Biplane fighter aces


Maggiore Luigi Filippi

2 February 1909 – 20 February 1943

Image from Ali di Guerra 1941.

Date Decoration Note
??/??/40 Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (1st) 1940-43
??/??/41 Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (2nd) 1940-43
??/??/51 Medaglia d’argento al valor militare (3rd) 1940-43
??/??/?? Medaglia di bronzo al valor aeronautico 1940-43

Luigi Filippi was born on 2 February 1909 and was from Pian di Meleto (Pesaro).

On 12 November 1929, he was commissioned (in Servizio Permanente Effettivo).

Capitano Ottorino Fargnoli left the command of the 364a Squadriglia, 150o Gruppo, in February 1938 when Capitano Filippi took command of the unit.

Capitano Filippi left the command of the 364a Squadriglia, 150o Gruppo, in February 1939 when Capitano Nicola Magaldi took command of the unit.

In February 1939, the 3o Stormo was under the command of Colonello Fortunato Rolando and equipped with Fiat CR.32s (complemented with a Ca.133 to each squadriglia for transports). The Stormo consisted of two Gruppi; 23o and 18o.
The 23o Gruppo was commanded by Maggiore Tito Falconi and based at Mirafori. The squadriglia commanders were Capitano Ottorino Fargnoli (70a Squadriglia), Capitano Guido Bobba (74a Squadriglia) and Capitano Filippi (75a Squadriglia).
The 18o Gruppo was commanded by Maggiore Ferruccio Vosilla and based at Mondovì. The squadriglia commanders were Capitano Edoardo Molinari (83a Squadriglia), Capitano Giulio Anelli (85a Squadriglia) and Capitano Gino Lodi (95a Squadriglia).
In October 1939, the 23o Gruppo started to re-equip with Fiat CR.42s and from November the 18o Gruppo did the same.

When the war started on 10 June 1940 the 3o Stormo was sent to the French border to take part in the attacks on southern France.

