-51s had moved to the airfield. A total of 13 small aircraft and one large aircraft were claimed destroyed on the ground.

11 July 1944
A large IJAAF light bomber force (21 in all) attacked Hengyang at dusk to prepare for the major land offensive that day.

28 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a storage base at Sinshih.

24 P-40s from the 14th AF hit river traffic at Hengyang and east of Siangsiang while 22 other P-40s attacked the town of Hengyang, hitting Japanese-occupied buildings and a bridge.

33 more P-40s from the 14th AF attacked villages, road traffic, and targets of opportunity at Leiyang and from Chuchou to Hengyang to Yungfengshih.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Liling and Yuhsien.

14 P-51s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Pakmoi Hu and hit gun positions at Lupao.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards at Sinyang.

Twelve B-25s and 14 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF bombed Mangshih on the Burma Road and support Chinese ground forces between Tengchung and Lungling.

The 48th Sentai made five claims.

Around midnight, around eleven IJAAF bombers attacked Chihkiang airfield and claimed to have destroyed/set on fire all 49 aircraft on the ground.

12 July 1944
60+ P-40s from the 14th AF hit the towns of Liling and Yuhsien, river shipping at Hengyang, troop concentrations at Leiyang and near Yuhsien, the airfield at Siangtan, and fuel dumps north-west of Changsha.

34 P-51s from the 14th AF bombed Tsingyun and pound Japanese concentrations at Lienchiangkou.

Eleven P-40s from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards at Yuncheng and hit a radio station north of Tungkuan with rocket fire.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tengchung and 15 P-40s bombed and strafed storage areas, villages, troop areas, and general targets of opportunity in the Lungling and Mangshih areas.

In a series of night attacks on Kweilin airfields, fifteen light IJAAF bombers fought through interceptors and AA fire to claim over 50 aircraft destroyed at one airfield and some 30 aircraft at the other.

13 July 1944
16 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Pailochi Airfield, causing large fires and considerable damage.

45 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked trucks, compounds, river shipping, and troop concentrations between Hengyang and Siangtan, pounded the town of Liling and Siangtan Airfield, and strafed shipping from Changsha south along the Siang Chiang River.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Chenghsfen railroad yards and storage area.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tengchung and Mangshih.

14 July 1944
Fighter-bombers and B-25s from the 14th AF hit a fighter strip north of Changsha, artillery positions at Leiyang, the town of Sungpai, and road and river traffic from Hengyang to Yuhsien and from Sienning to Tungshan. Also attacked were various targets of opportunity around the towns of Hengyang, Changsha, and Chaling.

B-25s from the 14th AF bombed roads in the Tengchung area.

B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards at Siangsiang.

During the night, fighter-bombers from the 14th AF blasted Pailochi airfield, destroying 20+ enemy aircraft.
The 48th Sentai intercepted, losing one Ki-43 and one light bomber on the ground (not the 20+ aircraft claimed by the 14th AF), as well as three supply trucks burnt. Six were killed on the ground while 16 were seriously wounded.

The 85th Sentai lost two pilots over Danzhu when First Lieutenant Tadashi Okano (Class 55) and Sergeant Masanori Katayama (Sho-10) were killed.

15 July 1944
Antiaircraft shot down a P-40N over Hengyang flown by Second Lieutenant Zheng Zhaomin of the 23rd PS, 4th PG, who was killed.

100+ B-25s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF blasted the towns of Sinshih, Chuchou, Siangtan, Siangsiang, Sungpai, and Chaling, concentrating on military and railroad installations and river shipping. Villages, troop concentrations, and river craft were attacked north and west of Hengyang and from Chaling to Yuhsien.

Twelve B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards at Hsuchang, causing considerable damage.

Captain Tadashi Nishikawa (Class 54), Hikotai leader of the 48th Sentai and Warrant Officer Susumu Ito (NCO90) from the same unit were killed over southern China.

The 6th and 25th Sentais once again concentrated their effort on supporting the assault on Hengyang.

16 July 1944
23 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded Changsha, causing heavy damage.

40 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit river shipping at Changsha, attacked targets of opportunity south of Hengyang, and bombed the building area at Ikiawan.

17 July 1944
22 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha.

Seven B-25s and 21 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded railroad yards at Kaifeng.

Six B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF hit Tengchung.

18 July 1944
In the Hengyang-Tungting Lake region, 30+ P-40s from the 14th AF strafed shipping between Chaling and Hengyang, bombed the town of Hengyang, and hit the airfield and several AA positions in the area.

16 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit river shipping from Lienchiangkou to Samshui to Sainam.

13 P-40s from the 14th AF hit a fuel dump on the railroad near Kangtsun-i.

First Lieutenant Yukichi Takano (Class 55) of the 85th Sentai was killed over Hankou.

19 July 1944
80+ P-40s from the 14th AF hit shipping in the Tungting Lake area, attacked targets of opportunity, supply areas, and troop concentrations around Hengyang, bombed a radio station, storage facilities, and shipping at Changsha, hit the airfield at Siangtan, and sunk about 15 sampans between Changsha and Siangtan.

31 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the Samshui town and dock area and hit several troop compounds in the Lienchiangkou vicinity.

20 July 1944
In the Tungting Lake area, 11 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the eastern half of Changsha, causing heavy destruction.

140+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping and road traffic at several locations throughout the region, pounded supply villages south of Changsha and Sinshih, bombed a motor pool at Tsungyang, hit the warehouse area at Siangtan, and attacked troop compounds and gun positions north of Hengyang and at Leiyang and Chaling.

21 July 1944
41 P-40s from the 14th AF hit the town area, airfield, trucks, river shipping, and troops at Changsha, trucks, horses, and junks at Sinshih, and troop concentrations, artillery sites, and pillboxes at Hengyang.

22 July 1944
120+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked the town area, airfield, railroad yards, and shipping at Hengyang, bombed the towns of Chaling, Yuhsien, and Chuchou, hit river shipping, troops, trucks, and targets of opportunity in the areas around Changsha, Kiaotow, Siangtan, and Sinshih, and hit troop compounds and shipping at Yuhsien.
Captain Yao Jie, 26th FS, 5th FG (CACW), was killed in action over Hengyang.

25 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha, causing heavy damage.

31 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF blasted Tsingyun and strafed about 40 junks to the south of town.

23 July 1944
62 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked warehouses, trucks, and troops in the Changsha-Sinshih-Fulinpu area, bombed the airfield and river craft at Siangtan, hit enemy-held areas of Hengyang, and strafed and bombed troop compounds and villages north of it.

Six B-25s and 21 P-40s from the 14th AF hit warehouses and railroad yards in the Yellow River area.

29th Squadron: First Lieutenant Feng Peijin, 29th FS, 5th FG (CACW) went missing after his fighter was hit by ground fire during attack on Japanese airfield at Bailushi.

24 July 1944
13 B-25s and 20 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed railroad facilities at Sienning.

22 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded Pailochi Airfield, destroying about 30 aircraft and causing heavy destruction in general.
The Japanese reported that at 10:40 the Pailochi airfield was hit by a formation of B-25s and P-40s, causing six Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai to be destroyed and three others seriously damaged.

Nine B-25s and 20 P-40s from the 14th AF hit the town of Puchi, causing several fires.

46 P-40s from the 14th AF hit river and road traffic, enemy concentrations, and targets of opportunity at Changsha, Sinshih, Fulinpu, Hengshan, Liling, Leivang, and Hengyang.

In the Canton area, seven P-51s from the 14th AF dive-bombed White Cloud Airfield and the town of Tsingvun.

The 16th Sentai sent six light bombers in a night attack on the Lingling airfield, claiming to have destroyed 18 aircraft on the ground.

25 July 1944
24 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Yoyang, blasting the storage area and railroad yards.
The 27 P-40s from the 14th AF escorting the B-24s over Yoyang claimed six Japanese interceptors shot down.

51 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked road and river traffic, troop compounds and cavalry units at Chaling, Siangsiang, Changsha, Siangyin, and Sinshih and north-west of Hengyang.

Sergeant Major Mamoru Tominaga (NCO87) of the 25th Sentai was killed over Yuezhou.

26 July 1944
27 B-25s and three P-40s from the 14th AF blasted the town of Tengchung, breaching the south-east wall in several places.

32 P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity throughout the Tengchung, Lungling, and Mangshih areas.

97 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, trucks, fortified points river shipping, and other targets of opportunity at numerous locations in or near Siangtan, Changsha, Hengshan, Fulinpu, Leiyang, Pingkiang, Hengyang, Chaling, and Nanyo. The airfield at Hengyang was also bombed.

27 July 1944
17 P-40s from the 14th AF hit river and lake shipping south of Yogang and in the Siangtan area, strafed truck columns south of Changsha, and bombed and strafed troops, horses, and compounds in the Nanyo area.

Yoshitaro Yoshioka of the 9th Sentai suffered en engine failure on his Ki-44. He crashed and was severely injured, not returning to the unit until September.

Ten Ki-48s from the 90th Sentai and eight from the 16th Sentai attacked the Liuchow and Chihkiang airfields, claiming more than 30 aircraft destroyed and damaged at Liuchou and ten more at Chihkiang.

28 July 1944
Second Lieutenant Tan Minghui, 24th PS, 4th PG, was killed in action over Hengyang when he was shot down by Japanese AA fire.

18 B-25s from the 14th AF, with fighter support, pounded the Yoyang railroad yards.

B-25s from the 14th AF in groups of one to three hit a Yellow River bridge and White Cloud, Tien Ho, and Hankow Airfields.

18 P-40s from the 14th AF hit Pailochi Airfield, destroying several aircraft.
The Japanese reported that the level attack by P-40s surprised them and most of the aircraft on the ground were destroyed.

30+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit troop concentrations, river and road traffic and other targets of opportunity at Leiyang, Chaling, Chinlanshih, and in the Tungting Lake area.

Three aircraft form the 16th Sentai and ten more from the 90th Sentai attacked the Kweilin airfields, claiming a total of more than 50 aircraft destroyed or damaged.

29 July 1944
Japanese fighters shot down Zhao Qigang of the 4th PG on a reconnaissance flight.

26 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area in Samah Bay, Hainan Island.

27 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Yulin harbor, Hankou Airfield, Kaifeng railroad yards, and the town of Tengchung.

80+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit bridges, troops, supplies, and river, road, and rail traffic throughout a vast area including the towns of Liling, Sinsiang, Hengshan, Changsha, Siangtan, Chaling, Liuyang, and Chuchou.

The gunner Yuan Zangwen, 1st BG (CACW), was wounded by ground fire when his B-25 attacked Yueyang airfield.

70+ B-29s from the 20th AF out of Chengdu bomb the Showa Steel Works at Anshan and harbour at Taku.
The first B-29 to be shot down on a combat mission fell to five fighters near Chenghsien (which the B-29 bombed after engine trouble causes an abort from the primary mission). Another B-29 bombed Chinwangtao before making a forced landing at a friendly field near Ankang.
The 9th Sentai encountered the B-29s on their way to attack Anshan, whilst over Bawangcheng. Major Takehisa Yakuyama, the unit commander, shot one down in a diving attack.
He again intercepted the bombers on their return flight, claiming one more destroyed and one damaged.

The 16th and 90th Sentais were back again at Kweilin, but only two aircraft reached the target because of bad weather and claimed about ten aircraft destroyed.

25 B-25s, six B-24s and ten P-38s attacked the Sanya airfield at 17:00, causing major damage to the airfield facilities. 18 A6Ms rose to meet the raiders, claiming to have shot down four P-38s (two unconfirmed), four B-24s and damaging seriously another B-24. Three A6Ms were lost, however. Among the killed pilots were Corporal Rikio Aizawa (Ko 8) of the 254 Kokutai.

30 July 1944
Eleven B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the town of Wuchang.

70+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked a bridge and the town area at Liling, railroad yards at Hsuchang, and troop concentrations, storage, and road, river and rail traffic in areas around Yungfengshih, Puchou, Hengyang, Chuchou, Chaling, Tungting Lake, and Liuyang.

31 July 1944
Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Wuchang railroad yards.

B-25s from the 14th AF, operating individually or in pairs, bombed Hengshan, Siangtan, and Hankow and attacked Tien Ho, White Cloud, Hengyang, and Wuchang Airfields.

60+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troop compounds, town areas and road and river traffic at several locations in or near Changsha, Hengyang, Kaishowkiao, Liling, Luchi, and Liuchow.

During a reconnaissance flight, First Lieutenant Zhou Qigan, 22nd PS went missing after aerial combat over Hengyang with Japanese fighters.

The 16th (4 aircraft) and 90th Sentai (9 light bombers) were back yet again at Kweilin and Liuchou respectively, claiming a total of some 20+ aircraft destroyed or damaged.

August 1944

The ground war

Due to the difficult terrain, shortage of supplies, insufficient concentration of heavy weapons as well as the superiority of the enemy air force, the occupation of the town of Hengyang by the Japanese 11th Army wasn’t achieved until 8 August.

US Army Air Force

During August, the 21st PRS based at Kunming with F-4s and F-5s, sent a detachment to operate from Kanchow.

On 23 August, the 529th FS, 311th FG, moved from Dinjan, India to Pungchacheng with P-51s.
On the next day, the 528th FS from the same Group moved from Tingkawk Sakan, Burma to Shwangliu with P-51s.

HQ 311th Fighter Group moves from Tingkawk Sakan, Burma to Pungchacheng on 28 August.

On 29 August, the 491st BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yankai, sent a detachment to operate from Liuchow with B-25s.

IJAAF

By 8 August, the 48th Sentai had claimed 35 victories but lost 16 pilots. The unit was withdrawn to recuperate.

The 5th Kokugun claimed a total of some 650 aircraft destroyed on the ground from 27 May – 9 August 1944, in addition to some 215 shot down or damaged in aerial battles. Even Senshi Soshi noted that these claims were likely to be exaggerated (and they have to be, else the 14th AF would have ceased to exist). Their own losses were 105 aircraft (all types and from all causes).

Towards the end of August, the 22nd, 69th and 60th Sentai were sent to China to bolster aerial strength for a one month period.
The 22nd Sentai was formed with the new Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate under the command of Major Jozo Iwahashi, who had been the Ki-84s chief test pilot. He led the unit to Hankou with 30 aircraft on 24 August 1944.

The 29th Sentai (which was originally a recon formation now retrained to be a fighter unit) arrived at Nanking on 27 August.

Operations

1 August 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Wuchang Airfield while two others hit the town of Siangyin.

More than 90 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit trucks, troops, supplies, and river shipping in and around Hengyang, Leiyang, Sinshih, Hengshan, Liling, Changsha, and Siangyin. The airfield and railroad yards at Hengyang were also bombed.

The 90th Sentai again launched a major attack on the Kweilin, Liuchou and Tanchu airfields, while four aircraft from the 16th Sentai attacked Chihkiang. The former claimed some 20 aircraft destroyed and the latter 15+.

2 August 1944
Eleven B-25s and 32 P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the town of Tengchung.

Nine P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge at Tingka.

Yangtze River shipping and supplies were attacked at Shihlipu by eight P-40s from the 14th AF.

Second Lieutenant Liu Yiai, 5th FG (CACW) was in a flying accident over Chihkiang.

The 16th Sentai launched an attack with four aircraft on the Ankang airfield, claiming five aircraft destroyed. One aircraft was shot down by night interceptors.

3 August 1944
Three Chinese B-25s, for the first time at night, bombed the railroad-bridge across the Huanghe at low level. One aircraft did not return from the mission and was counted as missing.

23 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Yoyang.

Six 6 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Mangshih.

Nearly 150 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity, including airfields, troops, town areas, supply areas, and rail, road, and river traffic at numerous locations, including the areas of Tengchung, Tingka, Mangshih, Loyang, Changsha, Hengyang, Tangyang, Chingmen, Chaling, Siangyin, Nanchang, Siangtan, Hengshan, Chuchou, Ikiawan, and Leiyang.

The 16th Sentai sent six light bombers to attack Hengyang city centre.

The 6th Sentai and 44th Sentai were busy support the assault on Hengyang.

Nine Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai sighted ten P-40s / P51s and twenty four B-24s over Yuechou. One P-51 and three B-24s were claimed to be shot down while one Japanese aviator was injured in the action.

4 August 1944
20 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Mangshih and airfields at Lashio and Hsenwi.

32 P-40s from the 14th AF hit the town area and targets of opportunity at Tengehung.

70 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked troops, supplies, river shipping, and trucks at several points in the Tungting Lake-Yangtze River region.

Four P-38s from the 14th AF knocked out two bridges at Mongyu.

In trying to wrestle air superiority over Hengyang in support of the ground troops, five aircraft from the 25th Sentai attacked two P-51s. While downing one, the 25th Sentai lost one of its aircraft as well when Captain Keisaku Motohashi (Class 53) was killed.

The 48th Sentai sent nine of its Ki-43s against ten P-40s, claiming at least two of them shot down.

The 44th and 6th Sentais once again concentrated on supporting the assault launched by the 68th Division on the ground.

One aircraft of the 25th Sentai (?) responsible for dropping supplies to Japanese troops at Hengyang was caught by P-40s about fifty miles southwest of Hankou. It was damaged and rammed an enemy aircraft before crashing, killing all four on board.

5 August 1944
15 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Wanling.

36 P-40s from the 14th AF again pounded Tengchung.

In the Tungting Lake area more than 50 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked communications targets, troops, and numerous trucks.

Sergeant Major Hiroshi Ohhata (NCO87) of the 25th Sentai was killed over Xinfu.

6 August 1944
28 P-40s from the 14th AF again pounded Tengchung.

47 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit trucks, troop compounds, and gun positions in the Hengyang area.

19 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked sampans and trucks around Changsha while 20 others hit supplies, trucks, barracks, and targets of opportunity at Chefang and Mangshih, between Changsha and Hengyang, and between Siangyin and Siangtan.

7 August 1944
Once again the Japanese sent most of its aircraft day and night to support the ground attack at Hengyang. One P-40 was claimed in air battles above the city.

37 P-40s from the 14th AF hit Hengyang and trucks, troops, and gun positions in the surrounding area.

21 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha, four hit rivercraft at Siangsiang, four bombed the wall at Tengchung, and six attacked Hsiaoshuipu.

Lieutenant Colonel Wang Hanxun, Major Tang Yuanliang, Captain Sun Zhongyue and Captain Xu Baoguang were all killed in an Air Transport accident near Chihkiang during an operation to airlift supplies to Hengyang.

8 August 1944
Six B-25s and seven P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area in Hengshan and destroyed several trucks in the area.

29 P-40s from the 14th AF hit gun positions and targets of opportunity in the Hengyang vicinity.

14 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit bridge, trucks, and river craft at Siangtan while eight blasted trucks, barges, and a compound between Siangtan and Hengyang.

Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF attacked river shipping from Sinti to Hankou.

15 P-40s from the 14th AF bombed storage areas and radio stations at Amoy and Swatow.

19 Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai tangled with 20+ P-40s over Hengyang, and claimed to have shot down seven P-40s and damaged two more, for a loss of three Ki-43s when First Lieutenant Takeju Yamamoto (Class 56), Sergeant Major Jun Ohno (NCO90) and Corporal Tsukasa Harayoshi (Sho-11) were killed. The commanding officer, Major Masao Matsuo was also badly wounded.
The unit also lost nine Ki-43s on the ground at Bailuqi, and suffered other casualties.

The 44th Sentai turned its attention to attacking Chinese forces trying to relief Hengyang in the sector of the 40th Division, claiming a number of artillery pieces destroyed.

The 25th Sentai battled with P-40s over Sunshi, claiming three P-40s downed for a loss of one of its own.

Six light Ki-48 bombers of the 90th Sentai attacked Chihkiang, two attacked Kanchou. They respectively claimed ten and seven aircraft destroyed on the ground.

9 August 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a compound and vehicle shed on the north-eastern edge of Hengyang.

36 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked trucks, gun positions, and buildings at several points in the Hengyang-Siangtan area.

21 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF knocked out a pontoon bridge and hit junks and sampans at Changsha, and attacked rivercraft at points along the central Yangtze River.

10 August 1944
Nine P-40s from the 14th AF strafed Taiyuan Airfield claiming 20+ aircraft destroyed.

16 P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed four trucks and damage about 50 others at Siangtan and in the Changsha area.

Two P-40s from the 14th AF strafed numerous junks along the South China coast.

24 B-29s from the 20th AF, out of Chengdu, China, bombed the urban area of Nagasaki, Japan, during the night of 10/11 August and three others hit targets of opportunity. The B-29s claimed one fighter shot down, the first such claim (except probables) by the B-29s.

11 August 1944
23 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha.

16 B-25s from the 14th AF pounded Hengyang.

40+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF bombed bridges, villages, warehouses, trucks, troops, and other targets of opportunity in the Hengyang area.

26 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity at or near Chuting, Puchou, and Yungfengshih.

Sergeant Tomio Yuzuriha (Sho-6) of the 9th Sentai was killed over Shanxisheng.

12 August 1944
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Hengyang while 19 P-51s and P-40s hit targets of opportunity in this area.

39 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked various targets of opportunity at Chiuchiang, Yungfengshih, Loyang, Siangtan, and Tengchung.

13 August 1944
30+ B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tungling, Sinsiang, and Hengyang, Pailochi Airfield, shipping at Takao harbor and nearby coastal areas. Three cargo vessels were claimed sunk.

51 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked trucks, bridges, railroad yards, troops, and other targets of opportunity in the Hengyang area.

18 P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF pounded Tengchung.

50+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked troops, bridges, railroad tracks, shipping, trucks, and other targets of opportunity at several locations including Lienhwa, Siangsiang, Sinshih, Puchou, Tungyangtun, Hengshan, Weichow Island, Luichow Peninsula, Tingka, Mangshih, Nanchang, Puchi, and along the Yunglo River.

14 August 1944
24 B-25s from the 14th AF blasted Lungling while 16 P-40s hit a fortified pass and targets of opportunity to the south.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Siangtan.

31 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit the railroad yards, river shipping, and general targets of opportunity at Hengyang.

13 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Tengchung while 13 others hit trucks, troops, and rivercraft at Pailochi and Sinying and four bombed a bridge at Hsenwi.

15 August 1944
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kutkai, demolishing two large buildings and leaving 14 burning.

35 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Tingka, Hsenwi, Lungling, and Tengchung.

Nearly 100 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, trucks, river shipping, artillery pieces, warehouses, and general targets of opportunity in or near Sungpai, Sinshih, Hengyang, Chaling, Leiyang, Sinyang, Siangtan, Hukow, and Changsha.

Lin Shenguang, 17th FS, 5th FG (CACW), was wounded by ground fire when attacking targets at Changsha.

16 August 1944
18 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the Wanling area and warehouses while twelve hit the Chaling area and warehouses at Siangtan.

90 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit bridges, fortified positions, troops, trucks, rivercraft, supplies, gun positions, and other targets of opportunity in the Hsenwi and Lungling areas and in the widespread area around Tunating Lake and the central Yangtze River.
Several aircraft hit ships transporting tanks of a Japanese tank regiment near Anking hard and almost half of the tanks sank to the bottom of the Yangtze River.

17 August 1944
25 B-24s from the 14th AF blasted Yoyang.

18 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards and storage area at Chiuchiang and four hit the road and airfield in the Hengyang area and storage buildings at Nanyo.

100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on offensive reconnaissance attacked town areas, bridges, hangars, supply dumps, railroad targets, and road and river traffic around Hsenwi, Tungling, and Tengchung, and throughout the Tungling Lake-central Yangtze River area, particularly in the Hengyang area.
Several P-40s in a surprise raid on the Taiyuan airfield not only shot down a trainer but also destroyed more than 10 aircraft in the hangers.

Warrant Officer Kazuo Shake (NCO81) of the 64th Sentai was shot down and killed by AA fire over Kunming.

18 August 1944
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed storage areas at Mangshih.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF pounded a storage area at Changsha.

60+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, town areas, bridges, and other targets of opportunity in the Tengchung, Lungling, and Mangshih areas and in the Tungting Lake-central Yangtze River area at points including Yoyang, Chaling, Yuhsien, Hengshan, Chuchou, and Hsuchang.

19 August 1944
25 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Puchi, severely damaging the warehouse area.

Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF hit Sienning while three hit railroad tracks and runway north of Hengyang.

70+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked river shipping, troops, trucks, and other targets of opportunity at or near Pengtse, Hengyang, Chaling, Yoyang, Siangtan, and Changsha.

20 August 1944
Four B-25s and seven P-40s from the 14th AF damaged buildings and a pontoon bridge and strafe about 30 sampans in the Hengyang area.

13 P-40s from the 14th AF hit buildings, trucks, and river shipping in the Hengshan area.

60+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked numerous trucks, rivercraft, and general targets of opportunity at Tingka, Anjen, Yangtien, south of Yoyang, between Hankou and Chinchiang, and between Sinshih and Changsha.
Warrant Officer Goro Furugori of the 22nd Sentai claimed two P-51s over Changsha.

61 Chengdu-based B-29s from the 20th AF bombed the Imperial Iron and Steel Works at Yawata, Japan during the day, followed by ten more during the night of 20/21 Aug, five hitting targets other than the primary.
14 B-29s were lost, including one to AA and four to enemy aircraft (one by air-to-air bombing and one by ramming). B-29 gunners claimed 17 air victories.

21 August 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Anjen and targets of opportunity in the surrounding area.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF attacked Hengyang Airfield, the town of Nanyo, and several buildings and other targets of opportunity near Yangtien.

90+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit town areas, river and road traffic, and other targets of opportunity at Pengtse, Kinhwa, Tenchung, Anjen, Hengyang, and Yangtsishih; south of Sintsaing, north of Tungting Lake, between Hankow and Sinti, and in the Changsha area.

22 August 1944
P-51s and P-47s from the 10th AF flew 53 sorties against Tengchung in support of attacking Chinese forces while eight P-47s strafed targets of opportunity between Tingka and Bhamo, Burma.

Eleven P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit bridges and road targets around Tingka, Mangshih, Loiwing, and Pangpying while others attacked a landing strip and river traffic at an island near Foochow.

23 August 1944
Four P-51s from the 10th AF hit Lungling and Mangshih. Five others attacked guns, fuel dump, and other targets of opportunity along the Burma Road from Wanling to Lungling while 7 more hit buildings and vehicles during sweeps of the general Mangshih-Chefang area.

Twelve P-51s from the 10th AF hit targets of opportunity south-west of Lungling and two P-40s strafed trucks at Chefang.

Seven B-25s and 21 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked villages, compounds, other targets of opportunity near Hengyang, Lingyang, and Anjen.

40+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit villages, shipping, troops, supplies, and other targets of opportunity around Ichang, Yangtien, Siangtan, and Yiyang, and south of Sungpai and Siangyin.

24 August 1944
Town areas, river and road traffic, railroad targets, and other targets of opportunity in or near Hengyang, Chuchou, Siangtan, and Yangtien were attacked by eight B-25s and 25 P-40s from the 14th AF.

19 other P-40s from the 14th AF hit similar targets of opportunity at Yungeheng, Anjen, along the central Yangtze River, and south of Mangshih.

25 August 1944
Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Kowloon docks in Hong Kong.

Three B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF hit buildings, troop compounds, and general targets of opportunity in the Yangtien area.

Four B-25s and 21 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked similar targets in and around Anjen.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the fighter strip at Leiyang and two others hit the town of Nanyo.

40 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked a wide variety of targets of opportunity throughout the Hengyang, Siangyin, Siangtan, and Siangsiang areas, Chenghsien, Lishui, Samshui, Chiangmen, Luichow Peninsula, and the Red River delta.

26 August 1944
Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area at Amoy.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a barracks area near Wenchow harbour and damaged a bridge near Sincheng.

31 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked railroad targets, troops, sampans, and other targets of opportunity in or near Yangtien, Yungfengshih, Siangsiang, Anjen, Laiyuan, Kinhwa, and Pengtse.

27 August 1944
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hengyang, Tien Ho, White Cloud, and Pailochi Airfields.

Nine B-25s from the 14th AF hit road and river traffic in the Yoyang, Hankou, Changsha, and Hengyang areas.

120+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the above areas plus Yangtien, Chachiang, Anjen, Leiyang, Sintsiang, Siangsiang, and Siangtan, damaging or destroying numerous trucks, many rivercraft and hitting several troop concentrations.

28 August 1944
The 22nd Sentai's first action was near their forward base at Pailuchi when eleven P-40s from the 5th PG, CACW and 11 USAAF fighters from the 14th AF attacked Pailuchi. The USAAF fighters were part of a formation of 32 P-40s, which attacked targets of opportunity Hengyang and Pailuchi during the day. They were intercepted by Ki-43s from the 48th Sentai and Ki-84s from the 22nd Sentai. A big melee ensued in the Yuechou area. The CACW claimed 6 victories (4 by American pilots plus 2 by Chinese) and lost one P-40 and a pilot; Lieutenant Hsu Kun. Three USAAF fighters also failed to return. Total IJAAF losses were unclear but three pilots, two from the 48th Sentai; Second Lieutenant Kiyoshi Mochizuki (Sho-5) and Second Lieutenant Minoru Tayama (NCO86) and one from the 22nd; Warrant Officer Koichi Akai (NCO81), were killed in action. One of the pilots from 48th Sentai reportedly parachuted from his burning Ki-48 but drowned in the Yangtze River.
Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai was probably also involved in this combat but didn’t report any losses.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho, White Cloud, Hankou, and Pailochi Airfields.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF attacked river and road traffic from Chiuchiang to Hankow and from Hengyang to Puchi.

23 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Taying storage buildings and 10 P-40s and P-51s hit Anjen and nearby targets of opportunity

Eight light Japanese bombers raided Liuchou, Liangshan and Enshi airfields, and six aircraft were claimed destroyed on the ground.

29 August 1944
Between 14:50-16:40, 14 P-40s from the 3rd PG CACW led by the newly promoted Lieutenant Colonel Bill Reed (7th FS) flew a Yangtze shipping sweep. The mission was briefed to fly the river from Hankow to Sinti, attacking river traffic and shore installations. After dive-bombing a storage area and sinking a river steamer at Shayang, the P-40s were attacked from above by Ki-43s near Yuenti. Medium cover was hit first, then the top cover, which had been trailing by several miles.
Down low, Lieutenant Colonel Reed (P-40N no. 660) got a good burst into an Oscar during a quartering turn head-on attack. The Ki-43 went into a steep turning dive and continued straight down into the river. First Lieutenant Ed Mulholland (7th FS) (P-40N no. 666) spotted an Oscar lining up on Reed’s P-40, so he fired a ninety-degree deflection shot that hit the Japanese fighter in the fuselage. The Oscar broke off his attack, but Mulholland didn’t follow him and it was only credited as a damaged. Also in Reed’s flight was First Lieutenant Tan Kun (7th FS) (P-40N no. 669. He put a long burst into an Oscar that was lining up on a P-40, and the Japanese pilot flipped his plane over and went into a dive. Lieutenant Tan followed him down until he saw the Ki-43 crash into the ground. He then claimed a second Ki-43 as a damaged. These four claims were made north of Yuehti Island.
Three Chinese pilots from the 28th FS scored kills while flying top cover for the mission. Second Lieutenant Tien Ching-Hsiang (P-40N no. 732, which Major Cheng often used) saw four Oscars attack from above. The first one looped up and away, for some reason, and the second did one and a half rolls to the right, then went into a dive. Lieutenant Tien followed him down, firing, and then climbed back up into the fight after he saw the Oscar crash. He was jumped on the way up and his P-40 was damaged, but then climbed up again and made passes on several more Oscars, claiming a second as a probable before breaking off for home. Second Lieutenant Wei Huang (P-40N no. 638) spotted four Oscars behind his flight leader, Lieutenant First Meng, shooting at him. Lieutenant Wei fired at them from behind, and one started smoking before it rolled toward the ground. The Lieutenant followed, and then pulled up when he saw an explosion on the ground below him where the Oscar had been going down. First Lieutenant Chao Yuan-Kun (P-40N no. 639) gave this account:

“I was leader of the second element in the top-cover flight. When the Zeroes came I followed Meng and Wei down after them. I made seven passes. The whole thing was a hell of a mess: Zeroes and P-40s whirling around everywhere. I knocked one Zero off a P-40’s tail and followed him down to the ground; I saw him hit. The Japs that attacked the top cover came from high out of the sun. I knocked a Jap off Wei’s tail. I gave this Jap several good bursts, but I do not know what happened to him.”
Lieutenant Chao was credited with one Ki-43 and one more as a damaged. He received over 60 bullets in his cabin, but managed to return to base. Two more Chinese pilots were wounded in this combat.
First Lieutenant Maurice Strand of the 28th FS (P-40N no. 664) also claimed a damaged Oscar while First Lieutenant Walter Michaels of the 8th FS (P-40N no. 662) claimed a “Zero” near Yuehti.
The 32nd FS took off later (mission reported as 15:40-16:05) and they reported two victories and one damaged over Yuehti when Second Lieutenant Kuan Chen-Min (P-40N no. 688) claimed an enemy fighter, First Lieutenant Wu Shiao-Lin (P-40N no. 653) claimed a Ki-43 and a second as a damaged.
Chao or Michaels claim may have been a Ki-84 of the 22nd Sentai flown by a Corporal Nishida who was killed in this action. Everyone else who claimed kills identified their victims as ”Oscars”.
The Japanese reported that 13 Ki-84s from the 22nd Sentai and 16 Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai engaged a large number of B-24s, P-40s and P-51s near Yuechou around 13:00. Claims were made for four P-40s, one P-51, and damages to four more P-40s, one P-51 and four B-24s. One Ki-43 and one Ki-84 were shot down, and one Ki-84 damaged.
One of the 3rd FG claims were the units 100th aerial kill.

24 B-24s escorted by 45 fighters from the 14th AF, blasted railroad yards at Yoyang.

15 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Pailochi, White Cloud, Tien Ho, and Hankou Airfields.

Ten B-25s from the 14th AF hit trucks and other targets of opportunity from Hengyang to Yoyang, from Hankou to Chinchiang, and near Anjen.

18 P-40s from the 14th AF hit a storage area and targets of opportunity around Tangyang.

17 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked trucks and buildings from Siangtan to Changsha.

22 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked trucks, supplies, and troops at Wuhu, Ichang, south of Isuho, south-west of Lungling, and north of Hengshan.

Eleven Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai encountered eight P-40s near over Chiayu at 17:20 and claimed two P-40s shot down and one more damaged; one of the Ki-43s was damaged.

Three light Japanese bombers attacked Kweilin and six heavy and six light bombers raided Liangshan airfield in the evening, with more than 10+ aircraft claimed destroyed on the ground at Kweilin and two at Liangshan.

30 August 1944
Japanese fighters shot down Lieutenant Chen Jiadou of the 4th PG.

B-25s from the 14th AF attacked Hengyang, Pailochi, and Hankou Airfields, roads in the Nanyo and Changsha areas, and boats between Changsha and Hengyang, and Kichun and Wuhsueh.

In the Kueii and Sintsiang areas 33 P-40s from the 14th AF claimed 58 trucks destroyed, 175 damaged, and at least 100 Japanese killed.
Ten P-51s from the 14th AF hit scattered targets of opportunity in the same areas.

21 P-40s from the 14th AF hit barracks, trucks, and a bridge in the Siangsiang and Siangtan region.

34 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked a variety of targets, including railroad traffic and facilities, occupied areas, and trucks, at Yangtien, between Hengshan and Nanyo, north-east of Ichang, south-west Hengshan, and near Hengyang.

The 22nd Sentai attacked Changsha during the day.

Three light Japanese bombers attacked Enshi, claiming two aircraft destroyed on the ground.

Three aircraft from the 60th Sentai attacked Suichan, setting oil tanks on fire.

Ten fighters from the 22nd Sentai claimed to have shot down three P-51s near Kueii in a night battle.

31 August 1944
Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Takao harbour, damaging the dock area and claiming 2 tankers sunk.

14 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked Tien Ho, White Cloud, Kai Tek, and Hengyang Airfields.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF attacked numerous trucks south of Sintsiang and near Sinshih, hit roads south of Nanyo and damage a freighter near Hsinshih.
Six Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai claimed a B-25 and a P-51 shot down near Hsinshi.

60+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked trucks, barracks, supplies, rivercraft, bridges and troops in or near Sinshih, Changsha, Yangtien, Hengyang, Nanyo, Siangtan, Teian, and Shihhweiyao.
Four P-40s sunk two Japanese ships near Shihhweiyao.

The 44th Sentai continued to attack Chinese positions near Ertang.

September 1944

Chinese Air Force

In August-September the entire 1st BG, including the 3rd BS returned from India and was concentrated at Baishi airbase. From there the Chinese pilots began to fly support missions for the ground forces in Zhiqiang. By the end of the year, the air group had completed a total of 194 sorties and lost 25 aircraft.

US Army Air Force

During September, the 528th FS, 311th FG, based at Shwangliu, China with P-51s, sent detachments to operate from Hanchung and Liansshan.

On 1 September, the 35th PRS moved from Guskhara, India to Kunming with F-5s.

HQ 33rd FG moved from Pungchacheng to Nagaghuli, Burma, on 3 September.

On 8 September, the HQ 23rd FG moved from Kweilin to Liuchow.

The 322nd Troop Carrier Squadron was activated at Kunming with C-47s on 9 September.

On 10 September, a flight of the 21st PRS based at Kunming, begun operating from Liuchow with F-5s.

Detachments of the 2nd and 4th Combat Cargo Squadrons, 1st Combat Cargo Group, based at Sylhet, India, begun operating from Yunnani with C-47s on 11 September.

On 12 September, the flight of the 21st PRS operating from Kweilin with F-5s since July 1943, returned to base at Kunming.
The 74th FS, 23rd FG, moved from Kweilin and Liuchow to Luliang with P-40s and P-51s on the same day.

On 14 September, the HQ 23rd FG moved from Liuchow to Luliang.
On the same day, the air echelon of the 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (attached to 23rd FG) moved from Kweilin to Liuchow with P-51s (ground echelon was at Chengkung) and the 373rd BS, 308th BG (Heavy), moved from Yangkai to Luliang with B-24s.

On 15 September, a detachment of the 1st Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, based at Sylhet, India begun operating from Yunnani.
On the same day, the HQ 68th Composite Wing moved from Kweilin to Liuchow.

A detachment of the 3rd Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, based at Sylhet, India, begun operating from Yunnani, China with C-47s on 16 September.
On the same day, flights of the 35th PRS based at Kunming, begun operating from Nanning and Yunnani with F-5s.

On 17 September, the 35th PRS moved from Kunming to Chanyi with F-5s.

The detachment of the 2nd Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, operating from Yunnani with C-47s returned to base at Sylhet, India on 18 September.
On the same day, the 529th FS, 311th FG, based at Pungchacheng with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Hsian.

On 22 September, the detachment of the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photogrpahic Reconnaissance Group, moved from Liuchow to Chanyi with F-7s (the squadron was based at Guskhara, India).

IJAAF

Captain Wakamatsu of the 85th Sentai led a group of pilots to Hankou, taking nine Ki-84s to Canton in late September.