On 15 June 1940, the Italian Headquarters ordered the 150o, 18o and 23o Gruppi C.T. to attack the French airfields in Le Cannet des Maures (2km south-east of Le Luc) and Cuers Pierrefeu (close to the naval base of Toulon), in Provence, with the purpose of destroying and disrupting the French fighter force on the ground.
Le Cannet des Maures was the base of the GC III/6, which had arrived there on 3 June with its Morane Saulnier MS.406 fighters and was in the midst of converting from that type to the new Dewoitine D.520 (on 15 June 1940 the groupe had at least 13 D.520s on hand). The airfield of Cuers Pierrefeu was the base of the escadrille de chasse AC 3 of the Aéronautique Navale, equipped with eleven Bloch 151 fighters, and the escadrille de bombardement en piquè AB 3 of the Aéronautique Navale, equipped with eleven Vought 156 dive-bombers.
At noon 25 CR.42s from the 23o Gruppo departed from Cervere (a small town in Piedmont near the French border) to attack Le Cannet Des Maures airfield. The first group, under the command of Maggiore Tito Falconi (CO of the 23o Gruppo in a CR.42 from the 70a Squadriglia) was to make the strafing attack. The group was composed of Capitano Filippi (CO of the 75a Squadriglia), Tenente Mario Rigatti, Tenente Calogero Mazza, Sottotenente Malvezzi, Maresciallo Luigi Pasquetti, Sergente Maggiore Renzo Borro, Sergente Maggiore Davini, Sergente Maggiore Germano Gasperoni (all from the 75a Squadriglia), Capitano Guido Bobba (CO of the 74a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Arnaldo Sala and Sottotenente Domenico Tessera (all from the 74a Squadriglia). The rest of the formation, with fighters from all three Squadriglie, was to act as top cover. This formation was composed of Capitano Ottorino Fargnoli (CO of the 70a Squadriglia), Tenente Claudio Solaro (70a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Oscar Abello (70a Squadriglia), Tenente Ezio Monti (75a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Balilla Albani (70a Squadriglia), Sergente Carlo Scarselli (70a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Celso Zemella (70a Squadriglia), Tenente Lorenzo Viale (74a Squadriglia), Tenente Mario Benedetti (74a Squadriglia), Tenente Mario Pinna (74a Squadriglia), Sergente Maggiore Renzo Bocconi (74a Squadriglia), Sergente Raffaele Marzocca (74a Squadriglia) and Sergente Emilio Stefani (74a Squadriglia).
They arrived over the target at 13:00 and attacked under heavy AA-fire. They claimed to have hit fifteen “Curtis” fighters and four old bombers that lay on the sides of the airstrip, in particular Capitano Bobba claimed hits on three aircraft as did Sottotenente Tessera while Sergente Sala claimed to have hit two aircraft on the ground (it seems that at least three D.520s were destroyed when Dewoitine D.520 nos. 257, 294 and 304 of GC III/6 went up in flames).
During the strafing a number of French fighters identified as “four or five Morrane” or alternatively “Dewoitine” engaged the strafing Fiats. Capitano Filippi (MM4361), was shot down by Adjutant Pierre Le Gloan of GC III/6. Filippi baled out and was captured. Maresciallo Pasquetti claimed a “Morane” but was also hit, wounded (reportedly by AA fire but possibly by Le Gloan) and returned to Cervere despite large problems. He was later decorated with the Medaglia d’argento al valor militare in the field for this mission. Tenente Rigatti’s and Sottotenente Malvezzi’s fighters were also damaged (reportedly by AA). Among the pilots of the covering patrol, Sergente Stefani claimed a “Morrane”, Tenente Benedetti a probable “Morrane” and Sergente Marzocca a damaged “Morrane”. The pilots of the 70a Squadriglia reported an indecisive engagement with no losses caused or suffered and finally Tenente Viale had his fighter seriously damaged by an explosive bullet that hit the junction between the lower wing and the fuselage. Back at base the plane was declared RD (Riparabile in Ditta - Repairable but only in the manufacturer’s workshop) and sent to the Aeritalia-Fiat workshops in Turin.
The pilots of the 23o Gruppo observed that despite hits on aircraft on the ground they hadn’t burnt. This was found to have been caused by a defective batch of incendiary ammunition.
The formation from the 150o Gruppo departed from Villanova D’Albenga (in Liguria near the sea) at 12:00 and was composed of 27 Fiat CR.42s divided in three groups. Their target was the airfield of Cuers Pierrefeu and they arrived there at 13:00. A first group of eight aircraft commanded by Capitano Giorgio Graffer (CO of the 365a Squadriglia) and composed of Tenente Franco Gatti, Sottotenente Lorenzo Clerici, Maresciallo Felice Sozzi, Maresciallo Virginio Bodini, Sergente Maggiore Guido Fibbia, Sergente Maggiore Felice Squassoni and Sergente Bruno Zotti (all from the 365a Squadriglia) attacked the airfield of Cuers itself. A second group of nine fighters from the 363a Squadriglia led by the Gruppo CO Tenente Colonnello Rolando Pratelli (Capitano Luigi Mariotti (Squadriglia CO), Tenente Pietro Garfagnoli, Sottotenente Mario Daverio, Maresciallo Giuseppe Salvadori, Sergente Maggiore Natale Viola, Sergente Maggiore Bruno Benassi, Sergente Paolo Rossi, Sergente Antonio Lazzari) and a third group of eight aircraft from the 364a Squadriglia under command of the 53o Stormo commander Colonnello Arrigo Tessari (Capitano Nicola Magaldi (Squadriglia CO), Capitano Nino Caselli, Tenente Giuseppe Enrico Zuffi, Tenente Alberto Spigaglia, Maresciallo Delfino Fratini, Maresciallo Ugo Guidi, Sergente Maggiore Virgilio Pongiluppi, Sergente Giovanni Negri and Sergente Achille Pacini) covered Graffer and his men during the strafing attack.
The covering group led by Colonnello Tessari engaged six French fighters, while Graffer’s group, after four or five strafing passes enter combat against “Morane fighters” while regaining height. All in all four Morane were claimed shot down (all Bloch 151s from AC 3 and confirmed with French records) and 15 Moranes were claimed on ground (in fact at least six Vought 156s of AB 3 were destroyed). The victories were credited as “shared” to all the pilots of the Gruppo.
The aircraft of Capitano Nino Caselli (MM5579) and Tenente Zuffi of the 364a Squadriglia (MM5590) were lost. Caselli’s Fiat was shot down by French fighters and he was killed, while Zuffi landed on Cuers Pierrefeu undamaged due to a breakdown of the throttle. Zuffi was taken prisoner and his undamaged fighter was taken by the French (the only aircraft captured by the Aéronautique Navale), which in the following days painted it with French colours and duly photographed this trophy with pilots posing near it. After the war the Italians had to do great efforts with the Vichy Authorities to finally have back the fighter in August. Additionally the Fiats of Graffer and Clerici were damaged by French fighters during the dogfight.
Finally, 15 Fiat CR.42s the 18o Gruppo took off from Villanova D’Albenga immediately after the 150o Gruppo. They patrolled along the direction of Cuers Pierrefeu - Cannet des Maures - Hyères (the latter an airfield 13 km east of Toulon) to prevent any interference from the French fighter force. Led by the 18o Gruppo’s CO Maggiore Ferruccio Vosilla the formation was composed by Capitano Giulio Anelli (CO of the 85a Squadriglia), Tenente Giulio Cesare Giuntella and Sergente Maggiore Giuseppe Ruzzin of the 85a Squadriglia, Capitano Gino Lodi (CO of 95a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Eugenio Salvi, Maresciallo Felice Longhi, Maresciallo Giovanni Ferrari and Sergente Maggiore Giacomo Grillo of the 95a Squadriglia (Vosilla flew with Salvi and Longhi as wingmen) and finally the 3o Stormo Commander Colonnello Fortunato Rolando in a 83a Squadriglia fighter with Maresciallo Francesco Colombo and Sergente Maggiore Evdo Formentini as wingmen together with Capitano Edoardo Molinari (CO of 83a Squadriglia), Sottotenente Carlo Lolli and Maresciallo Gaetano Bortolini.