Operations

1 September 1944
Four B-24s from the 14th AF claimed a small freighter sunk in Formosa Strait.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kai Tek Airfield, Hong Kong, and a supply depot south of Canton.

B-25s from the 14th AF hit a road south of Nanyo, a runway at Hengyang, and targets of opportunity near Anjen.

61 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, roads, shipping, airfields, troops, and other targets of opportunity at or near Yangtien, Nanyo, Hengyang, Anjen, Changning, and Chiuchiang

The 5th Kokugun flew some 207 sorties on this day alone, mostly in support of ground operations.

Sergeant Masahuru Wakai (Sho-7) of the 22nd Sentai was killed over central China.

2 September 1944
24 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Kunming.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the runway at Hengyang Airfield.

30 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked gun positions, troop concentrations, and sampans in the Hengyang and Changning areas while 20 P-40s hit similar targets south of Changsha, west of Pengtse, and in the Siangtan area.

Twelve P-51s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge at Yangtien.

Two aircraft from the 9th Sentai were covering naval vessels southwest of Anking when they were attacked by four P-40s. Sergeant Major Takashi Machida (NCO90) was shot down and killed while the second aircraft was heavily damaged.

3 September 1944
Twelve B-24s from the 14th AF pounded marshalling yards at Nanking.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF destroyed at least 45 trucks and damaged about 100 others during armed reconnaissance from Hengyang to Tungting Lake and Yoyang.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Hengyang Airfield.

100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked troops, railroad targets, bridges, and other targets of opportunity in areas around Changning, Hengyang, Sungpai, Chuki, Yangtien and Hengshan.

The 25th and 48th Sentais attacked Chinese boats near Chihsien, sinking a number of them.

Captain Takashi Tsuchiya (Class 53), Hikotai leader of the 25th Sentai was killed over Yuezhou. At the time of his death, he was credited with 8 victories.

The 90th Sentai raided the Laohokao and Ankang airfields in night attacks.

4 September 1944
24 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled 32,000 US gallons (121,133 l) of fuel to Kunming.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF blasted sampan, barge, and motor launch concentrations in the Kweiyang area.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF, with P-51 support, pounded the Paishul and Lingling areas, considerably damaging the town of Lingling and killing an estimated 60 soldiers and 10 horses.

100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance killed large numbers of troops and horses, pounded river and road traffic, and a variety of other targets of opportunity in the eastern Burma-south-western China region around Changning and Lungling and throughout areas mainly to the south of the Tungting Lake-Yangtze River section of inland south-eastern China, mainly around Hengyang, Lingling, Leiyang, Yangtien, and Kiyang.

Seven 22nd Sentai fighters patrolling near Hengyang claimed to have shot down a B-25.

The 90th Sentai raided Liuchou airfield with three aircraft and claimed to have set fire to five aircraft.

The 60th Sentai sent three aircraft against the Chiangchang airfield.

5 September 1944
21 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming

25 B-25s from the 14th AF pounding Kiyang and Hengyang caused considerable damage in both towns and at the Hengyang Airfield. Six others attacked trucks and other targets of opportunity at the Siangtan ferry crossing, near Hengyang and Kiyang, in the Lingling and Yoyang areas, and at Samshui.

Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kowloon shipyards.

26 P-40s from the 14th AF blasted concentrations of river junks, troops and horses in the Kiyang-Wangyang area.
Other fighter-bombers, operating individually or in flights of 2-10 aircraft, hit a variety of targets of opportunity throughout the Hengyang, Kiyang, Yungfengshih, and Lishui area.

The 22nd Sentai attacked Lingling during the day.

6 September 1944
24 B-24s from the 10th AF flew about 34,000 US gallons (128,704 l) of fuel to Kunming.

20 B-25s from the 14th AF pounded Yiyang, Lingkuantien railroad yards, trucks north of Lingling, troops and occupied areas around Kiyang and Paishui, and Hengyang Airfield.

45 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, shipping, and communications targets in the Yiyang area, bombed warehouses at Hukow, destroyed a fuel barge at Pengtse, hit railroad yards, trucks, troops, and sampans at Kweiyang and Lingkuantien, and attacked general targets of opportunity at Yangtien.

The 22nd Sentai raided the Lingling airfield and claimed to have destroyed a P-40 on the ground.

The 44th Sentai attacked the crossing point near Lingling and claimed to have set fire to many warehouses.

7 September 1944
22 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

24 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked town areas, river shipping and trucks in and around Kiyang, Lingling, and Yoyang.

Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields at Canton and two bombed the Siangtan ferry.

Five B-24s from the 14th AF hit four freighters south-west of Hong Kong.

Nearly 100 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over vast areas of south-eastern China attacked numerous targets of opportunity including troops, railroad targets, river shipping, warehouses, and bridges.

The 22nd Sentai attacked Lingling during the day.

The 6th Sentai bombed the Paoching airfield and town centre.

8 September 1944
23 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF claimed a destroyer sunk south of Hong Kong.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF destroyed a bridge near Kiyang, bombed Hengyang and Lingling, and damaged a bridge near Hengyang.

100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit a large variety of targets of opportunity including troops, river shipping, bridges, airstrips, supplies, trucks, and railroad targets over the vast south-eastern China areas at Lingling, Kiyang, Tunganhsien, Hengyang, Lingkuantien, and Leiyang.

90 Chengdu-based B-29s from the 20th AF bombed the Showa Steel Works at Anshan. Three others bombed other targets in Anshan, five hit Sinsiang railroad yards, and three others hit various targets of opportunity.
Major General Curtis Emerson LeMay, Commanding General XX Bomber Command, accompanied the mission.
Around noon, the 9th Sentai attacked B-29s bound for raids on Manchuria and claimed to damage eight near Kaifeng, with four trailing smoke and returning to the southwest. The Japanese fighters managed to intercept the B-29s on their return flight near Changte and two were claimed to be shot down with one probable, with two more damaged.

At 23:30, the Japanese launched a long planned assault on the B-29s based in the various airfields near Chengdu. Eight aircraft from the 60th Sentai, five from the 16th Sentai and five more from the 90th Sentai participated. A total of 15 B-29s were claimed to be damaged or destroyed, but two aircraft from the 60th Sentai did not return.
A B-29 and a C-46 were damaged at Hsinching while two soldiers were wounded.

9 September 1944
17 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

24 B-25s from the 14th AF hit river traffic and troop compounds in areas around Kiyang, Lingling, and Lingkwantien, bombed the towns of Lingling and Samshui, and knocked out the west end of a bridge at Lingling.

About 50 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit numerous targets of opportunity throughout inland south-eastern China including rivercraft and troop areas around Lingling, Lupao, Tsingyun, Kiyang, Leiyang, and Yungfengshih, and a railroad bridge at Tunganhsien.

Five B-24s from the 14th AF over the South China Sea claimed four freighters sunk or heavily damaged.

It was reported that a B-29 had force-landed at Laohokao, and the 22nd Sentai immediately dispatched three Ki-84s to at it at 08:00, claiming to have set fire to the aircraft on the ground.

Captain Takeo Hongo (Class 53) of the 64th Sentai was killed over Kunming.

10 September 1944
24 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

45 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the towns of Kutkai, Ssutang, Samshui, Tunganhsien, Lingling, and Tunghsiangchiao, and hit a fuel dump near Lingling.

About 140 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over east Burma, south-west China, and inland south-east China attacked a huge number of targets of opportunity including troops, aircraft, river shipping, trucks, runways, bridges, and supply areas.

Four aircraft from the 16th Sentai attacked the Sian airfield.

One aircraft from the 90th Sentai raided the Liuchou airfield and claimed to have set five aircraft on fire.

11 September 1944
23 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

Twelve P-47s from the 10th AF hit roads, towns, and general targets of opportunity in the Bhamo, Burma and Tengchung and Lungling areas.

18 B-24s from the 14th AF blasted a storage area at Manling.

30 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tunganhsien and Kiaotow and hit targets of opportunity in the Lingling area.

Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF blasted trucks along Burma Road and around Lungling.

59 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit river shipping, railroad targets, troop concentrations, supply dumps, and other targets of opportunity in the Canton-Tungting Lake area.

12 September 1944
Two separate groups of the 5th PG, CACW fighters, fought IJAAF fighters.
First Lieutenant Phil Colman of the 26th PS and his wingman Lieutenant Yang Shao-Hua made claims when Shao-Hua claimed an "Oscar" (Ki-43) over Siangtan. Colman claimed an “Oscar” damaged at 15:40 north of Siangtan and a probable “Hamp” over Changsha at the same time. Later during this sortie, Colman claimed an “Oscar” on the east bank of Siang River, 1 mile south of Changsha and another damaged “Oscar” 1 mile south of Changsha. The Japanese 48th Sentai admitted losing Corporal Saito.
The other group of eight P-40s were attacked over Hengshan by 12 IJAAF fighters. These were almost certainly six Ki-84s from the 22nd Sentai. One American pilot, Lieutenant Tom Brink was lost when he was caught low and slow while strafing. Another P-40 flown by Lieutenant Su Ying-Hai was badly damaged and was written off after returning to base. Captains Reynolds and Ramsey each claimed a damaged but the 22nd Sentai only admitted to losing Lieutenant Nanogen while claiming three and four damaged.

The 22nd Sentai attacked Hengyang during the day.

Second Lieutenant Shizunari Kumamoto (NCO86) of the 22nd Sentai was lost over central China.

25 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Kunming.

16 P-47s from the 10th AF hit targets of opportunity on the Burma Road from Lungling to Wanling, Burma to Namhkam and blast gun positions north of Loiwing Airfield.

Ten B-25s and six P-40s from the 14th AF pounded Lungling.

14 B-25s from the 14th AF hit the town area and destroyed two bridges and damaged another at Sungpai.

22 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kaochishih, Tunghsiangchiao, and the area east of Kiyang.

27 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over Hunan and other areas of inland south-east China attack road and river traffic and general targets of opportunity around Lingling, Hengyang, Kiyang, Yangtien, and Patpo.

15 P-40s from the 14th AF hit coastal and river shipping in South China and in Indochina on the South China Sea, in Chikhom Bay, and along the Red River.

13 September 1944
B-24s from the 14th AF claimed three cargo vessels sunk off the Pescadores Islands near Formosa.

Two aircraft from the 90th Sentai raided the Liuchou airfield.

14 September 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tunganhsien.

91 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked inland shipping, troop compounds, supplies, and numerous buildings around the Lungling area, throughout the vast expanse of inland south-east China, mainly in Hunan, and other areas south of Tungting Lake.

15 September 1944
13 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow.

Several P-47s from the 10th AF swept the Burma Road from Lungling to Muse, Burma, to Bhamo and strafed a boat on the river at Myothit.

19 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a military storage area at Hengyang.

20 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Chuanhsien and five pounded a ferry crossing and bus station at Lingling.

90+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked river shipping, numerous buildings, troops, and general targets of opportunity from north-east of Ichang to Liuchow Peninsula concentrating on the Kiyang and Changsha areas.

16 September 1944
Twelve P-40s of the 11th PG took off to attack Japanese forces at Kweilin. Four aircraft aborted and returned because of fog. Three more pilots for some reason were separated from the formation, and their fate is unknown. While returning the Squadron vice-commander Li Jiwu crashed while landing.

19 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Liuchow.

In spite of bad weather in Burma, four P-47s from the 10th AF swept the Lungling-Wanling-Loiwing road.

20 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Hengyang.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kutkai.

28 B-25s from the 14th AF hit various targets, including the Yuangshaho ferry, Pakmushih, Chuanhsien, and Lengshuitang.

130+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity in the Mangshih and Lungling area and from north of Tangyang and along the Yangtze River southward including areas around Changsha, Kiyang, Samshui, Chuanhsien, Lingling, and Kwongning.

17 September 1944
16 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Liuchow.

29 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha.

27 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Hwangshapu, Kiyang, and Nanyo.

130+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack town areas, strongpoints, shipping, railway targets, gun positions, trucks, and other targets of opportunity from north-east of Ichang southward through Hunan Province and beyond. Areas hit include Changsha, Kiyang, Lingling, Chuanhsien, Siangtan, Hengshan, Kweiyang, and Lingkuantien, plus scattered targets of opportunity elsewhere.

The 22nd Sentai attacked Zhijiang during the day.

The 25th Sentai launched an attack on the airfield at Chihkiang. However the flight leader, Major Kisoo Beppu’s (Class 45) fighter developed mechanical problems and he had to force-land behind enemy lines at Zhijhiang where he committed suicide. His comrades, a total of seven Ki-43s, flew cover for him until the end, but got tangled up with eight P-40s resulting in one Ki-43 crashing with the loss of Sergeant Tomoyoshi Kuroda (Sho-7) and another damaged seriously.

18 September 1944
18 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow.

Eight B-25s from the 10th AF hit supply dumps and installations at Chefang.

30 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked town areas and fuel dumps at Lingling, Taohsien, and Chuanhsien and damaged the approaches to the Lingling ferry crossing.

Four B-24s from the 14th AF over the Formosa Strait claimed one freighter sunk.

About 115 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack troops, trucks, tanks, shipping, town areas, and other targets of opportunity throughout Hunan Province south of Tungting Lake to Luicbow Peninsula and Chikhorn Bay.

Three bombers each from the 16th and 60th Sentais attacked the Kanchou airfield, and six more from the 60th Sentai attacked the Liuchou airfield, claiming three aircraft hit on the ground.

19 September 1944
18 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow and Chengkuing.

28 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Lingling, Lengsbuitang, Chuanhsien, Sinning, and Shanhsien.

150+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded numerous targets of opportunity during armed reconnaissance flights from the Tungting Lake-central Yangtze River area to the South China Sea. The fighter-bombers particularly concentrate on road transport in the Changsha area and supply dumps, buildings, and trucks near Sintsiang.

Lieutenant Loo Yu-Biao of the 29th PS, 5th PG (CACW), shot down a Ki-84 flown by a Sergeant Major Shigeharu Kawaguchi (NCO86) of the 22nd Sentai over central China. The unfamiliar IJAAF fighter was misidentified as a Navy "Hamp".

20 September 1944
27 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Lingling, Chuanhsien, and Kiyang and hit targets of opportunity throughout the Chuanhsien area.

100+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide areas of south-east China attacked troops, horses, trucks, shipping, and other targets of opportunity, particularly concentrating on areas around Chuanhsien, Lingling, Kiyang, Changsha, and Yiyang.

21 September 1944
21 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Liuchow.

27 B-25s from the 14th AF pounded Kiyang, Yungming, Lingling and areas to the north, and the area west of Chuanhsien.

100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked buildings, river shipping, troops, horses, and supplies at numerous points especially around Sinshih, Kiyang, Wuchou, and Isuho.
Captain Phil Colman of the 26th PS, 5th PG, CACW, and Lieutenant Lin Yu-Sui each claimed a "Hamp" near Shinshih.

Major Jozo Iwahashi (Class 45), CO of the 22nd Sentai was ordered to organise a strafing attack on Xian airfield at dawn. He personally led three others off to undertake the mission, but two was forced to return early. Arriving over the target, Iwahashi shot down a P-47 as it was taking off, and then strafed the airfield together with Warrant Officer Susumu Kuga. However, Iwahashi was shot down and killed.
Xian was in any event at the limit of the Ki-84’s range, and it was believed that Iwahashi had known that he would not return. His total victories are estimated to have exceeded 21.

The 25th Sentai lost two pilots over Hunansheng when Sergeant Shigenori Ohmoto (Sho-10) and Corporal Kinjiro Ninomiya (Sho-11) were killed.

22 September 1944
13 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow.

24 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded Hankou.

Twelve B-25s and seven P-51s from the 14th AF hit the Hengyang road junction and ferry.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kianghwa while six P-51s damaged a nearby bridge.

Five B-25s from the 14th AF hit Yungming.

44 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF blasted targets of opportunity along roads in the Changsha, Siangtaii, and Sintsiang areas while 50+ other P-40s and P-51s hit various targets of opportunity around Chuanhsien, Paoching, Lingling, Hankou, and Kiyang.

23 September 1944
19 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow while two delivered fuel to Kunming.

15 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the Burma Road in the Chefang area.

36 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Chuanhsien and targets of opportunity in surrounding areas.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kuanyang, five hit Yungming, six damaged the Dara Bridge, twelve bombed Lungling, and two knocked out a bridge near Jinyang.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed docks at Amoy.

90+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit numerous targets of opportunity throughout south-east China concentrating on Japanese troops in the Chuanhsien area and various targets around Jungyun, Yuankiang, Yungming, Lingling, and Hsuchang.

Six aircraft from the 16th Sentai raided Chihkiang and claimed two aircraft burnt.

Seven aircraft from the 90th Sentai raided Lichou and claimed to have burnt two aircraft and damaged five others

24 September 1944
11 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow.

26 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Mangshih, Taohsien, and Kuanyang, attacked White Cloud Airfield at Canton, and knocked out the Dara Bridge.

Three B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity near Changtuikuan and along the Lingling-Siangtan road.

70+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south-west and south-east China pounded numerous targets of opportunity, especially the town areas and river shipping at Takhing and Sinshih.

The 85th Sentai claimed to have shot down eight P-51s and damaged 16 more in air combat.

Seven aircraft from the 16th Sentai raided Chihkiang again and claimed four aircraft burnt and five damaged.

Six aircraft from the 90th Sentai raided Lichou and claimed to have burnt two aircraft and damaged two others.

25 September 1944
B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to China, 15 landing at Kunming, three at Liuchow, and one at Yungning.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the barracks area at Mangshih.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kweiyang, and six hit the town area and railroad yards at Hengyang.

Eleven B-24s from the 14th AF pounded Nanking.

About 120 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over the vast expanses of China south of the Yangtze River attacked a large variety of targets of opportunity at numerous locations including troops, buildings, and communications targets in the Paoching area and between Siangtan and Fulinpu.

Seven aircraft from the 60th Sentai raided the Liangshan airfield claiming to have hit two aircraft on the ground.

26 September 1944
19 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Liuchow, Yangtong, and Yungning.

20+ P-47s from the 10th AF in two flights hit Tingka, Burma, and in China, hit fuel storage at Chefang and repair shops at Wanting.

Nine B-25s from the 10th AF blasted troop concentrations and stores in Hinlong.

Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Lungfukwan and Mangshih while several P-40s hit targets of opportunity in same areas.

Six B-25s and four P-38s from the 14th AF attacked and slightly damaged the Dara Bridge and destroy road machinery nearby.

About 50 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF continued armed reconnaissance over the vast inland areas of south China, attacking troops, buildings, and other targets of opportunity.

83 B-29s from the 20th AF, staging from Chengdu, bombed Anshan. Most of them were striking the Showa Steel Works with poor results while 15 others bombed Dairen, Sinsiang, and various targets of opportunity.
The 9th Sentai claimed five B-29s shot down and eight damaged, including one by ramming by Sergeant Major Mamoru Taguchi, who returned unhurt (reported on 27 September).
The 25th Sentai claimed one damaged B-29.

During the night of 26/27 September, Japanese aircraft bombed the Chengdu area, damaging 5 B-29s.
This attack along with the one on 8 September set the pattern for Japanese raids, which usually followed B-29 missions and continued until 19 December but were of light nature and annoying rather than seriously damaging.

27 September 1944
Ten B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow and Yungning.

40+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked communications targets, river shipping, buildings, and troops in the Kiyang, Lungfukwan, Sungpai, Chuanhsien, Lingling, Paishui, and Paoching areas.

28 September 1944
21 B-24s from the 10th AF flew fuel to Liuchow, Yungning, and Kunming.

26 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the town of Samshui.

31 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked the towns of Taochuan and Shangchiebshou, Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields at Canton, and river and road traffic around Lingling, Siangtan, and Chuchou.

100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack numerous targets of opportunity including bridges, town areas, troops, and road, rail, and river traffic throughout inland south-east China and, on a smaller scale, in south-west China and in French Indochina.

19 Ki-44s from the 85th Sentai met a mixed formation of some reported 50 P-51s and B-24s near Wuchou and in a five-minute melee claimed to have shot down five P-51s and one B-24 while losing Sergeant Masanori Ikenoue (Sho-9), who was shot down and killed.

Nine aircraft from the 90th Sentai attacked Liuchou and claimed to have destroyed five aircraft on the ground.

29 September 1944
18 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Yungning, Liuchow, and Kunming.

Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Mangshih.

24 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields at Canton.

15 B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity around Chuanhsien, Taochuan and Taohsien.

About 100 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF again attacked various targets of opportunity throughout the vast expanses of China south of the Yangtze River, hitting road, rail, and river targets, troops, and town areas.

Nine aircraft from the 90th Sentai attacked Liuchou and claimed to have destroyed eight aircraft on the ground and damaged five more.

Three aircraft from the 90th Sentai raided Nanning and claimed to have destroyed two aircraft and damaged eleven more.

30 September 1944
18 B-24s from the 10th AF hauled fuel to Liuchow, Yungning, and Kunming.

29 B-24s and twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Wuchou and Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields at Canton.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity south of Lungfukwan.

Nearly 100 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide areas of China south of the Yangtze River again hit numerous targets of opportunity, concentrating on river shipping.

The 90th Sentai sent eight bombers to Liuchou again claiming to have destroyed one aircraft and damaged another.

October 1944

Chinese Air Force

In October, the 12th BG was disbanded.

US Army Air Force

During October, the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th PRG, based at Guskhara, India, sent an element to operate from Hsinching with F-7s.

On 2 October, the detachments of the 1st and 3rd Combat Cargo Squadrons, 1st Combat Cargo Group, operating from Yunnani, China with C-47s returned to base at Sylhet, India.

The flight of the 35th PRS at Nanning, returned to base at Chanyi with F-5s on 6 October.
The first P-61 night fighters (from the 20th AF) arrived in Chengdu, China, on the same day and on the eve of the third air raid. In ten attacks from 6 September to 19 December, only 43 aircraft participate.

On 11 October, the detachment of the 4th Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, operating from Yunnani returned to base at Sylhet, India with C-47s.

The flight of the 21st PRS operating from Liangshan moved to Hanchung, China with F-5s on 18 October.

On 19 October, the 35th PRS based at Chanyi, sent a detachment to operate from Chihkiang with F-5s.

The 530th FS, 311th FG, moved from Dinjan, India to Kwanghan with P-51s on 21 October.

On 24 October, the CBI Theater was split into two theaters, China and India-Burma.
HQ 14th AF was reassigned from US Army Forces, CBI Theater to US Forces, China Theater, on the same day.

The detachment of the 529th FS, 311th FG, operating from Hsian with P-51s, returned to base at Pungchacheng on 30 Ocotber.

IJAAF

On 2 October, the 22nd Sentai left its 20 or so remaining Ki-84s behind, and withdrew to the homeland to recuperate.
During six weeks of combat, the 22nd Sentai had claimed 40 aircraft destroyed or damaged.

During October, Captain Wakamatsu of the 85th Sentai claimed five victories and Sergeant Misao Ohkubo four.
Late in the month, the unit received a citation, recording to date it had destroyed or damaged 82 enemy aircraft.

After the departure of the 22nd and 29th Sentai to Japan and Taiwan respectively, it was found necessary to initiate a training course to convert 27 pilots (mainly from reconnaissance pilots) to fighter pilots.

Operations

1 October 1944
Six P-47s from the 10th AF hit Lungling and swept the Burma Road in the area.

18 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields in Canton, the town of Wuchou, and targets of opportunity in the Samshui and Canton areas.

100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance throughout areas south of the Yangtze River hit a variety of targets of opportunity, concentrating on communications targets and troops in the Mangshih and Hsinganhsien areas.

2 October 1944
Eight P-47s from the 10th AF swept the Lungling, China-Loiwing, Burma area, destroying a warehouse at Selan.

Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF attacked the town of Pingnam while 16 bombed Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields in Canton and the town of Samshui.

70+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China attacked various targets of opportunity, chiefly river traffic and troop areas around Chuanhsien, Taochuan, Takbing, Wuchou, Dosing, and the Wenchow peninsula, and attack shipping in the Campba Port-Hongay area of French Indochina.

3 October 1944
23 B-25s from the 14th AF attacked Pingnam, trucks and rivercraft in the Wuchou, Samshui, and Canton areas, and bomb Tien Ho and White Cloud Airfields in Canton.

100 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF continued armed reconnaissance over wide expanses of China south of the Yangtze River, attacking rivercraft, road traffic, troops, town areas, and other targets of opportunity. The Hsinganhsien, Pingnam, and Chuanhsien areas were covered exceptionally well.

Corporal Yoshihiro Nakanishi (Sho-11) of the 48th Sentai was shot down and killed over central China.

4 October 1944
Five B-25s from the 14th AF hit Hsinantien and areas north of Chefang.

80+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF continued to attack targets of opportunity during armed reconnaissance over areas of China south of the Yangtze River.

20+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit buildings, troops, and river shipping in the Paoching area.

Captain Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu, Hikotai leader of the 85th Sentai led four Ki-84s and four Ki-44s to Wuzhou, where a number of P-51s were bounced, Wakamatsu claiming two of these shot down with just two short bursts, as did Sergeant Misao Ohkubo, while a Ki-44 pilot claimed a fifth.

Eight light bombers from the 16th Sentai and four heavy bombers from the 6th Sentai raided Hanchung (claiming eight aircraft hit) while five heavy bombers from the 60th Sentai attacked Sian.

One IJAAF heavy bomber leaving Wencheng was shot down at dusk, and a number of aircraft at the Wencheng airfield were strafed by enemy fighters and destroyed.

5 October 1944
Twelve B-25s and 22 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked Samshui, Koyiu and Takhing, eight hit targets of opportunity in the Canton-Wuchou area, and three bombed a storage area at Mangshih.

The 85th Sentai lost four aircraft over Canton., including the one flown by Captain Hajime Saito (Class 54), CO of the 1st chutai.

50+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF over wide areas of south China attacked rivercraft, road traffic, bridges, town areas, and troops.

6 October 1944
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bomb Wucbou and attacked boats and other targets of opportunity in the Canton area.

50+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over areas of China south of the Yangtze River attacked rivercraft, bridges, town areas, troop concentrations and targets of opportunity along the north French Indochina coast.

The 85th Sentai intercepted a mixed formation of some reported 20+ fighters and 10+ bombers over Chaoching, claiming to have shot down five for a loss of three aircraft.

The 16th Sentai sent 14 aircraft against the Kanchou airfield, claiming two aircraft burnt and five more damaged.

7 October 1944
53 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troop concentrations, bridges, river and rail traffic, town areas, and supply dumps around Tunghsiangchiao, Pingnam, Hsinganhsien, Chuanhsien, Lingling, Wuchou, Houmachen, Chiuchiang, and Paoching.

Five Ki-44s of the 29th Sentai claimed to have shot down a single P-51 and damaged two P-40s from a formation of nine P-40s and three P-51s near Erhtaokou while losing two pilots when Sergeant Mitsuo Hashimoto (Sho-7) and Sergeant Masao Gomi (Sho-8) were killed.

Four light bombers from the 16th Sentai attacked B-29s at Pangshan and claimed to have destroyed 26 large aircraft and some 20 other smaller aircraft.

Four heavy bombers from the 60th Sentai attacked other airfields in the Chengdu vicinity without much success.
One of the returning bombers did not get back to Wencheng until daybreak and was bounced by lurking fighters and shot down.

8 October 1944
Twelve P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit locomotives, trucks, and river traffic at Yuncheng and north-east of Pengtse.

9 October 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the area north of Mangshih.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF hit shipping along the lower Yangtze River.

29 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked river traffic, troops, bridges, and other targets of opportunity in areas around Tanchuk, Tengyun, Anking, and Amoy. The airstrip at Tanchuk was temporarily put out of commission.

10 October 1944
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed and considerably damaged the Kunlong ferry.

38 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked a bridge and other targets of opportunity near Mangshih, hit troop areas around Tanchuk and Wuchou, river traffic near Dosing, and locomotives and barges along the north French Indochina coast.

11 October 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge south of Mangshih.

Three P-40s from the 14th AF attacked sampans from Tanchuk to Tengyun while eight hit general targets of opportunity north of Mangshih.

12 October 1944
Three B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF hit the Chefang storage area and a bridge and general targets of opportunity in the Mangshih area.

40+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance covering wide areas of south China and extending into west Burma attacked troop concentrations, river traffic, storage areas, and buildings in areas around Taochuan, Kweiping, Hsinganhsien, Yuncheng, Tanchuk, and Hsenwi.

US carrier aircraft attacked Formosa. 32 Ki-43s of the 20th Sentai intercepted over Hsiaochang and Tapei during the morning, but lost more than ten pilots, only eight Ki-43s of the 3rd chutai landed back at Taichung. 15 more fighters from the Shusei Hiko Chutai (Combined Flying Chutai, which had been formed from instructors at the 104th Training Hikodan) were led to intercept by Captain Saburo Togo. Claims for five shot down were made for the loss of two of their number. Meanwhile, two other pilots from this unit, Warrant Officer Takeo Tagata and Sergeant Tadashi Matobara, engaged 38 F6Fs, claiming five shot down between them, before successfully force-landing. However, when eight Ki-45s of the 3rd Rensei Hikotai (3rd Operational Training Flying Unit) took off in an effort to intercept, they were all wiped out.
Ki-84s of the 11th Sentai were also on Formosa at this time. 40 such aircraft had departed Tokorozawa for the Philippines, several of which had fallen by the wayside en route. Those available also sought to intercept the marauding American carrier aircraft, but many of the pilots, inclusing the CO, Major Yoshihiro Kanaya, and two chutai leaders were killed.
The Japanese fighter forces suffered heavily and totally 16 pilots were killed.
The 11th Sentai lost six pilots; the CO Major Yoshihiro Kanaya (Class 51), Sergeant Major Ryo Takizawa (Sho-6), Lieutenant Saburo Matsumoto (Class 55) (CO 3rd hikotai), Lieutenant Hitoshi Sano (Class 55), Sergeant Major Hisamitsu Kojima (NCO87) and Captain Kunio Ohnuma (Class 53) (CO 1st hikotai).
The 20th Sentai lost six pilots; Captain Sadakazu Kobayashi (Class 54) (CO 2nd chutai), Sergeant Major Toshio Maebashi (NCO91), Sergeant Shigeru Suzuki (Sho-10), Corporal Teruo Fujita (Sho-11), Corporal Juichiro Nakamura (Sho-11) and Captain Kiyotaku Yamagata (Class 54) (CO 1st chutai).
The 29th Sentai lost Warrant Officer Ryotaku Hase (NCO54).
The 3rd Rensei Hikotai lost First Lieutenant Yasuyoshi Hashimoto (Class 55).
The 8th Kyodo Hikotai lost Sergeant Major Kunimasa Nakamura (NCO77).
The 6th Kyodo Hikotai lost Sergeant Yoshito Yoshida (Sho-6).

13 October 1944
138 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on numerous armed reconnaissance missions throughout south China and into west Burma attacked troop areas, rivercraft, town areas, bridges, trucks, and other targets of opportunity. 71 of the fighter-bombers hit targets in the Kweiping area while the others attack targets around Chuanhsien, Litou, Shepchung, Tengyun, Lungfukwan, Kingshan, Mangshih, and Chefang.

14 October 1944
32 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, town areas, and river traffic around Samshui, Mangshih, Kweiping, Hsinganhsien, Konghow and Tajungchiang.

103 Chengdu, China-based B-29s from the 20th AF bombed the Okayama aircraft plant on Formosa.
Twelve more hit last-resort targets and targets of opportunity.
This was the first 20th AF mission during which 100+ B-29s attacked targets and the first of a series of missions against Formosa in conjunction with the US invasion of Leyte Island, Philippine Islands.

15 October 1944
28 B-24s, 33 P-51s, and 18 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded White Cloud Airfield in Canton and shipping in the Hong Kong area.
The 85th Sentai encountered a large formation of B-24 with escorting fighters, and claimed to have shot down four B-24s and one P-51 using both guns and Ta Dans (incendiary air-burst bombs) (according to other sources eight victories) for the loss of two pilots.
During this engagement, Sergeant Major Heihachiuro Nishino claimed two B-24s and a P-51 with a Ta Dan. Warrant Officer Akiyoshi Nomura of the 85th Sentai claimed two P-51s shot down over Canton but his Ki-84 was hit in the left wing fuel tank, and he baled out. Rescued by local residents, he was back at his base by the evening of 17th.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Amoy.

Six fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity near Mangshih and Tajungchiang.

16 October 1944
28 B-24s, 8 B-25s, 26 P-51s, and 21 P-40s from the 14th AF blasted shipping and the Kowloon Dock area of Hong Kong. 15 cargo vessels were damaged or sunk.

Three P-51s from the 14th AF hit the Wuchou area.

36 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF hit village and town areas, bridges, and troop concentrations in the Kweiping, Tanebuk, Hsinganbsien, Tingka, and Chefang areas.

Over 40 B-29s from the 20th AF, out of Chengdu, bombed the Okayama aircraft plant aircraft plant and Heito Airfield on Formosa.
20+ other B-29s bombed alternate or chance targets at Takao, Taichu Airfield and Toshien harbour on Formosa, and Swatow and Sintien harbours, Hengyang, and several airfields in China.

The 85th Sentai claimed four victories during the day, including a B-24.

Three F6Fs were claimed to be shot down (one unconfirmed) by IJNAF fighters from Hainan Island. One Japanese plane was lost and the pilot killed. This seems to have been Warrant Officer Satoshoi Kano (Otsu 6) of 254 Kokutai who was reportedly killed off Taiwan.

17 October 1944
15 B-25s, 12 P-40s, and 10 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded a supply depot at Tien Ho Airfield at Canton.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed a supply depot at Victoria Harbor, Hong Kong.

44 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack rivercraft, troop concentrations, villages, and other targets of opportunity around Kweiping, Tengyun, Mangshih, Tajungchiang, Wuchou, and Dosing. A runway at Tanchuk Airfield suffers considerable damage.

Ten B-29s from the 20th AF, flying out of Chengdu, China, bomb Einansho air depot on Formosa.
14 others bombed alternate targets.
18 A6Ms intercepted B-29s over southern Taiwan airspace without loss on either side. (The bulk of the Taiwan air group was lost in battles over the Philippines).

The 85th Sentai claimed three victories during the day.
In two days, the unit had claimed seven victories without losses.

18 October 1944
100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF flew armed reconnaissance over vast areas of China south of the Yangtze River, attacked town areas, troops, rivercraft, gun positions, supply facilities, airfields, and other targets of opportunity around Kweiping, Shangkaishow, Tajungchiang, Konghow, Wuchou, Shepchung, Hsinganhsien, Tengyun, Liutu, Tanchuk, and Takhing.

19 October 1944
100+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China hit numerous targets of opportunity from the Tungting Lake area to Luichow Peninsula. The fighter-bombers concentrated on rivercraft, troop compounds, and building areas.

20 October 1944
18 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed docks and storage area at Samshui and the town of Kweiping.
28 P-51s and P-40s joined the attack on the Samshui area.

77 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance pounded road, river, and rail traffic, town and village areas and other targets of opportunity around Kweiping, Menghsu, Shawan, Kaotienhsu, Pingnam, Hsenwi, Wuchou, Dosing, Tanchuk, and coastal areas of French Indochina including Hongay.

The 85th Sentai lost an aircraft in Southern China, reducing its aviators to just eight. It had to be reinforced by a chutai from the 9th Sentai.

21 October 1944
Three B-25s and 130+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked shipping, gun positions, troop areas, bridges, town areas, road traffic, and other targets of opportunity around Yuma, Takhing, Dosing, Konghow, Shawan, Kuanyang, Kweiping, Tungpingchi, Tingka, Muse, Wan Lai-Kam, Shekpo, Menghsu, and Amoy.

22 October 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out two railroad bridges at Pingnam while eight P-51s pounded the town area.

54 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked town areas and general targets of opportunity at Nampang, Kuanyang, Shekpo, Pingnam, Kweiping, near Menghsu and Wanling, Burma.

23 October 1944
Three B-25s from the 14th AF knocked out a bridge at Lobochai while seven P-40s hit trucks and locomotives nearby.

Six B-25s and eleven P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the town area of Menghsu.

50+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit small towns and other targets of opportunity in the Menghsu area while 40+ others attacked shipping, bridges, and general targets of opportunity around Anfu, Kweiping, Shepchung, Kuanyang, Ssuwangshu, Mangshih, Chefang, Panghkam, Takhing, Tanchuk, Dosing, Wuchou, and Tengyun and Wanling, Burma.

24 October 1944
About 80 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south-east China, south-west China, and east Burma hit runways, storage facilities, town areas, troops, horses, gun positions, and other targets of opportunity around Amoy, Lohochai, Tanchuk, Sinthe, Menghsu, Pingnam, Mangshih and Chefang, and Lashio, Burma.

25 October 1944
Six B-25s and four P-38s from the 14th AF damaged railroad tracks at the Dara Bridge in Thailand.

Seven P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit the Mongyu Bridges and destroy the Kawnghka Bridge while four others strafe Nawnghkio Airfield.

20+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity at Tengyun, Kweiping, and Ssuanghsu, and about 50 struck targets throughout the Menghsu area.

59 B-29s from the 20th AF, flying out of Chengdu, bombed an aircraft plant at Omura, Kyushu Island, Japan.
Several other B-29s hit alternate targets and targets of opportunity.
Twelve aircraft from the 25th Sentai intercepted the returning B-29s and claimed to have shot down one and damaged another.

26 October 1944
B-24s and B-25s from the 14th AF attacked shipping off the east Luichow Peninsula. B-25s also hit river shipping from Dosing to Takhing and a Yellow River bridge.
Major Horace S Carswell Jr. of the 308th BG was awarded the Medal of Honour for action on 26 October 1944 when, in spite of intense antiaircraft fire, he attacked a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea. His B-24 44-40825 (MACR 9612) was so badly damaged that when he reached land, he ordered the crew to bail out. Carswell, however, remained with the aircraft to try to save one man who could not jump because his parachute had been ripped by flak. Before Carswell could attempt a crash landing, the bomber struck a mountainside and burned.

Fighters from the 14th AF attacked the town of Menghsu, hit targets of opportunity around Menghsu and Kweiping, and made an armed reconnaissance attacked on Hongay, French Indochina.

B-25s and fighters from the 14th AF bombed railroad yards at Hsuchang.

Warrant Officer Akira Kawakita of the 9th Sentai was shot down and killed by a fighter over Huangjiang. Kawakita was credited with at least five B-29s claimed during September 1944.

The 16th and 90th Sentai attacked the Chengdu airfields from Jingmen, claiming to have destroyed more than 60 B-29s on the ground.

27 October 1944
Fighters from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the town of Mengmao and nearby hill positions, river traffic, troops, and horses from Tanchuk to Tengyun, bridges north-east of Hsinganhsien, the town of Kaotienhsu, troops in the Kweilin area, rail traffic west of Puchi, and airfields at Siangtan and Changsha.