At a height of 5500 meters over Beau Champ they were intercepted by enemy fighters, which suddenly appeared from a cloud bank. They were identified as “Morane 406 plus another type not sure” and in the ensuing combat three of them were claimed shot down plus four others hit without being able of ascertain the damage inflicted (these claims can’t be verified with French sources). It seems that no individual credit was given for these victories that went as shared to all the fifteen pilots participating in the mission. During the combat, two aircraft of the 83a Squadriglia were lost when Sergente Maggiore Formentini (MM4449) and Maresciallo Colombo (MM4366) both were shot down and killed (both were probably shot down by Le Gloan and Assolant of GC III/6, which had attacked the “vic” of the Stormo commander). All the fighters of the 85a Squadriglia suffered gun-jams and were forced to flee, Capitano Anelli, in particular, had to escaped into clouds to get away from enemy fighters, got lost and was obliged to force-land at Dorniella near Grosseto in Tuscany where his plane (MM4372) broke the landing gear and was heavily damaged (RD). Finally Maresciallo Gaetano Bortolini’s Fiat was hit by a cannon shell that opened a hole of 60 centimetres in the upper wing. Later during the day, two more fighters were heavily damaged (RD) on landing back in Villanova D’Albenga returning from scrambles because of the bad conditions of the ground flooded by heavy rain but this was not connected with the above described combat.
The French reported that in the early hours of 15 June bad wheatear halted flight activities, then, at mid-morning, it cleared up. At 10:00, a patrouille composed by Adjutant Diaz, Sergent Pimont and Sous-Lieutenant Stage took-off to cover the reconnaissance mission of a Potez 63. The mission was completed successfully.
At 11:40, the fighter control centre of Toulon signalled big formations of heavy fighters and bombers passing the border and heading south-west. Five minutes later a patrouille simple (three planes group) of Dewoitine D.520s (Adjutant Pierre Le Gloan, Capitaine Jacobi and Capitaine Assolant) of the 5th escadrille of groupe de chasse III/6 (GC III/6) took-off.
The patrouille made for Saint Raphael (on the coast, near the Italian border), where a group of fifteen enemy planes was signalled. Four minutes later (11:49), a second patrouille simple (Capitaine Guerrier, Adjutant Japiot, Sous-Lietuenant Capdeviolle), this time of the 6th escadrille, took off to help the first. However, it took off to late and didn’t participate in the combat.
After arriving over Saint Raphael, the patrouille of Le Gloan received by radio the order of going over Saint Tropez (around 30km south-west). At the same time, Capitaine Jacobi was forced to turn back with engine problems.
Le Gloan saw a formation of twelve Fiat CR.42s in the direction of Saint Tropez heading south-west. He reached them rapidly and attacked at 12:00. In a brief combat, Le Gloan and Assolant claimed two shared aircraft shot down. These were the last two aircraft of the Italian formation and one of the Italian fighters (Maresciallo Colombo of the 83a Squadriglia) was seen to go down in flames near Beauvallon (4km south of Grimaud) while the other went down in flames near Ramatuelle; the pilot was seen to bale out (probably Sergente Maggiore Evdo Formentini of the 83a Squadriglia).
At this moment the two pilots of the patrouille was split up. Le Gloan turned over Saint-Tropez and lost contact with the enemy while Capitaine Assolant attacked a third Italian fighter (perhaps Maresciallo Bortolini of the 83a Squadriglia), but his guns ceased to fire and he had to disengage coming back to Le Cannet des Maures.
Adjutant Le Gloan in the meantime, saw anti-aircraft fire in the direction of Hyères airfield (being over Saint Tropez this direction is quite close to the direction of Toulon-Cuers Pierrefeu that was under attack at that moment). Le Gloan flew in that direction and discovered a group of three Fiat CR.42s heading east. He attacked the right hand Fiat of the group and saw that after the first burst of fire it went down near Saint-Amèe, in the bay of Pampalonne. This claim is not confirmed with Italian records but perhaps claimed in combat with an aircraft from 150o Gruppo returning from the attack on Cuers or alternatively against stragglers of the 18o Gruppo formation. He was then attacked by eight Italian fighters and he disengaged by diving away.
At the same time (around 12:15), he received by radio the order of coming back to Le Cannet des Maures which was under attack. He obeyed immediately, arriving over his airfield while the Italians were strafing it. He dived on a couple of fighters and with a single burst of cannon fire he shot down one of them (Capitano Filippi). This plane went down near the farm of the Thermes, just 1km from the airfield of Le Cannet. Continuing his patrol Le Gloan saw a Fiat BR.20 bomber flying a reconnaissance mission over Le Cannet des Maures, probably with the aim of checking the damage inflicted to the airfield. Le Gloan attacked it and, even with no more cannon ammunitions left, shot it down with five passes of his remaining four guns. The bomber fell down near the farm of the Moulin Rouge. This was Fiat BR.20 MM21873 of the 172a Squadriglia Ricognizione Strategica, which in fact went down over Le Luc. Two of the crew were killed; Aviere scelto motorista Giovanni Bonanno and Aviere scelto fotografo Egisto Di Croce. The rest of the crew were taken POWs; Maggiore Mario Salvadori (an intelligence Officer from the Air force HQ aboard as a passenger), Capitano Giorgio Parodi (the Squadriglia’s CO) and Aviere scelto armiere Attilio Imparato. Bonanno was posthumously decorated with the Medaglia d’Oro al valor militare for this action because he helped his commander, who was wounded, to jump out of the falling plane, but after that he was unable to jump himself and died in the subsequent crash.
At Cuers Pierrefeu (attacked by the 150o Gruppo), the French reported that the Italian fighters attacked the parked Voughts of AB 3 and destroyed six of them. A section of three fighters of AC 3 had taken took off just minutes before the Italian attack. It was commanded by the Enseigne de Vaisseau Carmeille and included Second-Maitres Saint Vanne and Heff. The section had to patrol between Le Luc en Provence and St Raphael. Near the first locality it became involved in combat with 15 Italian fighters (possibly the 18o Gruppo). The section didn’t claim anything and didn’t suffer any losses even if, later, it was credited with two shared Italian fighters shot down. After this combat, the three pilots went on patrolling over Toulon.
Two other sections of AC 3 took off while the Italians arrived over Cuers. The section commanded by the Lieutenant de Vaisseau Ziegler (CO AC 3) was composed by the Second-Maitres Miramont and Briet. Gaining altitude over Cuers the section was attacked by the Italian fighters. Ziegler had his Bloch 151 (numbered AC3.1, serial number 77) seriously damaged and wounded, he was forced to crash-land at base with his left landing gear cut in half. Briet was rapidly in difficulties under the attack of the numerically superior Italians, with the ailerons damaged and the reservoir holed he disengaged, rejoining the first section over Toulon. Miramont engaged combat north-east of the airfield, over the hills of Hyères. His Bloch 151 (numbered AC3.3, serial number 69) was seriously damaged, but in the heat of the fight, he found himself 50 meters behind a Fiat CR.42 (Capitano Nino Caselli) and with a single burst of his four MAC guns he shot it down. Miramont was not able to continue the fight after this and had to land at Hyères.
The third section of AC 3 suffered worst. It was commanded by the Adjutant Chef Hourcade (a pilot of the Armée de l’Air attached to the Aéronautique Navale since 1939) (Bloch 151 AC3.15 serial 51) and included Soulimont (Bloch 151 AC3.8 serial 348) and Second-Maitre Le Bihan (Bloch 151 AC3.9 serial 37). A few second after the take-off, Hourcade was shot down and killed by the marauding Fiats; Soulimont engaged the Italians but was immediately put out of action and obliged to force-land with his aircraft riddled with bullets. Le Bihan received a burst of fire in the engine and five minutes after took-off had to land in the narrow of Rocbaron. Unfortunately, his plane hit a tree and burst into flames hitting the ground. He succeeded in extricate himself from the burning wreck, but died five hours later at the hospital. Some time later Le Bihan was credited with an aerial victory obtained by collision, but looking in the initial reports of this combat there is no trace of this victory.
It is interesting to note that all of Le Gloan’s claims were homologated by the CO of the Zone D’Opérations Aériennes Alpes (ZOAA). (“L’homologation” was the definitive confirmation of an aerial victory corroborated by evidences, was a recognition quite difficult to obtain in the French Air Force). The victories were credited as follows:
Fiat CR.42 individual, Ramatuelle.
Fiat CR.42 shared with Assolant, Saint-Amé bay of Pampelonne.
Fiat CR.42 individual, Beauvallon.
Fiat CR.42 individual , ferme des Termes near Le Luc.
Fiat BR.20, ferme du Moulin-Rouge near Vidauban.
That is not in complete accordance with the reconstruction above. It is also interesting to note that the victories claimed by AC 3 were apparently not homologated.