28 October 1944
Fighters from the 14th AF strafed villages, troops, and horses in the Menghsu-Konghow area, pounded bridges around Kaotienhsu, and hit Yangtong Airfield and shipping at Hongay, French Indochina and Wuchou.

Trying to repeat the success of the previous night, Major Takeo Matsuyama, who had taken command of the 25th Sentai only a couple of weeks earlier, led a formation of eight Ki-43s to escort light bombers. Over Jingmen, they were engaged by an intercepting force of 18 enemy fighters, Matsuyama (Class 46), First Lieutenant Itsuo Erni (Class 55) and Sergeant Major Tadashi Shono (Sho-7) (3rd chutai) all being shot down and killed. Three of the light bombers were also lost. One Ki-43 and two light bombers were also burnt on the ground in the action which lasted little more than 90 seconds.
At the time of his death, Shono was credited with 14 victories.

In retaliation for attacks on Wuchou, the 90th Sentai sent ten light bombers to raid Liuchou, losing one aircraft in the process.

29 October 1944
Fighters from the 14th AF in support of Chinese ground forces blasted hill positions in the Lungling and Mangshih areas. Others damaged a bridge at Sinshih, bomb Kweiyi and Paoching, hit railroad targets between Siaokan and Sinyang, and strafed airfields at Chingmen, Tangyang, and Ichang.

To avenge the debacle at Jingmen, six aircraft from the 16th Sentai and two from the 90th Sentai attacked Chengdu, while four from the 16th Sentai and one for the 90th Sentai attacked Enshi. Due to weather conditions, it was decided after the aircraft were launched to concentrate on Enshi. About 10 aircraft were claimed destroyed at the Chengdu airfields and due to weather conditions, results could not be confirmed at the latter. One aircraft from the 90th Sentai did not return.

30 October 1944
13 B-24s from the 14th AF laid mines in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

The 16th Sentai attacked Chihkiang airfield and claimed to have destroyed ten aircraft on the ground. In addition, four aircraft were dispatched to attack Laohokao.

31 October 1944
Six P-51s from the 14th AF hit shipping targets of opportunity at Swatow and Amoy.

About 70 fighters from the 14th AF supported Chinese ground forces by pounding positions in the Lungling area.

Four B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a railroad bridge at Pengpu.

November 1944

The ground war

On 24 November, the Japanese captured Nanning, completing the Ichi-Go objective to establish a rail link from French Indo-China to Hankow, Shanghai and Peking.

Chinese Air Force

By November, the American-Chinese Air Unit numbered 535 fighters and 156 bombers and the personnel had grown to 17437 men.

The Chinese Air Force received their first P-51 Mustangs during November. These were P-51Bs from the 14th Air Force. The first Chinese pilot who flew the P-51 was Cheng Sung-Ting.

US Army Air Force

On 1 November, the detachments of the 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Kweilin and Liuchow with B-25s, returned to base at Yang Tong.
The detachment of the 26th FS, 51st FG, operating from Nanning with P-51s, returned to base at Kunming on the same day.
Also on the same day, the elements of the 24th Combat Mapping Squadron, 8th Photographic Reconnaissance Group, operating from Hsinching and Pengshan with F-7s, returned to the detachment base at Changyi.

The 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), moved from Yang Tong to Yangkai with B-25s on 2 November.
The detachment of the 491st BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), operating from Liuchow with B-25s, returned to base at Yangkai on the same day.

On 5 November, the 22nd BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium), based at Yangkai, sent a detachment to operate from Yunnani with B-25s.
On the same day, the 426th Night Fighter Squadron moved from Madhaiganj, India to Chengdu with P-61s (detachment begun operating from Kunming during the month).

The detachment of the 21st PRS operating from Liuchow with F-5s, returned to base at Kunming on 6 November.

On 7 November, the HQ 68th Composite Wing moved from Liuchow to Luliang.
The air echelon of the 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (attached to 23rd FG), ceased operating from Liuchow and returned to base at Chengkung with P-51s on the same day.

The 21st PRS based at Kunming, sent a flight to operate from Suichwan with F-5s on 12 November.

On 19 November, the 35th PRS based at Chanyi, sent a flight to operate from Suichwan with F-5s.

The flight of the 21st PRS operating from Kanchow with F-5s, returned to base at Kunming on 20 November.

On 26 November, a flight of the 21st PRS began operating from Luliang with F-5s.

A detachment of the 426th Night Fighter Squadron began operating from Hsian with P-61s (the squadron was based at Chengdu with a detachment at Kunming) on 27 November.

On 30 November, the 25th FS, 51st FG, based at Yunnani with P-40s and P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Poashan.

IJAAF

On 13 November, the 5th Kokugun was down to 152 operational aircraft:

Unit Number and type
6th Sentai 16 light bombers
9th Sentai 9 Ki-44s
16th Sentai 20 light bombers and two twin-engine fighters
25th Sentai 9 Ki-43s and 3 Ki-84s
44th Sentai 32 aircrafts (including 15 recon aircraft)
48th Sentai 2 Ki-43s
82nd Sentai 8 recon aircraft
85th Sentai 17 Ki-44s and 10 Ki-84s
90th Sentai 18 light bombers
54th I F Chutai 10 aircraft (including 3 recon)

Operations

1 November 1944
About 70 fighters from the 14th AF again supported Chinese ground forces in the Lungling area.

13 fighters from the 14th AF strafed river, road, and rail traffic from Kunghsien to Loyang.

Four aircraft from the 6th Sentai attacked ten boats loaded with men and equipment east of Kweihsien and claimed to have sunk them all.

2 November 1944
100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south-west and south-east China and north French Indochina attacked targets of opportunity in the Lungling and Mangshih, China area, knock out bridge at Dara, Thailand and hit Nantingshun and Pinglo, China.

The fighter- bombers from the 14th AF also damaged four factories at Kweilin, hit tanks and troop concentrations north of town, attacked targets of opportunity near Pinglo, Tahsu and east of Yungfu, and the airfield, barracks, town area, and trains at Gia Lam, French Indochina.

3 November 1944
69 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over east Burma, south-west and south-east China, and north French Indochina hit targets of opportunity in the Lungling, China area, damage a railroad bridge south of Lashio, Burma, hit the town of Mangshih, China and destroyed a nearby warehouse. In China, the fighter-bombers hit the town areas and docks at Takhing and Tengyun, attacked troops in the Mosun area, destroyed two Japanese fighters near Amoy, hit trains at Hongay, French Indochina, and bombed areas on Hainan Island.

90+ fighter-bombers from the 10th AF attacked bridges, enemy forces, town areas and numerous targets of opportunity at and Hinlong, China and Kawngmu, Namhai, Tonlon, Ho-hko, Namhsum, Hkusan, Hkawngwa, Wingkang, Namhkam, and south of Mansi.

4 November 1944
34 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF attacked road traffic and other targets of opportunity in the Mangshih and Lungling areas.

Four P-38s from the 14th AF bombed the pass near Menghsu, blocking the highway.

5 November 1944
49 P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked storage facilities and other targets of opportunity around Wanling, Burma and Mangshih, Chefang, and Kweihsien.

6 November 1944
16 P-40s from the 14th AF pounded the Mangshih and Lungling areas while 15 others hit buildings and other targets of opportunity at Wanling, Burma and around Chefang and Kweihsien.

7 November 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the railroad yards at Yuncheng.

Two B-25s and 21 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity around Wanling, Burma and Mangshih, Chefang, and Lungling.

8 November 1944
In south China and north French Indochina, two B-25s from the 14th AF hit railroad tracks at Lohochai, China and two others hit tracks at Duc Tho, French Indochina..

15 B-25s, 13 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF pounded storage buildings, villages, and other targets of opportunity throughout the Mangshih area.

25 Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai were landing at the Hengyang airfield when eight P-51s bounced on them. However, the 1st chutai flying top cover was able to shoot down one of the P-51s and drove off the rest.

9 November 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Mangshih while ten P-38s hit targets of opportunity in the Mangshih-Chefang area.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF bomb Kaifeng while six others hit sampans, storage areas, and other targets of opportunity in the Yiyang area.

160 P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide expanses of south China and north Indochina attacked trucks, gun positions, river and coastal shipping, and other targets of opportunity at or near Pingnam, Kweihsien, Changsha, Yoyang, Siangtan, Lushan, Kioshan, Paoching, Hengyang, Liangshan, Liuchow, Suikai, and Weichow Island and Gia Lam and Kien An, French Indochina.

Nine Ki-43s of the 48th Sentai shot down a P-40 at dusk over Kweilin.

The 6th and 44th Sentai were responsible for supporting the ground attack on Kweilin.

A heavy bomber bound for Hengyang crashed after departure from Hankou, killing all on board including senior staff members of the 5th Kokugun.

Six light bombers from the 16th Sentai bombed the Ankang airfield.

Two light bombers from the 16th Sentai and three from the 90th Sentai bombed the Laohokao airfield.

10 November 1944
130+ P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China attack river, road and rail traffic, storage, airfield and villages at or near Tingka, Chefang, Kweilin, Yoyang, Nanyo, Changsha, Paoching, Kweihsien, Yungfu, Wuchou, Siangtan, Tanchuk, Mosun, Kweiping, Yuncheng, Chenghsien, Hankow, and Chikhom.

The 48th Sentai returned to rearm after morning sorties at Kweilin and were approaching the Hengyang airfield. Rearming at a forward airfield Hengyang was hazardous but there was no time for doing so at Baileiqi. Just when the four fighters providing air cover got the all clear signal and started to land, eight P-51s swooped down from the rear, causing one aircraft to crash while another was shot up.

11 November 1944
Ten B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kweilin Airfield.

Five B-25s and six P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Chingmen Airfield.

70+ P-40s, P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF over south China and north Indochina on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity at several locations, concentrating on Lampang, Thailand, and the Changsha, Lingling, and Hengyang, China areas.

The Hengyang airfield was hit no less than seven times by P-40s and P-51s. The 48th Sentai sent up 14 Ki-43s and four P-51s were claimed to have been shot down and two damaged, for the loss of three Ki-43s. Moreover, six aircraft were burnt on the ground and six more were damaged. This debacle was witnessed by the commander of the 5th Kokugun, who happen to be at Hengyang.
The 48th Sentai had to be reinforced by a few aircraft from the 9th Sentai, and eventually it was decided that Hengyang was not suitable for large formations and the 48th Sentai was moved back to Baileiqi.

Four light bombers each from the 90th Sentai and the 6th Sentai bombed the Liuchou city area.

12 November 1944
38 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit Hengyang Airfield and attacked river, rail, and road traffic, artillery pieces, pillboxes, and storage around Hengyang, Lingling, and Kweilin.

13 P-40s from the 14th AF hit the Changsha area.

40 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit various targets of opportunity at several other locations scattered throughout southern China and northern French Indochina.

Captain Gun-ichi Nishikawa (Class 53), Hikotai leader of the 48th Sentai was killed in an air transport accident over Hengyang.

29 Chengdu-based B-29s from the 20th AF bombed Omura, Kyushu Island, Japan.
20+ others bombed the last resort target of Nanking, China (due to bad weather over Omura), and 20+ more hit various alternate targets and targets of opportunity (including Shanghai).
In response, the 5th Kokugun deployed major forces to attack the B-29s on its return path. 21 fighters attacked about 20 B-29s near Hsinyang, claiming to have destroyed six for the loss of one crash-landed fighter (pilot unharmed).
Over Shanghai, ten Ki-43s attacked the B-29s repeatedly but failed to bring down any, while losing one of its own in the process.
At Nanking, 43 fighters intercepted 20+ B-29s and lost two fighters while claiming to have destroyed three B-29s.

13 November 1944
60+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over southern China and as far west and south-west as Burma and Thailand hit numerous targets of opportunity including shipping, troops, and railroad targets.

14 November 1944
In eastern Burma and in the China-Burma boundary areas eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Wanling and Hsenwi, Burma.

15 P-38s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity around Wanling, Burma and Mangshih, China.

56 fighter-bombers from the 10th AF hit supply areas, enemy concentrations, town areas, and general targets of opportunity at Tingka, China and Kutkai, Sandaya, Palaung, Kawlin, and in the Shwebo-Kyaukmyaung area.

15 November 1944
19 B-25s and 16 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF over south-western China, western Burma, and northern Indochina hit railroad targets, villages, town areas, and general targets of opportunity at or near man Pwe and Wanling, Burma; Mangshih and Tingka, China; Quang Yen, Nam Dinh, and Thanh Hoa, French Indochina.

16 November 1944
23 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Changsha.

Eight B-25s from the 14th AF hit Lohochai and bombed the Wanling, Burma area.

70+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF over south-east and south-west China on armed reconnaissance attacked road, river, and rail traffic, town areas, and other targets of opportunity at several scattered locations.

Warrant Officer Akiyoshi Nomura of the 85th Sentai claimed a P-51 shot down over Zhaoqing.

17 November 1944
Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Kowloon Docks, Hong Kong.

15 B-25s from the 14th AF, in flights of two or three each, attacked gun positions, storage areas, and village and town areas north of Chuchou, west of Nanyo, and at Chefang and Nanyo and south of Hpalen, Burma. A bridge at Tingka was also knocked out.

100+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity throughout south-east and south-west China, concentrating on the Mangshih and Changsha areas.

18 November 1944
Ten B-25s from the 14th AF blasted stores at Hengshan and hit populated areas from Ishan to Liuchow.

130+ P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF pounded targets of opportunity scattered over vast areas of south China. Troops, shipping, supplies, trucks, and railroad targets were hit particularly hard north of Lingling, from Liuchow to Ishan, from Hengshan to Hengyang, from Kweilin to Liuchou, from Siangtan to Paoching, and at Chuanhsien, Hwaiyuanchen, Chingmen, Chuchiang, and Shihkiachwang.

IJAAF fighters rose to intercept B-29s escorted by P-51s over Hankou, but when the fighting was over, Warrant Officer Akiyoshi Nomura was the only 85th Sentai pilot to survive unscathed, all the other flying on this date being killed or wounded.

19 November 1944
Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Samah Bay docks on Hainan Island.

Ten B-25s from the 14th AF damaged two buildings north of Chefang and scored hits on bridges at Tingka and Wan Lai-Kam, Burma.

Eight P-40s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity south of Tingka and Chefang.

19 P-40s from the 14th AF blasted troops and river, rail, and road traffic in the Hankou area.

27 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF hit numerous targets of opportunity in the Mangshih area.

20 November 1944
60+ P-38s, P-40s, and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over parts of south-east and south-west China and French Indochina attacked shipping--especially severely in the Chiuchiang, China area--and barracks, radio stations, villages, and other targets of opportunity.

21 November 1944
42 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked fuel supplies and the town area at Ishan and road and rail traffic and other targets of opportunity north of Wanling, Burma and in the Chiuchiang area, south of Foochow, and at Hsuchang, Sincheng, and Sheklung.

61 B-29s of the 20th AF from Chengdu bombed an aircraft plant at Omura, Kyushu Island, Japan.
13 B-29s bombed Shanghai and several others hit alternates and targets of opportunity.
The B-29s claimed 27 fighters downed, the highest 20th AF claim to date.
The 25th Sentai claimed three and one probable B-29 over Queshan.
Seven waves of B-29s and P-38s attacked the Shanghai area. Japanese IJNAF fighters rose to drive away the intruders, there was no reported loss on either side.

22 November 1944
22 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Hanko.

Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF pound the Ishan and Liuchenghsien areas while eight hit storage facilities at Wanling and Kutkai, Burma.

95 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide expanses of south China attacked town areas, supplies, and road and rail traffic, hitting the Chefang area especially hard.

23 November 1944
Two B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Kowloon Docks in Hong Kong.

120+ P-40s, P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity throughout south-west and south-east China. 32 of the fighter-bombers supported ground forces in the Chefang area.

24 November 1944
21 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the warehouse area and docks at Hankou.

B-25s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area near Lashio, Burma, targets of opportunity in the Hankou area, and the towns of Wanling and Wan Lai-Kam, Burma, and Siangtan, and Wuchang.

120+ P-40s, P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack many targets of opportunity in east Burma and south-west and south-east China, concentrating on river and rail traffic and supplies at Chefang, Hengshan, and the Sinshih-Changsha, China area.

25 November 1944
75 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack river, road, and rail traffic, troops, buildings, and other targets of opportunity at several Thailand, Burma, south China, and north French Indochina locations, including areas around Bhre and Lampang, Thailand; Paoching, Ankang, Ishan, and Hochih, China; Namsang, and Mongyu, Burma; and Phu Lang Thuong, French Indochina.

26 November 1944
90+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF hit river, rail, and road traffic and other targets of opportunity over wide south China areas, 40 of them concentrating on targets between Kweiyi and Changsha and around Liuchow.

27 November 1944
17 B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the Hochih area.

56 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over east Burma, north French Indochina, and vast areas of south China attacked town areas, railroad targets, bridges and other targets of opportunity around Lampang, Thailand; Phu Binh, French Indochina; Pachai, Ishan, and Chefang, China; and Wanling, Hsenwi, and Kawnghka, Burma.

28 November 1944
Four B-25 from the 14th AF attacked buildings in the Wanling and Chefang areas.

60+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide areas of east Burma and south China hit troops, bridges, horses, and other targets of opportunity at many locations,

29 November 1944
20 P-40s, P-38s, and P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the Chefang area.

23 P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked bridges, horses, shipping, and rail traffic around Hochih and Nanning, China; Quang Yen, French Indochina; and Hsenwi, Kawnghka, and Namhkai, Burma.

30 November 1944
23 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in the Chefang.

December 1944

Chinese Air Force

By the end of 1944, the American-Chinese air forces had finally achieved mastery of the air and forced the weakened Japanese aviation to go over to the defensive. One of the reasons to this was a severe lack of fuel, which grounded the Japanese aircraft.

During 1944, pilots of the 5th PG completed 2194 sorties and took part in 336 air battles. They claimed 18 Japanese aircraft shot down and another 160 destroyed on the ground. Their own losses were 20 P-40Ns and 9 pilots killed. Most successful was the 17th PS. From 8 August to the end of 1944 they completed 467 sorties and claimed 7 aircraft shot down for the loss of six P-40s.

In the end of 1944, the 2nd BG started to re-equip with the North American B-25 Mitchell.

US Army Air Force

On 1 December, the 436th BS (Heavy), 7th BG (Heavy), based at Madhaiganj, India with B-24s sent a detachment to Luliang to ferry gasoline to Suichwan.

The 2nd Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, moves from Imphal, India to Tsuyung, China, on 12 December.

On 13 December, the HQ 341st BG (Medium) moved from Kunming to Yangkai.

The 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Liangshan on 16 December.

On 17 December, the 493rd BS (Heavy), 7th BG (Heavy), based at Pandaveswar, India with B-24s, sent a detachment to operate from Luliang to transport gasoline to Suichwan.

The 427th Night Fighter Squadron based at Myitkyina, Burma with P-61s, sent a detachment to operate from Kunming on 18 December.

On 20 December, the HQ 1st Combat Cargo Group moved from Tulihal, India to Tsuyung.
On the same day, the 492nd BS (Heavy), 7th BG (Heavy), based at Madhaiganij, India with B-24s, sent a detachment to Luliang to ferry gasoline to Suichwan.

The 4th Combat Cargo Squadron, 1st Combat Cargo Group, moved from Tulihal, India to Chengkung, China with C-47s on 21 December.

On 24 December, the 16th FS, 51st FG, based at Chengkung with P-51s, sent a detachment to operate from Kwanghan.

The detachment of the 426th Night Fighter Squadron, operating from Kunming with P-61s, returned to base at Chengdu on 25 December.

On 31 December, the detachment of the 16th FS, 51st FG, operating from Liangshan with P-51s, returned to base at Chengkung.