After Capitano Filippi’s capture, temporarily command of the 75a Squadriglia was given to Tenente Mario Rigatti.

Filippi was released after the end of the French campaign.

In July 1940 the 23o Gruppo moved to Sicily and took part in the attacks on Malta.
On 9 July the 23o Gruppo became Autonomo and the first escort missions over Malta was flown on 12 July.

At 09:45 in the morning of 31 July, nine 23o Gruppo CR.42s escorted a single reconnaissance S.79 over Malta. Hardly any Hurricanes were now serviceable on the island, and three Gladiators took off to intercept, flown by Flying Officers Peter Hartley (N5519), Fred F. 'Eric' Taylor (N5529) and William ’Timber’ Woods (N5520). As they attacked the formation, the bomber turned away, but a dogfight at once began between the opposing fighters. A burst of fire from the guns of Sergente Manlio Tarantino’s aircraft caused the fuel tank of Hartley’s Gladiator (N5519) to explode, and he baled out suffering from severe burns. Woods shot down the commander of the Italian formation, Capitano Antonio Chiodi of the 75a Squadriglia, his aircraft falling into the sea five miles east of Grand Harbour. Chiodi was subsequently awarded a posthumous Medaglia d’oro al valor militare.
The returning Italian pilots claimed that they had seen five Gladiators and two of them were claimed shot down. One by the above mentioned Tarantino and one by Capitano Filippi. Two more Gladiators were attacked by Tenente Mario Rigatti.
South African Flying Officer Roger ‘Jock’ Barber of the Island’s Fighter Flight witnessed the shooting down of Hartley and N5519 from the ground:

“Peter Hartley must have been hit in his centre tank because his Gladiator burnt just like a magnesium flare - an actually brilliant light in the sky, and it was a very lovely day: typical Malta summer day very hot, clear blue sky, no clouds.
He actually baled out after his aircraft caught fire and he fell into the sea. He was very badly burnt, particularly about the knees and arms and face. In those days, we, of course, flew in khaki shirts and shorts and stockings and it was, of course, the exposed portion of his body that got damaged. He spent a very long time in hospital and was eventually evacuated to UK, but I believe made a good recovery and flew again.”
According to at least one report, Gladiator N5519 fell just offshore, close to Ras il-Fenek, in south-east Malta. Hartley was rescued by a boat from Kalafrana and admitted to the Station Sick Quarters suffering from shock and third-degree burns. Soon after, he was transferred to the military hospital at Mtarfa. He did indeed return to flying duties in the UK and the Middle East but was eventually reassigned a ground role due to continuing problems with his injuries.

Filippi took command over 75a Squadriglia after the death of Capitano Chiodi.

Filippi was promoted to Maggiore on 3 October 1940.

The British offensive Operation Crusader was launched in North Africa on 18 November 1941. Italian reinforcements were rushed to Libya including the 157o Gruppo, which arrived at Benghazi K2 in early December with their MC.200s and Maggiore Filippi as CO of the Gruppo and with Capitano Giuseppe Scarpetta as CO of the 384a Squadriglia.

At the beginning of 1942, the 23o Gruppo joined the 18o Gruppo to establish the 3o Stormo again. The units reassembled at Mirafori to be re-equipped with Macchi MC.202s.

The unit returned to North Africa and took part of the Axis offensive into Egypt during the summer and fall of 1942.

On 16 July, the 74a and 75a Squadriglie of the 23o Gruppo CT, led by Maggiore Filippi, arrived at Abu Haggag with 18 MC.202s. 70a Squadriglia was still at Naples/Capodichino due to bad weather. As the 3o Stormo CT was delayed from reaching Africa since the commanding officer, Tenente Colonnello Tito Falconi, was still in Italy with the 18o Gruppo, Generale Venceslao D'Aurelio, commander of the Eastern Sector, temporarily assigned the 23o Gruppo to the command of the 4o Stormo.
The 70a Squadriglia of 23o Gruppo arrived at Wadi Tamet on 18 July with eleven MC.202s led by Capitano Claudio Solaro.

The first operation to be undertaken by newly-arrived 23o Gruppo occurred when Maggiore Luigi Filippi, the unit commander, led twelve MC.202s (seven of the 75a and five of the 74a Squadriglie) on a free sweep (17:20-18:40) over the lines on 17 July. North of El Alamein fighters were seen, Filippi claiming one and Sergente Maggiore Felice Papini (74a Squadriglia) a probable, identified as P-40s.
At about the same time (17:30-19:00) Capitano Carlo Ruspoli led 14 more Macchis, this time of the 10o Gruppo to escort a formation of Ju 88s to this area. North of El Alamein a reported ten Hurricanes and eight Spitfires attacked the bombers but were engaged by the escorting pilots, Capitano Ruspoli claiming one of the Hurricanes.
Hurricanes from 80 and 238 Squadrons were patrolling in the area between 18:40-19:30, spotting 15 Ju 87s with eight escorting Bf 109s of III./JG 27 and the MC.202s. The escorts were indeed successful in preventing the Hurricanes getting at the bombers, Leutnant Werener Schroer of 8./JG 27 claiming one shot down west of El Alamein at 18:25.
Pilot Officer B. Nordon from 238 (Hurricane IIb ‘V’) claimed a damaged but the unit lost two Hurricanes when the commanding officer, 22-year-old Squadron Leader Richard George Arthur Barclay, DFC (RAF no. 74661), was shot down and killed in Hurricane IIb BP296/U (reportedly by a Bf 109); Barclay had claimed six confirmed victories prior to his demise, four over England in 1940 and two since arriving in the desert. The second Hurricane (‘J’) was reportedly shot down by two MC.202 and crash-landed with Pilot Officer E. M. Frost severely wounded.