Operations

1 December 1944
Six B-24s from the 14th AF attacked targets of opportunity in the South China Sea.

Several fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit trucks, locomotives, and villages in the Chefang area; between Lashio and Hsenwi, Burma; and from Linfen to Taiyuan, and at Kunlong, China.

2 December 1944
39 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked troops, horses, trucks, railroad yards, shipping, storage facilities, and road machinery between Yungfengshih and Paoching, China; north of Wanling, from Wanling to Lashio and in Lashio Burma; in the Chiuchiang area, Nan Tan, and at Kichang, China.

3 December 1944
Five B-24s from the 14th AF placed delayed action bombs near the Pengpu Bridge.

Four B-25s and ten P-51s from the 14th AF bombed a storage area at Sintsiang.

67 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance blasted trucks, railroad targets, warehouses, shipping and other targets of opportunity at Wanling, Burma, and in China, Loyang, Yuncheng, Hei-Shih Kuan, Wuhu, and particularly in areas around Shihhweiyao and from Hengyang to Siangtan and Lingling.

4 December 1944
24 B-25s, supported by twelve P-40s from the 14th AF, hit bridges, buildings, and river, road, and rail traffic at several points in China, French Indochina, and Burma including Lashio, Kutkai and Namhkai, Burma; and Saiping, Hsiangcheng, Lingling, the Kweilin area, between Minkiang, and Sinantien, and between Sinyang and Saiping, China.

90+ fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance pounded numerous targets of opportunity from Hsenwi, Burma to Nanning, China; Lang Son, French Indochina; and Namhkai, Burma and across south China from the Burma border to Amoy, China.

5 December 1944
The 10th AF begun Operation GRUBWORM, flying the Chinese 14th and 22nd Divisions from Burma to China in preparation for the Yunnan campaign to counter a probable Japanese drive toward Kunming.

Seven B-24s from the 14th AF on swept over the Gulf of Tonkin, the South China Sea, and Formosa Strait bomb Ft Bayard, China and Kowloon Docks in Hong Kong and damaged a freighter.

Six B-25s from the 14th AF pounded targets of opportunity from Liuchow to Liuchenghsien.

61 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit river, road, and rail traffic and other targets of opportunity at scattered points mainly in south China.

7 December 1944
Four B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF attacked and considerably damaged Sankiao.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF, operating individually, attacked truck convoys and other targets of opportunity in the Hengyang area and in Siang-Chiang Valley.

Two B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one cargo vessel sunk in the South China Sea while 15 P-51s hit shipping at Hong Kong, claiming a destroyer and freighter sunk.

65 P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide areas of China attack storage areas, troops, bridges, railroad targets, and gun positions around Paoching, Anking, Hengyang, Tuhshan, Nan Tan, Kengtung, and Luchai and between Kweilin and Liuchow.

108 B-29s from the 20th AF, operating from Chengdu were dispatched to bomb the Manchuria Airplane Manufacturing Company and an adjacent arsenal at Mukden, Manchuria. 80 hit primary target and 10 other B-29s bombed a rail yard short of the primary target, and several other bombers struck alternate targets.
The B-29s claimed 10-10-30 fighters while seven B-29s were lost.
B-29s returning from the bombing raids in Manchuria were intercepted on the return flight by Japanese fighters and two were claimed to be shot down near Kaifeng, with one more damaged.

8 December 1944
Four B-25s from the 14th AF hit the Nan Tan area, killing many horses.

14 P-51s from the 14th AF hit the airfield and other targets at Nanking, shooting down two Ki-84s. A total of 25 aircraft were destroyed on the ground (including five light bombers, two heavy bombers, five Ki-43s, three reconnaissance aircraft and various other aircraft including trainers). Casualties were however remarkably light with two killed and three slightly wounded. A freighter and two locomotives were also destroyed.

15 P-40s from the 14th AF blasted railroad targets and buildings from Nan Tan area to Liuchow.

25 P-51s from the 14th AF hit Hochih and troops, warehouses, trucks and ammunition dump in the area.

20+ other fighter-bombers from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit various targets of opportunity around the Lipo, Shihhweiyao, Tuhshan, Santon, Paoching, Hengyang, Taiyuan, and Linfen areas.

P-51s raided Hong Kong, setting a supply ship as well as a transport aircraft on fire.

These attacks were virtually uncontested due to dwindling Japanese fighter strength.

9 December 1944
Twelve B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Lipo, Tuhshan, and Hochih.

A B-25 from the 14th AF attacked a truck convoy in the Siang-Chiang Valley while a B-24 claimed one cargo ship sunk in the South China Sea.

19 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit river, road, and rail shipping and other targets of opportunity from Kweiyi to Siangtan.

65 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF hit similar targets of opportunity around Kweilin, Liuchow, Lingling, Hengyang, Tuhshan, and Chuchou.

50 more fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity at several other locations scattered throughout south China.

10 December 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kutkai, Burma and hit targets of opportunity in the Liuchow area.

25 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the city of Hankou.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Samah Bay docks on Hainan Island.

118 P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide areas of China attacked numerous targets of opportunity, concentrating on rail, river, and road traffic, especially in the Hochih, Changsha, and Yuncheng areas.

11 December 1944
16 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked Tien Ho Airfield at Canton and the Kengtung barracks in China; and Lashio, and Wan Lai-Kam, Burma.

12 December 1944
50+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked many targets of opportunity including town areas, road and rail traffic, and supplies at or near Wan Pa-Hsa, Burma, Chiengmai, Thailand, and Sinantien, Paoching, Hengyang, Changsha, Kweilin, Nan Tan, Hochih, and Szeenhsien, China.

Several fighter-bombers from the 14th AF dropped napalm on Yangtong Airfield.

20+ P-47s from the 10th AF knocked out bridges at Namyao and Inailong, Burma, and Kunlong, China, and damaged others at Ho-hko, Burma and Hinlong, and Kunlong, China.

13 December 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the town of Wuming.

14 December 1944
Ten P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit Kentung.

48 P-47s from the 10th AF hit troop concentrations, supplies, and areas of active enemy movement at Nawngkyaung and Kunlong, China and Panghkam, Hohai, Dobin, Kyaukpyintha, and Ho-naw, Burma.

15 December 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF blasted a storage building at Kunlong.

18 December 1944
The combined aerial might of the 14th AF was thrown against Hankou in an effort to smash this vital link in the Japanese supply lines. Missions were flown night and day against airfields, railroad targets, supply dumps, and other targets in the Hankou area.

33 B-24s from the 14th AF bombed barracks and administrative buildings at Hankou.

23 B-25s from the 14th AF hit Wuchang.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed barracks and damaged a bridge at Siaokan Airfield while six others pounded storage buildings at Kunlong.

20 P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF followed the B-25 strike on Kunlong with napalm attacks, causing considerable damage.

149 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF supported the Hankou, Siaokan, and Wuchang raids and claimed 42 aircraft downed and destroyed on the ground.
Claims for aerial victories were 25 destroyed, 3 probables and 8 damaged for known losses of four P-51s.
The P-40Ns from the CACW claimed 3 destroyed, 1 probable and 2 damaged while escorting B-24s over Hankou. All claims with one exception were made over Hankou against Ki-43s at 12:15 when 2nd Lieutenant Chang En-Fei (26th FS) claimed one destroyed, 3rd Lieutenant Wang Wen (26th FS) one probable, 1st Lieutenant Chang V (27th FS) one damaged, 2nd Lieutenant Wang T-Y (27th FS) one damaged and 1st Lieutenant “Fred” Chiao Wu-O (29th FS) one destroyed. The exception was 1st Lieutenant James Silver Jr. (32nd FS), who claimed a Ki-48 Lily over Siaokan airfield. Chiao was leading left close escort when he spotted an Oscar below him and dove after it. He pulled in behind the Japanese fighter at 5,000 feet and fired a twenty- degree deflection shot from 100 yards. Hits covered the cockpit and canopy, the Ki-43 belched black smoke, and then it plunged into the ground. Chiao remained in the Chinese Air Force and retired as a general before moving to the United States and making his home in Tennessee.
The P-51s of 311th FG took part in this attack and claimed 15 destroyed, 2 probables and 5 damaged between 12:30-13:30. Seven of these claims were made by 528th FS at 12:30 by 2nd Lieutenant Richard Haase (1 Hamp 8 miles north of Hankou airfield and 1 Oscar in the Hankou area), Captain Henry Pashco (1 Tojo in the Hankou area), 2nd Lieutenant Ross Pierce (1 Tojo in the Hankou area), Captain Jack Schiffman (1 Tojo and 1 damaged Oscar 5-10 miles north-east of Hankou airfield) and 1st Lieutenant Joseph Walters (1 Tojo at Kikiawan airstrip, 20 miles north of Hankou).
5 miles north of Hankou, the 529th FS made two claims at 12:45 when 2nd Lieutenant Harold Klota claimed a Tojo while 2nd Lieutenant James Nixon claimed a second as a probable.
Between 12:45-13:30, the 530th FS claimed 5 destroyed, 1 probable and 3 damaged. These were made by 1st Lieutenant Lester Arasmith (2 Oscars and 1 Tojo over the Hankou area), Major James England (1 Oscar south-east of Hankou airfield and 1 probable Oscar over Hankou airfield), 2nd Lieutenant Robert Reed (1 Tojo north of Hankou), Lieutenant Wayne Shock (2 damaged Oscars over Hankou airfield) and 1st Lieutenant Wesley Pearson (1 damaged Oscar over Hankou airfield). 1st Lieutenant Lester Arasmith recalled:

“Our 14th Air Force had current high altitude images that showed seven major Jap airfields in the Hankow area. But the day-to-day movement in and out of these airfields was so heavy that it was impossible to determine each airfield’s regular strength. The rough estimate we got was there were at least 130-plus Zeros [sic] and a poisonous little fighter that would be known as the Ki-44 Tojo. Of course we knew we would also have to face numbers of Oscars and Franks and the latter was new, very fast and extremely dangerous. That estimate of about 130 enemy fighters proved to be very conservative as we would end up going against 200-plus. The best strategy on most missions was to fly a slightly erratic course en route to the target to prevent the enemy from guessing what our final target was. In the case of the Hankow raid, the distance prevented us from doing this because fuel had to be stretched in order to have enough left for the fighting that lay ahead and the return flight. In passing over enemy territory, there was no doubt that our gaggles of Mustangs were headed straight for the Hankow complex!”
The 530th FS pilots knew that the enemy would be expecting them and one of their main concerns was the 85 gallons of high-octane fuel in the main fuselage tank right behind the cockpit. When full, it pulled the centre of gravity to the far aft and this could cause control reversal in any tight, high-g turning manoeuvres. However, it would burn off quickly at the high power setting needed for lift-or-death aerial combat. So their strategy was to fight in the dive or climbing mode to avoid the turning battles in which they were already at a disadvantage when fighting the Japanese fighters. The idea worked until the fight broke off and the Mustang pilots were faced with a long flight back to base with only limited fuel. On this mission to Hankou, 20 of the 42 Mustangs belonged to the 530th FS and they were flying the forward section in the formation. As they approached the target area at 20,000ft and 5min out, they jettisoned their external tanks after switching to the fuselage tank. Initiating a long and fast descent into the area at about 8,000ft, each pilot knew they were flying into a hornet’s nest of defending Japanese fighters. 1st Lieutenant Arasmith continued:
“It was a daunting sight to behold! There were aeroplanes everywhere. As we waded into the mêlée, our throttles were at full power and suddenly the radio channels were cluttered with sightings and warnings. Flight discipline was lost completely and it degenerated into the most savage kind of ‘every-man-for-himself’ dogfight. My priority was to keep my head and fight my way through it. I called out a green and grey mottled Oscar that was in a slight dive heading 180 degrees from my course and about 1,500ft below and to my right. I was element lead, so it was standard procedure that I got after him. The Oscar was alone and the pilot probably as confused as the rest of us. As I closed to about 300ft, he didn’t move a muscle. My 0.50 calibre rounds chewed him up from his rudder all the way up to his engine. We were down at a low altitude when I started firing and in seconds, he hit the ground, slid a few hundred feet and blew up in a blinding flash! I broke up and away and looked around for my wingman and he was nowhere in sight.
For a few seconds, my mind must have quit working, but the sudden appearance of tracer rounds flashing by just above my cockpit woke me up fast. The adrenalin kicked in and my mind became clearly focused on what had to be done. Two attacking dark green Nakajima Ki 44 Tojos appeared off my right wing after having overrun me. They made a crucial error of braking away rather than into me. I banked neatly to the right which put me right on the wingman’s tail. Closing to 1,200ft, I fired a long burst which blew the Tojo’s right wing off. The pilot never had a chance and it was his leader’s dumb mistake that killed him. Seconds later, one of our pilots from 528th Sqn (Lieutenant Ralph Hicks) showed up on my wing and he was a welcome sight!”
The sky was full of several different enemy fighter types with no secure exit in sight, the fuel level of the Mustangs was getting very low and they still faced a long flight back to their base. However, the Japanese fighters were within sight of their base so fuel was not a concern to them. Suddenly, two Ki-44s appeared out of nowhere and Lieutenant Hicks turned into them with Arasmith protecting his tail.
“The enemy fighters were too close together to be effective and it was evident that they had not seen us. As Hicks fired, one of the Tojo pilots spotted him but it was too late. His armour-piercing incendiary rounds struck the left wing and fuselage causing the wing to crumble. It tumbled over and across the sky, trailing a long plume of flame. I was so taken by this scene that I wasn’t paying attention until those tell-tale orange balls floated by my left wing and I was in trouble again! This time the attackers were Franks. We had been briefed on this type that they were capable of 400 m.p.h. at 21,000ft with two 20mm cannons and two 12.7mm machine-guns.
I kept both Franks in sight as they executed a beautiful chandelle upward to the left to position themselves for another firing run on me. My only chance was to climb to meet them head-on as they came down. They started firing too soon as their rounds were dropping below me. As both rocketed by, they definitely had the speed advantage but I had the altitude and noticed that neither had used their speed to regain altitude. They were in a right-hand diving turn. I dived down almost vertically to intercept them. As I came into firing range they split up. The leader did a ‘Split-S’ and his wingman started to climb to the right. I followed the leader down in a rolling dive, firing the entire time. As I pulled out of the dive, I saw the Frank hit the ground in a fiery explosion. Many of these big fights ended as quickly as they started. I looked around and the sky was empty so we slowly turned back to the west, nursing our fuel all the way.”
The final claims of the 311th FG were made by 2nd Lieutenant William McKinney 530th FS (1 damaged Tojo at 13:00 north of Hankou airfield), Colonel Charles Chandler CO 311th FG (1 Oscar at 13:15 north of Hankou), 2nd Lieutenant Norman Niemeier 530th FS (1 Hamp at 13:30 over Tsangtzefow airfield) and 1st Lieutenant Robert Westermark 530th FS (1 Hamp at 13:30 over Tsangtze airfield).
The P-51s of the 23rd FG claimed 6 destroyed and 1 damaged. At 12:30, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Older claimed an Oscar (north-east of Wuchang airfield) while 1st Lieutenant Everson Pearsall claimed a damaged (Wuchang airfield). The 74th FS then claimed 5 Oscars at 13:30; Major Philip Chapman (Wuchang satellite airfield), 1st Lieutenant Wallace Cousins (north of Yangtze River, Wuchang), 1st Lieutenant Robert Hanover (south of Wuchang satellite in P-51 42-106507), Major John Herbst (between Wuchang satellite and airfield) and 1st Lieutenant James Chrisman (between Wuchang satellite and airfield).
The last claim in this big combat during the Hankou, Siaokan, and Wuchang raids were claimed by a P-51 from the 118th TRS, when 1st Lieutenant Carlton Covey claimed an Oscar at 12:30 over Wuchang airfield.
Four P-51 were lost in this big raid. P-51B-10 42-106507 (MACR 10737) of 74th FS, 23rd FG, flown by 1st Lieutenant Robert Hanover was forced down in the Wuchang area at 12:30 after claiming a Ki-43. Hanover was initially missing but returned to Kanchou on 21 December.
P-51C-10 43-25220 (MACR 10738) of 74th FS, 23rd FG, flown by 1st Lieutenant John Wheeler, who bailed out at 14:00 in mountains, 10 miles from Swaeman and 10 miles south of Hankou. He was safe in the hands of a Naval Field Unit suffering only from slight lacerations. He remained there several days before he was escorted to Kanchou. Wheeler returned to his unit safe and well on 8 January 1945.
P-51C-10 44-10807 (MACR 10736) of 74th FS, 23rd FG, flown by 1st Lieutenant Wallace Cousins was forced down in the Wuchang area at 12:30 after claiming a Ki-43. 1st Lieutenant Cousins reported:
MISSION: Escort for B-25 medium bombers to Wuchang airdrome at Hankow-Wuchang, China in the Yangtze River Valley.
Engaged Zeros attempting to contact bombers at 14,000 feet altitude. Fought to the ground where I finally set one on fire after having made several passes. Joined the squadron over the target airdrome to act as top cover for the strafing flights. Was shot down by a Zero while leaving the target and had to force land owing to the fact that the canopy failed to release. I was knocked unconscious in the ensuing crash sustaining a head injury. I don’t remember leaving the plane, but the Chinese informed me later that they hadn’t helped me get out. I showed my escape flag to some Chinese civilians (whom I later found out to be Chinese guerrillas) and the guided me to a small village where I received crude, but effective medical aid and some food. They then carried me (in a chair) to a lake edge where I was hidden until evening and then taken to an island in this lake. (My plane crashed approximately 10 miles East of the Wuchang airdrome and the Chinese continued to guide me further East to the afore-mentioned lake.) On this island I was given every consideration and courtesy and the necessary medical treatment for my injury. It was the headquarters of the Civilian Volunteer Guerillas, 4th regiment, 2nd division, 9th Army War Zone. The C.O. was Col. Ma, Chin Wu. Other prominent officers were the vice commander Lt. Col. Tu, Wien Tien, political adviser Liu, Chu Pei and chief of staff Bou, Ting Ping.
I remained there from December 18th through December 29th, 1944 and then was escorted towards my home station of Kanchow, China. The Chinese gave me an escort party of approximately 50 soldiers and 50 coolies with an English speaking personal bodyguard by the name of Hsiang – a former Shanghai University student and Japanese PoW. He was last seen in Kanchow working for the government.
While crossing the last Japanese controlled highway the soldiers escorting me had a pitched battle with the enemy on patrol. During the battle the remainder of our party had time enough to travel a safe distance through the mountains and we continued on our way. Several days later I arrived at an American Navy camp where I rested for several days before resuming my journey. On January 19, 1945 I arrived at my base in Kanchow, China.
The mission from Kanchow to Wuchang was flown at approximately 14,000 feet on a general heading of 350 degrees.
P-51B-7 43-6789 (MACR 10631) of 529th FS, 311th FG, flown by 1st Lieutenant George Snyder went down 30 miles north of Hankou at 12:40 after an engine failure. He was seen losing altitude and made a forced landing at Michin but managed to return to his unit by the end of December.

94 B-29s from the 20th AF, flying out of the Chengdu area, were dispatched to drop incendiaries on the docks at Hankou in the first mass firebomb attack by B-29s. The strike was made in conjunction with 200 aircraft of the 14th AF. 84 bombed the primary target and five others hit alternate targets. They claimed 1-3-10 Japanese aircraft.
The B-29s were intercepted by the 25th, 48th and 85th Sentais, which claimed to have scored two probable kills and eleven others damaged in addition to four P-51s shot down and three more damaged. Two aircraft from the 85th Sentai were shot down and two more did not return. At the airfield eight fighters, four light bombers and one reconnaissance aircraft were burnt out, and six more fighters were destroyed by bombs. After these losses, operational strength in the Wuhan area dropped to less than 20.