At 10:05 on 29 August, eleven Kittyhawks from 2 SAAF Squadron and eleven Tomahawks from 5 SAAF Squadron patrolled the forward areas, meeting a reported ten plus Bf 109s and MC.202s.
The 2 SAAF Squadron claimed one fighter shot down and five damaged at 10:45 10-25 miles south-south-west of El Alamein when Lieutenant B. R. Bennetts (AL181/DB-W) claimed a MC.202, Lieutenant Lancelot Charles Henry Hope (EV351/DB-U) claimed a damaged Bf 109 and a damaged MC.202 (both 10 miles south-south-west of El Alamein), while Captain J. E. Parsonson (ET1019/DB-Q) and Lieutenant R. C. Hojem (ET9699/DB-I) each claimed a damaged MC.202. Lieutenant A. Morrison (EV366/DB-L) claimed a damaged Bf 109. Lieutenant Joseph Kourie (SAAF no. 104000) of the unit was shot down and killed in AK760/DB-K while Captain Parsonson returned with his Kittyhawk damaged with a bullet in the coolant system.
5 SAAF Squadron claimed two fighters and two probables at 11:00 south of El Alamein when Second Lieutenant H. Smith (AN238/GL-O) claimed a MC.202 (12 miles south of El Alamein), Lieutenant J. V: Lindebergh (AN446/GL-V) a Bf 109 and Captain E. N. Colman (AN366/GL-N) and Major L. B. Pearce (AN231/GL-X) claimed a probable Bf 109 each. Pearce aircraft was damaged in this combat.
No Luftwaffe aircraft seems to have been in the air at this occasion, but they had clashed with eleven MC.202s from the 23o Gruppo, which scrambled at 09:15 to intercept and identify eleven P-40s. During the following combat at 09:50, the Italian pilots claimed five SAAF aircraft and one probable. One was claimed by Maggiore Filippi (CO 23o Gruppo), one by Capitano Claudio Solaro (CO 70a Squadriglia), two by Sottentente Pietro Farinetti (75a Squadriglia) and one by Sergente Luigi Bandini (70a Squadriglia). One P-40 was claimed as a shared probable by Capitano Solaro, Sergente Bandini and Tenente Marco Marinone (70a Squadriglia). Sottotenente Farinetti (MM8385) was shot down and killed and a second MC.202 was written-off when Sottotenente Giuseppe Spinelli-Barrile (70a Squadriglia) force-landed wounded with MM9048 within Axis lines. Sergente Aldo Bianchini (75a Squadriglia) crash-landed wounded with his damaged fighter (MM8371) at Abu Haggag while Sottotenente Giuseppe Melandri (70a Squadriglia) damaged MM8117 when landing at Tamet (pilot safe).

At 06:10 on 1 September, two formations of the 23o Gruppo Macchis, the first of eight led by Maggiore Filippi, and the second of ten led by Capitano Claudio Solaro, took off to provide cover for the ground troops south-east of El Adem.
At 07:15, Maggiore Filippi and his pilots spotted 24 Bostons south-east of El Alamein and attacked their escorts, claiming two P-40s shot down. These being claimed by Filippi and Capitano Mario Pinna (CO 75a Squadriglia).
Almost at the same time Capitano Solaro’s pilots joined the attack, claiming two fighters; Maresciallo Balilla Albani (70a Squadriglia) claiming a P-40 and Sergente Maggiore Celso Zemella (70a Squadriglia) claiming a Spitfire. Tenente Marco Marinone (70a Squadriglia) claimed a probable P-40 but was then hit and he force-landed near El Alamein, within Axis line, badly damaging MC.202 MM9060/70-11 but escaping unhurt himself. The Italian fighters landed again at 07:40.

Shortly after lunch on 3 September a number of engagements took place in the El Alamein area with Italian fighters involved.
Seven Bf 109s of III./JG 53 escorted Jabos at 12:25, fighting 20 British fighters near El Alamein. Twelve Macchis suddenly appeared and made a reportedly spirited attack, but without success.
Six Kittyhawks of 3 RAAF Squadron and five of 450 Squadron (13:52-15:09) escorted 18 Baltimores to Deir el Raghil at 13:55 but were attacked by 16 Bf 109s and 13 MC.202s, Sergeant W. W. Thomas of 3 RAAF being severely wounded and his aircraft (Kittyhawk I EV167) badly damaged, but he reached base where he crash-landed. Flight Sergeant Raymond Dyson (EV158) and Sergeant H. R. Hannaford (EV367) of 450 Squadron each claimed to have probably shot down a Bf 109E, but Hannaford was also wounded, and his aircraft damaged, crash-landing at base like Thomas.
MC.202s of the 10o Gruppo were involved in actions between 11:40-13:20. Maggiore Giuseppe D’Agostinis (CO) led 13 fighters on a free sweep mission over the El Alamein area; a formation of 12 Hurricanes, covered by ten P-40s was engaged and two ‘Hurribombers’ were claimed. One of them was credited to Tenente Luigi Padovani south-east of El Alamein and the second was credited over El Alamein as a shared between eight pilots including Capitano Franco Lucchini (MM7901/84-3). At the end of this combat another formation was encountered comprising 12 Bostons escorted by ten P-40s and eight Spitfires. A long fight followed and two P-40s were claimed by Maggiore D’Agostinis and Sergente Maggiore Giovanni Battista Ceoletta (90a Squadriglia) plus one Boston probable by Tenente Luigi Giannella (84a Squadriglia), for no losses.
Following an uneventful morning sortie 19 MC.202s of the 23o Gruppo had taken off again at 12:40 to patrol over the front line. A large formation of 18 twin-engined bombers, identified as Bostons, escorted by about 35 P-40s, was reported and three of the fighters were claimed as destroyed, plus two probables. Attacks were made on several others and one more was claimed damaged. Three of the claims were made by the 75a Squadriglia 30 kilometres south of El Alamein when Sergente Luigi Bozzolan claimed one destroyed, Maggiore Filippi one damaged and Sergente Aldo Orsucci a second destroyed. 70a Squadriglia made two claims over El Alamein when Sergente Carlo Papa claimed one probable and Capitano Claudio Solaro claimed one destroyed. The last claim, also over El Almein, was claimed as a probable by Tenente Giorgio Solaroli di Briona of 70a Squadriglia. The MC.202 flown by Sergente Papa was damaged and force-landed south of El Alamein. The 23o Gruppo landed again at 14:25
It is possible that 3 RAAF Squadron took part in this engagement since Sergeant G. G. Scribner (Kittyhawk Ia AL167/F) claimed a probable MC.202 over Deir el Raghil at 14:30.
Around this time seven Bf 109s of II./JG 27 carried out a Freie Jagd, first engaging ten Curtiss fighters, followed by 15 more Curtiss or Hurricanes, and 15 Spitfires. Oberleutnant Sinner claimed one P-40 at 14:25 south of El Hammam and a Spitfire south of Bir Ibrahim at 14:35.
Three Kittyhawks of 4 SAAF Squadron provided top cover to 15 Bostons and six B-25s, 260 and the 66th US Squadron flying close and medium covers. Six plus enemy aircraft were reported and three were seen, Pilot Officer J. C. Joerns (Kittyhawk I EV352) failing to return, his aircraft last being seen going down at 15:15 pouring black smoke. He was reported safe in hospital next day.

Five MC.202s from the 23o Gruppo, led by Maggiore Filippi, were scrambled at 11:50 from Abu Haggag on 9 October 1942. Twenty kilometres south of Daba, they met a formation of 18 ‘Bostons’ (as the British twin-engined bombers were invariably identified by the Italians) and fighters. A fight occurred during which Maggiore Filippi claimed a P-40 and Tenente Carlo Brigante Colonna a Spitfire probable. The 23o Gruppo landed again at 13:00.
At the same time (11:55-13:05), three MC.202s from the 91a Squadriglia were scrambled from Fuka and Maresciallo Leonardo Ferrulli claimed a ‘P-46’ south of Qutaifiya.
At 12:15, eight MC.202s from the 96a Squadriglia led by Tenente Emanuele Annoni scrambled from Fuka. They headed to Daba were a formation of 20 Bostons, escorted by Kittyhawks and Spitfires was engaged. Tenente Annoni claimed a Spitfire with a ‘P-46’ reportedly shot down by Sottotenante Alberto Giampaoli. The Italians suffered no losses.
Seven Bf 109s of II.Gruppe JG 27 were scrambled. This time the German fighters claimed three fighters when Feldwebel Alfred Heidel (4./JG 27) claimed a Spitfire south-east of Daba at 12:05, Feldwebel Fritz Lüer (6./JG 27) claimed a P-40 north-east of Daba at 12:15 and Oberleutnant Ernst Börngen (5./JG 27) claimed a Spitfire north of Sanyet Qotaifiya at 12:20. Unteroffizier Jens Bahnsen from 8./JG 53 seems to have scrambled somewhat later and he claimed a P-40 north-west of Sanyet Qotaifiya at 13:15. Four Bf 109s were lost during the day:
Bf 109 F-4 trop WNr 8598 White 9 from 6./JG 27 was shot down by P-40s over Fuka – Qotaifiya. The aircraft was destroyed and Oberfeldwebel Hans Wurschunger was KiA.
Bf 109 F-4 trop WNr 8572 from 7./JG 27 crashed at Fuka due to combat with the pilot baling out safely.
Bf 109 F-4 trop WNr 13019 White 6 from 7./JG 27 was shot down in combat with P-40s 20-25km south-east of El Alamein. Feldwebel Werner Fingerhuth baled out to become a PoW.
Bf 109 F-4 trop WNr 8648 from 7./JG 27 crash-landed after combat at Bir el Abd and was destroyed. The pilot was safe.
At 12:10, twelve Kittyhawks of 250 Squadron with other aircraft of 239 Wing escorted twelve Baltimores and six B-25s over LGs. 21 and 104, nine Spitfires of 92 Squadron providing top cover. After the bombing 20 Bf 109s and MC.202s attacked the formation. Sergeant A. A. W. Orr from 250 Squadron (Kittyhawk III FR287) claimed one Bf 109 E shot down over Daba at 13:20 but one was Kittyhawk shot down when Pilot Officer D. W. M. Rogerson (Kitthawk FL898) was shot down by MC.202s over Daba and Rogerson became a PoW. Two more were damaged; Kittyhawk FR287 with Sergeant A. A. W. Orr WiA and Kittyhawk FR238, which crash-landed at base at 13:45 but with the pilot Flying Officer C. W. Tribken safe. One Spitfire of 92 Squadron was also lost when Pilot Officer T. Harvey (Spitfire V BR479/E) failed to return and Harvey was posted as MiA.