The 85th Sentai lost three pilots over Hankou when Major Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu (NCO41) (Hikotai leader), Warrant Officer Rikio Shibata (Sho-3) (credited with 27 victories) and Sergeant Masashi Saibori (Sho-10) all three were KIA. It is reported that during his second sortie of the day, Wakamatsu was engaged by at least ten P-51s and was shot down one kilometre from Wuchang No. 2 airfield and killed. At the time of his death, he was credited with more than 18 victories. Sergeant Major Misao Ohkubo of the same unit claimed a P-51 over Hankou airfield. However, he was attacked by two more fighters and was wounded, managing to force-land on return. He remained hospitalised until May 1945. The CO of the 85th Sentai, Major Togo Saito was also wounded during the day.
Warrant Officer Eiji Seino of the 25th Sentai intercepted B-29s and P-51s over Hankou, having first gained altitude after taking off, before attacking. He claimed one P-51 shot down, but was then wounded in the left leg and attacked by several more US fighters. Managing to escape, he crash-landed on an empty airfield nearby. He returned to the unit after a month in hospital. The CO of the 25th Sentai, Major Mukaidani and the ace Warant Officer Tadao Tashiro was also wounded during the day while Sergeant Minoji Utsumi (Sho-10) was killed in action.

28 other P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked various targets of opportunity around Hochih, Nanning and Mengmao, China; Wanling, Burma; and Sang Song and Phu Lang Thuong, French Indochina.

17 P-47s from the 10th AF destroyed bypass bridges at Hinlong, China and Wingkang, Burma.

19 December 1944
16 B-25s, escorted by 24 P-40s from the 14th AF, attacked Pengpu.

Four P-51s from the 14th AF claimed two freighters sunk off Hong Kong.

Two P-40s from the 14th AF destroyed three locomotives and a truck at Sinyang.

36 B-29s of the 20th AF, from the Chengdu, were dispatched to hit an aircraft plant at Omura, Japan. 17 hit the primary target and 13 others hit secondary target of Shanghai and another two struck other alternates.
They claimed 5-4-12 Japanese aircraft. Two B-29s were lost.

Five light bombers each from the 16th and 90th Sentais attacked the B-29s at the Chengdu airfields. The six that reached the destination claimed one large aircraft burnt.

20 December 1944
118 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China and east Burma attacked road, rail, and river traffic and other targets of opportunity, mainly in or near Wanling, Mongyu, Monhkong, and Lashio, Burma; and Hochih, Chinchengchiang, Hong Kong, Sinyang, Lohochai, Leiyang, Kweilin, Sintsiang, Siangtan, Paoching, Liuchenghsien, Hengshan, and Hengyang, China.

21 December 1944
145 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF flew armed reconnaissance over wide expanses of south China, east Burma and north French Indochina. The fighters attacked chiefly troops and river, road, and rail traffic and a variety of targets of opportunity at numerous locations.

Nine B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Kunlong and Minkiang.

49 B-29s of the 20th AF from Chengdu, China were dispatched to attack Mukden, Manchuria. 19 hit the primary objective (the Manchuria Airplane Manufacturing Company) but it suffered little damage and a nearby arsenal and rail yards were slightly damaged. Eight other B-29s bombed alternate targets and targets of opportunity.
They claimed 21-6-19 Japanese aircraft while two B-29s were lost.
Five Ki-84s from the 85th Sentai intercepted the B-29s returning from bombing runs in Manchuria in the Changte area and claimed three (two unconfirmed) shot down and three damaged.

22 December 1944
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Yungning.

80+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over wide reaches of south China, east Burma, and north French Indochina hit numerous targets of opportunity. Airfields at Heho, Burma and Tien Ho in Canton, China were strafed and several aircraft are destroyed in battles over Canton and Kai Tek Airfield in Hong Kong. Rail facilities, river and road traffic, and other targets of opportunity were hit at several locations including Wanling, Burma; Gia Lam, French Indochina; and Chinchengehiang and the Pingsiang-Yungning, China area.

23 December 1944
Eight B-25s from the 14th AF pounded points along the Burma Road.

13 B-25s from the 14th AF hit town areas, trains, and other targets of opportunity at Vinh, French Indochina, from Dap Cau, French Indochina to Lungchow, China, and from Lang Son, French Indochina to Yungning, China.

Three B-25s and five P-40s from the 14th AF damaged about 50 railroad cars in the area south of the Yellow River.

16 P-51s from the 14th AF over Wuchang and Hankou damaged two ferry ramps and blasted three oil dumps.

Twelve P-51s and P-38s from the 14th AF damaged two hangars at Heho Airfield, Burma.

Twelve P-51s from the 14th AF pounded railroad shops at Chenghsien and bombed Houmachen with napalm.

24 December 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF blasted the Kunlong ferry area.

Three B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one tanker sunk in the south China Sea.

100+ P-40s, P-51s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity throughout south China, especially river, road, and rail traffic, troops, and buildings around Hengyang, Lingling, Siangtan, and Changsha; also Hong Kong area shipping was pounded (one tanker claimed sunk and other ships damaged) and 30+ enemy aircraft claimed destroyed at Tsinan Airfield.

25 December 1944
22 P-51s from the 14th AF pounded a railroad ferry, damaged a tanker at Nanking, and hit a nearby airfield, claiming 13 aircraft destroyed.
Nine Japanese fighters piloted mainly by trainers were no match for the intruders, claiming one P-51 shot down and three others damaged for the loss of six aircraft (one pilot parachuting to safety) and the other three damaged.

30+ other P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit various targets of opportunity around Yungning, Kunming, Kiungshan, and Paoching, China; and Wanling, Man Pong, and Mong Long, Burma.

26 December 1944
Five B-25s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity in the Formosa Strait, in the Siang-Chiang Valley, and at Ikiawan and Changsha and twelve P-51s attacked the Tsinan Airfield.

46 P-51s, P-38s, and P-40s from the 14th AF hit railroad targets, shipping, storage and other targets of opportunity at or near Kinkiang, Anking, and Ka-chun, China; Lampang, Thailand; and the Mong Long Valley, and Man Pong, Burma.

27 December 1944
Six B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the area west of Kengtung.

Two B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit the Ishan area.

29 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked the area south of Puchi.

17 P-51s from the 14th AF over White Cloud, Whampoa, and Tien Ho Airfields in Canton, claimed ten airplanes destroyed. Two P-51s were lost.
The Japanese reported that ten fighters from the 9th Sentai intercepted 18 enemy fighters over Canton. In the course of the battle eight more aircraft arriving from Hankou joined in the fray. Totally eight P-51s were claimed shot down. However, seven of the ten aircraft of the 9th Sentai did not return. The strength of the 9th Sentai was greatly reduced as a result of this action..
The 9th Sentai lost its commanding officer, Major Takehisa Yakuyama (Class 51), and other senior officers at Canton. As the most senior officer remaining, First Lieutenant Yoshitaro Yoshioka led the unit thereafter.

40+ P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF hit targets of opportunity at or near Kweiyi, China; Vinh, Yen, and Mong Khong, French Indochina; and Lungan, Mong Long, and Namtao, Burma.

28 December 1944
Two B-25s and 16 fighter-bombers from the 14th AF hit town areas, railroad targets, and gun positions in the Hengyang-Leiyang area.

40+ P-51s, P-40s, and P-38s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over south China and over French Indochina hit targets of opportunity at several locations including areas around Anking, Kinkiang Yungning, Siangtan, and Yuncheng, China; Wanling, Mongyu, Man Pong, and Namtao, Burma; and Hanoi and Lang Son, French Indochina.

29 December 1944
37 P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attack Gia Lam Airfield in French Indochina and hit various targets of opportunity east of Man Pong and north of Mongyu, Burma; and at Shanhsien and Hei-Shih Kuan and east of Tsingsinghsien, China.

30 December 1944
Four B-24s from the 14th AF damaged a bridge west of Kengtung.

40+ P-51s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance attacked targets of opportunity at several points including areas around Mong Nawng, Man Pong, and Mong Long, Burma; and Ka-chun, Shanhsien, Ichang, and Shayang, China.

31 December 1944
Four B-24s from the 14th AF claimed one freighter sunk and another damaged off Hainan Island.

35 P-40s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked troops, horses, town areas, and railroad targets at or near Hankou, Saiping, Siangtan, Hengyang, Lingling, and Kweilin.

29 other fighters from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance hit targets of opportunity at several points in north French Indochina, east Burma, and south China.





Known units taking part in combat during 1944

Chinese Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
  1st BG (CACW) Colonel Irving L. Branch (US) (21/09/43 – 09/44)
David J. Munson (US) (09/44 – 12/44)
Austin Russell (US) (12/44 – )
Major Li Hsueh-Yen (Ch) (12/43 – 08/44)
Wang Yu-Ken (Ch) (08/44 – )
Kweilin (11/43 – )
Baishi (09/44 – )
North American B-25 Mitchell  
1st BS 1st BG (CACW) Captain John H. Washington (US) (10/43 – 09/44)
Raymond L. Hodges (US) (09/44 – 05/45)
Captain Lee Yien-Luo (Ch) (10-43 – 03/44)
Wang Chih-Lung (Ch) (03/44 – 12/44)
Huang Ho-Sheng (Ch) (12/44 – )
Erh Tong (12/02/44 - ) North American B-25 Mitchell  
2nd BS 1st BG (CACW) Major Thomas F. Foley (US) (08/43 – 04/44)
Winston S. Churchill (US) (04/44 – 06/44)
William P. Carson (US) (06/44 – 09/44)
Lawson Horner (US) (09/44 – )
Captain Hu Chao-Tung (Ch) (11/43 – 02/44)
Song Shou-Ch’un (Ch) (02/44 – 07/45)
Erh Tong, Kweilin (10/43 – )
Liangshan (04/44 - )
North American B-25 Mitchell  
3rd BS 1st BG (CACW) Captain Chester M. Conrad (US) (03/44 – 02/45)
Wu Ch’ao-Chern (Ch) (07/44 – 07/45)
India ( – 08/44)
Baishi (09/44 – )
North American B-25 Mitchell  
4th BS 1st BG (CACW) Major William H. Dick (US) (01/44 – 04/45)
Chang Tyng-Chieh (Ch) 03/44 – 09/44)
Tung Kai-Shyuan (Ch) (09/44 – )
  North American B-25 Mitchell  
  2nd BG     Lockheed A-29
North American B-25
 
  3rd FG (CACW) Lieutenant Colonel T. Alan Bennett (US) (08/43 – 12/44)
William N. Reed (US) (12/44 – 12/44)
William L. Turner (US) (12/44 – 01/45)
Major Yuan Chin-Han (Ch) (10/43 – 08/45)
Malir (31/07/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )  
7th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Major William N. Reed (US) (10/43 – 12/44)
Armit W. Lewis (US) (12/44 – 01/45)
Captain Hsu Chi-Hsiang (Ch) (10/43 – 11/44)
Yieh Won-Fie (Ch) (11/44 – 03/45)
Malir (08/43 – 02/44)
Erh Tong (12/02/44 - 03/44)
Li Chia Chen (14/03/44 - )
Liangshan (05/44 - )
Enshih (05/44)
Ankang (05/44 - )
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )  
8th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Major Howard Cords (US) (10/43 – 04/44)
Harvey Davis (US) (04/44 – 09/44)
James T. Bull (US) (09/44 – 12/44)
Captain Frank Klump (US) (12/44 – 02/45)
Captain Szutu Fu (Ch) (10/43 – )
Liu Meng-Jinn (Ch) (03/44 – 06/44)
Tsang Hsi-Lan (Ch) 06/44 – 09/44)
Niu Tseng-Sheng (Ch) (09/44 – )
Malir (08/43 – 02/44)
Erh Tong (12/02/44 - 03/44)
Lingling (17/03/44 - )
Liangshan (28/04/44 – 05/44)
Ankang (05/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – )  
28th FS 3rd FG (CACW) Lieutenant Colonel Eugene L. Strickland (US) (08/43 – 12/44)
Keith Lindell (US) (12/44 – 05/45)
Captain Cheng Sung-Ting (Ch.) (09/43 – 12/44)
Yang Yun Kuang (Ch) (12/44 – )
Erh Tong, Kweilin (23/11/43 – 21/02/44)
Lingling (21/02/44 - )
Liangshan (28/04/44 - )
Enshih (05/44 - )
Curtiss P-40N (08/43 – )  
32nd FS 3rd FG (CACW) Major William L. Turner (US) (08/43 – 09/44)
Raymond L. Callaway (US) (09/44 – 12/44)
Herman Byrd (US) (12/44 – 05/45)
Captain Hung Chi-Wei (Ch) (08/43 – 08/45)
Erh Tong, Kweilin (23/11/43 – 03/44)
Li Chia Chen (14/03/44 - )
Curtiss P-40N (08/43 – )  
  4th PG Li Xiang-Yang (23/04/1942 – 09/44)
Situ Fu (09/44 – 09/45)
Chungking (06/44 – )    
21st PS 4th PG Kao Yau-Hsin (1943 – 09/44) India (01/44 – )
Chungking (07/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (01/44 – )  
22nd PS 4th PG   India (end/43 – )
Chungking (07/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (end/43 – )  
23rd PS 4th PG Chen Lokong ( – 12/05/44)
Liu Tsun (1944)
India (beginning/44 – )
Chungking (07/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (01/44 – )  
24th PS 4th PG   India (end/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (end/43 – 1945)  
  5th FG (CACW) Colonel Frank E. Rouse (US) (13/01/44 – 11/44)
Lieutenant Colonel John A. Dunning (US) (11/44 -06/44)
Major Shiang Kuan-Cheng (Ch) (1301/44 – 09/44)
Chang Tang-Tien (Ch) (09/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (06/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (13/01/44 – )  
17th FS 5th FG (CACW) Captain Charles C. Wilder (US) (03/44 – 11/44)
Glyn W. Ramsey (US) (11/44 – 04/45)
Chiang Hsiu-Hui (Ch) (03/44 – 06/44)
Hsiang Shih-Tuan (Ch) (06/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – )
Chihkiang (06/44 – )
Vultee P-66 (09/42 – 03/44)
Curtiss P-40N (13/01/44 – )
 
26th FS 5th FG (CACW) Major Robert L. Van Ausdall (US) (13/01-44 – 03/45)
Yao Jei (Ch) (13/01/44 – 07/44)
Chu Fu-Hua (Ch) (07/44 – 02/45)
Malir (end/43 – )
Chanyi ( - 04/44)
Chihkiang (06/44 – )
Erh Tong (07/04/44 - )
Curtiss P-40N (13/01/44 – )  
27th FS 5th FG (CACW) Captain James A. Dale (US) (03/44 – 01/45)
Li Chao-Chyuan (Ch) (03/44 – 11/44)
Liao Kuang-Chia (Ch) (11/44 – )
Malir (end/43 – 07/44)
Chihkiang (06/44 – )
Curtiss P-40N (03/44 – )  
29th FS 5th FG (CACW) Major William T. Hull (US) (13/01/44 – 02/45)
Ho H. H. (Ch) (13/01/44 – 07/45)
Malir (15/01/44 – )
Chanyi ( - 04/44)
Chihkiang (06/44 – )
Erh Tong (07/04/44 - )
Curtiss P-40N (13/01/44 – )  
  11th PG   Sian (05/44 – ) Curtiss P-40N  
  12th BG     Tupolev SB Disbanded in October 1944.
45th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB Disbanded in October 1944.
46th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB Disbanded in October 1944.
47th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB Disbanded in October 1944.

US Army Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
19th Liaison Squadron     Ondal (29/04/44 – 29/05/44)
Kunming (29/05/44 – 28/03/45)
Stinson L-1 Vigilant
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
21st PRS     Kunming (22/08/43 – 14/05/45)
Kweilin (det. 12/07/43 – 12/09/44)
Suichan (det. 26/10/43 – 26/06/44)
Liangshan (det. 01/04/44 – 18/10/44)
Kanchow (det. 08/44 – 20/11/44)
Liuchow (det. 10/09/44 – 06/11/44)
Hanchung (det. 18/10/44 – 13/08/45)
Suichwan (det. 12/11/44 – 22/01/45)
Luliang (det. 26/11/44 – 13/05/45)
Lockheed F-4 Lightning
Lockheed F-5 Lightning
Curtiss P-40
 
35th PRS     Guskhara (13/06/44 – 01/09/44)
Kunming (01/09/44 – 17/09/44)
Nanning (det. 16/09/44 – 06/10/44)
Yunnani (det. 16/09/44 – 10/02/45)
Chanyi (17/09/44 – 18/09/45)
Chihkiang (det. 19/10/44 – 01/09/45)
Suichwan (det. 19/11/44 – 22/01/45)
Lockheed F-5 Lightning  
71st Liaison Squadron     Ledo (26/10/43 – 15/10/44)
Kunming (det. 11/43 – 01/07/44)
Piper L-4 Grasshopper
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron     Gushkara (16/02/44 – 12/06/44)
Chengkung (12/06/44 – 06/45)
Kweilin (det. 16/06/44 – 14/09/44)
Liuchow (det. 14/09/44 – 07/11/44)
Suichwan (12/11/44 – 22/01/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
322nd Troop Carrier Squadron     Kunming (09/09/44 – 25/05/45) Douglas C-47  
426th Night Fighter Squadron     Madhaiganj (09/08/44 – 05/11/44)
Chengdu (05/11/44 – 03/45)
Kunming (det. 11/44 – 25/12/44)
Hsian (det. 27/11/44 – 17/08/45)
Northrop P-61 Black Widow  
427th Night Fighter Squadron     Myitkyina (12/44 – 25/05/45)
Kunming (det. 18/12/44 – 28/06/45)
Northrop P-61 Black Widow  
  1st Combat Cargo Group Lieutenant Colonel Robert Rentz (21/04/44 – 28/04/45) Tulihal (30/11/44 – 20/12/44)
Tsuyung (20/12/44 – 30/01/45)
Douglas C-47  
1st Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Sylhet (21/08/44 – 29/11/44)
Yunnani (det. 15/09/44 – 02/10/44)
Douglas C-47  
2nd Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Sylhet 27/08/44 – 22/11/44)
Yunnani (det. 11/09/44 – 18/09/44)
Imphal (22/11/44 – 12/12/44)
Tsuyung (12/12/44 – 01/02/45)
Douglas C-47  
3rd Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Sylhet (30/11/44 – 18/10/44)
Yunnani (det. 16/09/44 – 02/10/44)
Douglas C-47  
4th Combat Cargo Squadrons 1st Combat Cargo Group   Sylhet (03/09/44 – 30/11/44)
Yunnani (det. 11/09/44 – 11/10/44)
Tulihal (30/11/44 – 21/12/44)
Chengkung (21/12/44 – 01/02/45)
Douglas C-47  
436th BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Madhaiganj (06/10/44 – 01/06/45)
Luliang (det. 01/12/44 – 01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
492nd BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Madhaiganij (06/10/44 – 01/06/45)
Luliang (det. 20/12/44 – 30/01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
493th BS (Heavy) 7th BG (Heavy)   Pandaveswar (05/10/44 – 07/12/45)
Luliang (det. 17/12/44 – 26/01/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
24th Combat Mapping Squadron 8th PRG   Guskhara 05/01/44 – 23/12/45
Hsinching (det. 17/03/44 – 09/04/44)
Hsinching (det. 27/04/44 – 07/44)
Liuchow (det. 10/07/44 – 22/09/44)
Chanyi (det. 22/09/44 – 17/02/45)
Hsinching (det. 10/44 – 01/11/44)
Pengshan (det.10/44 – 01/11/44)
Consolidated F-7 Liberator Operated only a detachment in China.
  23rd FG Colonel David L. Hill (04/11/43 – 15/10/44)
Lieutenant Colonel Philip C. Loofbourrow (15/10/44 – 12/12/44)
Colonel Edward F. Rector (12/12/44 – 12/45)
Kweilin (09/43 – 08/09/44)
Liuchow (08/09/44 – 14/09/44)
Luliang (14/09/44 – 08/45)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51
 
74th FS 23rd FG Captain G. Lundy (04/12/43 – 15/05/44)
Major Arthur Cruikshank (15/05/44 – 26/06/44)
Captain J. Herbst (27/06/44 – 17/02/45)
Kweilin 19/05/43 – 12/09/44)
Liuchow (det. 16/02/44 – 30/04/44)
Luliang (12/09/44 – 08/45)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51 Mustang
Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combat over the Hunan Province 17-25 June 1944.
75th FS 23rd FG   Hengyang (11/43 – 10/06/44)
Lingling (10/06/44 – 25/06/44)
Kweilin (25/06/44 – 12/09/44)
Luliang (12/09/44 – 08/45)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51 Mustang
Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combat over the Hunan Province 17-25 June 1944.
76th FS 23rd FG   Suichan (26/12/43 – 01/06/44)
Lingling (01/06/44 – 07/44)
Liuchow (07/44 – 12/09/44)
Luliang (12/09/44 – 24/08/45)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51 Mustang
Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combat over the Hunan Province 17-25 June 1944.
  33rd FG Colonel Loring F Stetson Jr. (17/10/43 – 07/06/44)
Lieutenant Colonel Oliver G. Cellini (07/06/44 – 09/09/44)
Karachi (20/02/44 – 18/04/44)
Shwangliu (18/04/44 – 09/05/44)
Pungchacheng (09/05/44 – 03/09/44)
Nagaghuli (03/09/44 – 26/12/44)
   
58th FS 33rd FG   Karachi (18/02/44 – 30/04/44)
Pungchacheng (30/04/44 – 31/08/44)
Moran (31/08/44 – 26/12/44)
   
59th FS 33rd FG   Karachi (12/02/44 – 19/03/44)
Fungwanshan (19/03/44 – 05/09/44)
Moran (05/09/44 – 21/11/44)
   
60th FS 33rd FG   Karachi (20/02/44 – 17/04/44)
Shwangliu (17/04/44 – 01/09/44)
Nagaghuli (01/09/44 – 20/11/44)
   
  51st FG Lieutenant Colonel Samuel B Knowles Jr. (20/09/43 – 27/05/44)
Colonel Louis R. Hughes Jr. (27/05/44 – 02/45)
Kunming (02/10/43 – 09/45) Curtiss P-40
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
 
16th FS 51st FG   Chengkung (25/11/43 – 19/08/45)
Tsuyung (det. 25/11/43 – 04/44)
Nanning (det. 02/44 – 02/44)
Szemao (det. 04/44 – 04/44)
Yunnani (det. 05/44 – 07/44)
Liangshan (det. 16/12/44 – 31/12/44)
Kwanghan (det. 24/12/44 – 30/01/45)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51 Mustang
 
25th FS 51st FG   Yunnani (14/09/43 – 09/45)
Poashan (det. 30/11/44 – 01/45)
Curtiss P-40
Lockheed P-38 Lightning
North American P-51 Mustang
 
26th FS 51st FG   Kunming (07/10/43 – 01/08/45)
Nanning (det. 08/03/44 – 01/11/44)
Liangshan (det. 05/44 – 20/06/44)
Kweilin (det. 20/06/44 – 30/06/44)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51 Mustang
 
449th FS 51st FG   Lingling (26/08/43 – 02/44)
Suichan (02/44 – 06/44)
Kweilin (06/44 – 16/07/44)
Chengkung (16/07/44 – 13/07/45)
Yunnani (det. 23/07/44 – 03/45)
Lockheed P-38 Lightning  
  81st FG Colonel Philip B. Klein (26/08/43 – 27/09/44)
Lieutenant Colonel Fred G. Hook Jr. (27/09/44 – 24/10/44)
Colonel Oliver G. Cellini (24/10/44 – )
Karachi (02/03/44 – 12/05/44)
Kwanghan (12/05/44 – 02/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
91st FS 81st FG   Karachi (25/02/44 – 01/06/44)
Fungwanshan (01/06/44 – 17/08/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
92nd FS 81st FG   Karachi (22/03/44 – 15/05/44)
Kwanghan (15/05/44 – 12/02/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
93rd FS 81st FG   Karachi (01/03/44 – 11/07/44)
Kwanghan (11/07/44 – 10/44)
Gushkara (10/44 – 16/10/45)
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  
  308th BG (Heavy) Colonel William P. Fisher (03/11/43 – 19/10/44)
Colonel John G. Armstrong (19/10/44 – 01/07/45)
Kunming (20/03/43 – 10/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
373rd BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Major Crockett (26/11/43 – ) Yangkai (20/03/43 – 14/09/44)
Luliang (14/09/44 – 21/07/45)
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
374th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Captain Robert Barnet (22/08/43 – ) Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
375th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Captain Henry G. Brady (09/42 – ) Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
425th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Harry Marshall Kunming (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
  311th FG Colonel Charles G. Chandler Jr. (25/11/43 – 12/02/45) Tingkawk Sakan (06/07/44 – 28/08/44)
Pungchacheng (28/08/44 – 14/12/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
528th FS 311th FG   Tingkawk Sakan (14/05/44 – 24/08/44)
Shwangliu (24/08/44 – 08/45)
Hangchung (det. 09/44 – 01/45)
Liansshan (det. 09/44 – 01/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
529th FS 311th FG   Dinjan (19/10/43 – 23/08/44)
Pungchacheng (23/08/44 – 08/45)
Hsian (det. 18/09/44 – 30/10/44)
North American P-51 Mustang  
530th FS 311th FG   Dinjan (18/10/43 – 21/10/44)
Kwanghan (21/10/44 – 05/05/45)
Hsian (det. 30/10/44 – 21/02/45)
North American P-51 Mustang  
  341st BG (Medium) Colonel Morris F. Taber (23/11/43 – 11/04/44)
Colonel Joseph B. Wells (11/04/44 – 01/12/44)
Colonel Donald L. Clark (01/12/44 – 16/04/45)
Kurmitola (06/43 – 07/01/44)
Kunming (07/01/44 – 13/12/44)
Yangkai (13/12/44 – )
North American B-25 Mitchell  
11th BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Kweilin (21/06/43 – 28/06/44)
Hengyang (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Suichan (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Nanning (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Lingling (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Yang Tong (28/06/44 – 02/11/44)
Kweilin (det. 28/06/44 – 01/11/44)
Liuchow (det. 06/44 – 01/11/44)
Yangkai (02/11/44 – 09/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
22nd BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Chakulia (03/12/42 – 08/01/44)
Yangkai (08/01/44 – 09/45)
Yunnani (det. 29/04/44 – 06/05/44)
Yunnani (det. 05/11/44 – 20/01/45)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
491st BS (Medium) 341st BG (Medium)   Chakulia (05/01/43 – 10/01/44)
Yangkai (10/01/44 – 13/09/45)
Kweilin (det. 13/06/44 – 10/07/44)
Liuchow (det. 13/06/44 – 10/07/44)
Liuchow (det. 29/08/44 – 02/11/44)
North American B-25 Mitchell  
27th Troop Carrier Squadron 443rd Troop Carrier Group   Sylhet (12/01/44 – 21/05/44)
Yunnani (21/05/44 – 15/02/45)
Chanyi (det.)
Chengdu (det.)
Kunming (det.)
   

IJAAF

Known units, commanders and stations
Regiments Squadrons Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
6th Sentai     Anyang (04/44 – )
Canton (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Puchi (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Changsha (det. 06/44 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-51  
9th Sentai   Major Tatsuo Takanahi (04/42 – 06/44)
Major Takehisa Yakuyama (07/44 – 27/12/44)
Captain Isamu Shimofukasako (Hikotai leader 01/44 – 11/44)
Captain Isao Kobayashi (Hikotai leader 11/44 – 01/45)
Tuanshanzi (09/43 – 28/02/44)
Wuchang (28/02/44 – 13/03/44)
Anking (13/03/44 – 11/44)
Xinxiang (end/04/44 –10/44)
Hankou (07/44 – 11/44)
Chengchou (det. 06/44 – 09/44)
Hengyang (det. 11/44 – 11/44)
Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)  
9th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Michio Iwata (09/43 – 11/06/44)
Captain Eiji Yuzuki (11/06/44 – 12/44)
Tuanshanzi (09/43 – 28/02/44)
Wuchang (28/02/44 – 13/03/44)
Anking (13/03/44 – 11/44)
Xinxiang (end/04/44 –10/44)
Hankou (07/44 – 11/44)
Chengchou (det. 06/44 – 09/44)
Hengyang (det. 11/44 – 11/44)
Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)  
9th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Isamu Shimofukasako (03/43 – 11/44) Tuanshanzi (09/43 – 28/02/44)
Wuchang (28/02/44 – 13/03/44)
Anking (13/03/44 – 11/44)
Xinxiang (end/04/44 –10/44)
Hankou (07/44 – 11/44)
Chengchou (det. 06/44 – 09/44)
Hengyang (det. 11/44 – 11/44)
Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)  
9th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Hideaki Arai (08/43 – 03/44)
Captain Isao Kobayashi (03/44 – 01/45)
Tuanshanzi (09/43 – 28/02/44)
Wuchang (28/02/44 – 13/03/44)
Anking (13/03/44 – 11/44)
Xinxiang (end/04/44 –10/44)
Hankou (07/44 – 11/44)
Chengchou (det. 06/44 – 09/44)
Hengyang (det. 11/44 – 11/44)
Canton (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (05/43 – end of war)  
11th Sentai   Major Seijiro Morishita (02/43 – 08/44)
Major Yoshihiro Kanaya (08/44 – 12/10/44)
Major Yuji Mizoguchi (10/44 – end of war)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Tokorozawa (03/44 – 10/44)
Ilan (10/44 -10/44)
Luzon (10/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)
 
11th Sentai 1st chutai/hikotai Lieutenant Takashi Ninomiya (02/43 – 05/44)
Captain Kunio Ohnuma (05/44 – 12/10/44)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Tokorozawa (03/44 – 10/44)
Ilan (10/44 -10/44)
Luzon (10/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)
 
11th Sentai 2nd chutai/hikotai Lieutenant Takashi Saito (04/43 – 01/44)
Captain Hironojo Shishimoto (01/44 – 12/44)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Tokorozawa (03/44 – 10/44)
Ilan (10/44 -10/44)
Luzon (10/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)
 
11th Sentai 3rd chutai/hikotai Captain Juro Fujita (01/43 – 07/44)
Lieutenant Saburo Matsumoto (07/44 – 12/10/44)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Tokorozawa (03/44 – 10/44)
Ilan (10/44 -10/44)
Luzon (10/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)
 
16th Sentai     Hankou (02/43 – )
Anyang (02/44 – at least 06/44)
Kawasaki Ki-48-I
Kawasaki Ki-48-II
 
20th Sentai   Lieutenant Colonel Goro Yamamoto (12/43 – 10/44)
Major Hideo Muroka (10/44 – 08/45)
Captain Isao Takahama (Hikotai leader 03/44 – 10/44)
Captain Hisashi Ohsato (Hikotai leader (10/44 – end of war)
Hsiaochiang (08/44 – 10/44)
Taipei (10/44 – 10/44)
Bamban (10/44 -10/44)
Caloocan (10/44 – 10/44)
Fabrica (11/44 – 12/44)
Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)  
20th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Kiyotaka Yamagata (02/44 – 12/10/44) Hsiaochiang (08/44 – 10/44)
Taipei (10/44 – 10/44)
Bamban (10/44 -10/44)
Caloocan (10/44 – 10/44)
Fabrica (11/44 – 12/44)
Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)  
20th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Sadakazu Kobayashi (02/44 – 12/10/44) Hsiaochiang (08/44 – 10/44)
Taipei (10/44 – 10/44)
Bamban (10/44 -10/44)
Caloocan (10/44 – 10/44)
Fabrica (11/44 – 12/44)
Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)  
20th Sentai 3rd chutai Lieutenant Hisashi Ohsato (07/44 – 10/44) Hsiaochiang (08/44 – 10/44)
Taipei (10/44 – 10/44)
Bamban (10/44 -10/44)
Caloocan (10/44 – 10/44)
Fabrica (11/44 – 12/44)
Hsiaochiang (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (12/43 – 03/45)  
22nd Sentai   Major Jozo Iwahashi (03/44 – 21/09/44)
Major Shigeki Namba (09/44 – 11/44)
Captain Takashi Saito (Hikotai leader 08/44 – 11/44)
Sagami (03/44 – 08/44)
Hankou (24/08/44 – 02/10/44)
Sagami (10/44 – 10/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)  
22nd Sentai 1st chutai Lieutenant Hiroshi Shimoda (03/44 – 10/44) Sagami (03/44 – 08/44)
Hankou (24/08/44 – 02/10/44)
Sagami (10/44 – 10/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)  
22nd Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Takashi Saito (03/44 – 11/44) Sagami (03/44 – 08/44)
Hankou (24/08/44 – 02/10/44)
Sagami (10/44 – 10/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)  
22nd Sentai 3rd chutai Lieutenant Tsuneharu Nakayama (04/44 – 10/44) Sagami (03/44 – 08/44)
Hankou (24/08/44 – 02/10/44)
Sagami (10/44 – 10/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (03/44 – end of war)  
24th Sentai   Major Shoichi Tashiro (08/43 – 12/44)
Captain Koichi Shoji (12/44 – end of war)
Captain Yokichi Ikegami (Hikotai leader 12/44 – end of war)
Fabrica (10/44 – 11/44)
Taichung (12/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (02/43 – spring/45)  
25th Sentai   Major Toshio Sakagawa (07/11/42 – 07/44)
Major Kiso-o Beppu (07/44 – 17/09/44)
Major Takeo Matsuyama (17/09/44 – 28/10/44)
Major Katsumi Mukaidani (28/10/44 – 07/45)
Captain Takashi Tsuchiya (Hikotai leader 03/44 – 03/09/44)
Captain Kanji Aizono (Hikotai leader (09/44 – 12/44)
Captain Shin-ichi Ukawa (Hikotai leader (12/44 – end of war)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yungcheng (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Hsinhsiang (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (det. mid/06/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 1st chutai Lieutenant Takashi Tsuchiya (01/04/43 – 03/09/44)
Captain Hiroshi Kusano (09/44 – end of war)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yungcheng (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Hsinhsiang (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (det. mid/06/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Kanai Gunji (01/44 – 07/44)
Captain Shin-ichi Ukawa (07/44 – end of war)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yungcheng (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Hsinhsiang (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (det. mid/06/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
25th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Keisaku Motohashi (11/43 – 08/44)
Captain Kanji Aizono (08/44 – 12/44)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yungcheng (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Hsinhsiang (det. 04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (det. mid/06/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (11/44 – 03/45)
Nakajima Ki-84 (11/44 – end of war)
 
29th Sentai   Major Takeo Kawada (12/43 – 11/44)
Captain Masatsugu Tsuchihashi (11/44 – 07/12/44)
Xingshu (05/44 – 06/44)
Taipei (det. 07/44 – 08/44)
Hsiaochiang (07/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (08/44 – 10/44)
Erhtaokou (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Bailuqi (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Clark Field (11/44 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (02/44 – 12/44)  
29th Sentai Hikotai/1st chutai Captain Masatsugu Tsuchihashi (03/44 – 11/44) Xingshu (05/44 – 06/44)
Taipei (det. 07/44 – 08/44)
Hsiaochiang (07/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (08/44 – 10/44)
Erhtaokou (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Bailuqi (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Clark Field (11/44 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (02/44 – 12/44)  
29th Sentai 2nd chutai Lieutenant Fumihiro Yabuta (03/44 – 19/11/44) Xingshu (05/44 – 06/44)
Taipei (det. 07/44 – 08/44)
Hsiaochiang (07/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (08/44 – 10/44)
Erhtaokou (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Bailuqi (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Clark Field (11/44 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (02/44 – 12/44)  
29th Sentai 3rd chutai Lieutenant Tokuji Chiji-iwa (03/44 – 13/11/44) Xingshu (05/44 – 06/44)
Taipei (det. 07/44 – 08/44)
Hsiaochiang (07/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (08/44 – 10/44)
Erhtaokou (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Bailuqi (det. 09/44 – 10/44)
Clark Field (11/44 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (02/44 – 12/44)  
44th Sentai     Nanchang (02/43 – )
Puchi (02/43 – )
Tachengchen (02/44 – )
Xinxiang (04/44 – )
Canton (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Puchi (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Changsha (det. 06/44 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-51  
48th Sentai   Major Masao Matsuo (11/43 – 08/08/44)
Major Tateo Kaburagi (08/44 – end of war)
Captain Tadashi Nishikawa (Hikotai leader 02/44 – 15/07/44)
Captain Gun-ichi Nishikawa (Hikotai leader 09/44 – 12/11/44)
Lieutenant Masukichi Kimura (Hikotai leader 05/44 – 14/01/45)
Jiandao (07/43 – 04/44)
Wuchang (04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (05/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (01/44 – end/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (08/44 – end of war)
 
48th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Tadashi Nishikawa (02/44 – 15/07/44)
Captain Gun-ichi Nishikawa (09/44 – 12/11/44)
Jiandao (07/43 – 04/44)
Wuchang (04/44 – 05/44)
Bailuqi (05/44 – 11/44)
Hengyang (11/44 – 11/44)
Wuchang (11/44 – 02/45)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (01/44 – end/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-III (08/44 – end of war)
 
82nd Sentai         Reconnaissance unit
85th Sentai   Major Togo Saito (11/43 – end of war)
Major Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu (Hikotai leader 03/44 – 18/12/44)
Captain Morio Nakamura (Hikotai leader 12/44 – 11/08/45)
Canton (08/43 –12/44 )
Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)
 
85th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Hajime Saito (12/43 – 05/10/44)
Captain Nobuyuki Hironaka (10/44 – 17/01/45)
Hankou (10/43 – 02/44)
Canton (02/44 – 12/44)
Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)
 
85th Sentai 2nd chutai Major Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu (01/42 – 18/12/44) Canton (05/07/43 – 12/44 )
Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)
 
85th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Morio Nakamura (09/43 – 11/08/45) Canton (08/43 –12/44 )
Hankou (12/44 – 01/45)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-84 (09/44 – end of war)
 
90th Sentai     Kagi (09/43 – )
Tungshan (02/44 – )
Canton (02/44 – )
Anyang (04/44 – )
Canton (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Tungshan (05/44 – 06/44)
Kawasaki Ki-48  
Independent 18th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Hankou (08/42 – )
Tourane (09/43 – )
Hanoi (09/43 – )
Nanching (02/44 – )
Canton (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Hankou (05/44 – 06/44)
Mitsubishi Ki-15
Mitsubishi Ki-46
 
Independent 54th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Yangchu (02/44 – )
Xinxiang (04/44 – )
Puchi (det. 05/44 – 06/44)
Changsha (det. 06/44 – )
Direct co-operation aircraft  
Independent 55th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Nanching (02/43 – )
Canton (09/43 – )
Hankou (02/44 – at least 06/44)
Mitsubishi Ki-46 Reconnaissance squadron

IJNAF

Known units, commanders and stations
Group Squadrons Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
Kaiko Kokutai     Hainan Mitsubishi A6M  
Sanya Kokutai     Hainan Mitsubishi A6M  











Last modified 20 November 2014