At 10:05 on 30 October, nine MC.202s of the 23o Gruppo led by Maggiore Filippi were scrambled. Several British bombers and fighters were met and attacked. Sergente Maggiore Felice Papini (74a Squadriglia) claimed one P- 40 and Filippi two damaged, with a Boston probable credited to Tenente Guglielmo Specker (83a Squadriglia, 18o Gruppo).
The Italian fighters landed again at 10:35.

As of 8 November 1942 (on the launch of Operation Torch in North Africa), Maggiore Filippi served as CO of the 23o Gruppo CT. The unit was based at Bu Amud, Libya, and equipped with MC.202s.

At 15:45 on 11 January 1943, eight Spitfires from 601 Squadron scrambled, and at 4,300 meters three Bf 109s were seen and chased. Reforming, the squadron then spotted Axis aircraft over the sea near Tamet, coming in to attack Buerat from about 3,600 meters; these intruders were identified as twelve Bf 109s and twelve MC.202s. Several Spitfire pilots saw strikes on aircraft, and one parachute was spotted, but the only claim was made by Flying Officer I. F. Gilbert (Spitfire Vc BR134) for a Bf 109 probably destroyed over Hamraiet.
Twelve P-40Ks of the 64th FS and twelve P-40Fs of the 65th FS had also taken off at 15:25 for a fighter sweep over the lines, the pilots of these sighting Axis aircraft south-west of Buerat at 15:45. 2nd Lieutenant R. J. Byrne (#10) from 64th FS was twice attacked but managed to get a good burst into one of his assailants, being credited with one MC.202 damaged 16km west of Hamraiet, but he was hit (reportedly by a Bf 109 10km west of Hamraiet) and wounded, returning to base with 23 bullet holes in his aircraft. As aircraft returned to land, six pilots were ordered to scramble over base at 2,400 meters. They were then directed to Tamet at 3,600 meters where they attacked four MC.202s over Tamet. One of these was claimed by lst Lieutenant William Beck from 64th FS (#13) when it rolled onto its back and crashed into the sea, while other pilots claimed two more damaged; one each by 1st Lieutenant William Mount (#32) and 1st Lieutenant Thomas Tilley (#11). 1st Lieutenant Gerald A. Brandon's P-40K #26 was hit in the coolant system by one bullet from a MC.202 over Tamet, obliging him to force-land 16km from base; he walked back safely that evening.
Meanwhile the 65th FS P-40Fs also became engaged with enemy fighters between Buerat and Gheddahia at 15:40, 1st Lieutenant Roy Whittaker (#45) claiming one Messerschmitt shot down and 2nd Lieutenant Charles Costanzo (#60) another just as it was lining up on a Warhawk. Two more Bf 109s were claimed damaged, one each by Lieutenant Lee Gossick (87th FS in #41) and Lieutenant Jessie Jory (87th FS in #44). However, Lieutenant Edwin R. Weaver’s (from 64th FS) Warhawk (#40) was hit by two cannon shells, and he crash-landed at base.
Around this time II./JG 77 pilots made claims for no less than ten P-40s and one Spitfire over the Buerat area. At 14:44, Oberleutnant Heinrich Osswald (4./JG/77) claimed a Kittyhawk 20 km north-east of Zidjen at 4,500 meters. At 14:55 (14:35?) Feldwebel Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert (4./JG77) claimed a Kittyhawk 38km east of Zidjen at 5,200 meters and at 14:56, he claimed a second 26 km east-north-east of Zidjen at 3,400 meters (he had claimed two Spitfires during the morning). At 15:00 Unteroffizier Bruno Weidlich (4./JG 77) claimed a Kittyhawk 15km north-east of Zidjen at 3,500 meters and at the same time did Unteroffizier Franz Nägele (6./JG 77) claim a Spitfire (unknown place). At unknown time during the afternoon, two P-40s were claimed by Hauptmann Anton Hackl from 5./JG 77 (he had already claimed two in the morning) while Leutnant Erwin Müller (4./JG 77) claimed a Kittyhawk and Leutnant Johann Badum (6./JG 77) claimed a P-40. Two unknown pilots from II./JG 77 also did claim two P-40s during the afternoon.
The only known loss for German fighters during the day was Bf 109 G-1 WNr 13892 from 6./JG 77, which suffered 10% damage during combat north-west of Zliten.
At 15:40, a big Italian formation approached Tamet, comprising 17 MC.200s and MC.202s of the 13o Gruppo, led by Maggiore Lorenzo Viale out to attack British airfields in the Uadi Tamet area. These fighter-bombers were escorted by 22 MC.202s of the 18o and 23o Gruppi, led by Tenente Colonnello Tito Falconi with the 18o Gruppo’s new commanding officer, Maggiore Gustavo Garretto (later to become a Generale in the post-war Italian air force) (take-off at 14:55) and the 23o Gruppos’s commander, Maggiore Filippi. Acting as close escort on this mission were four aircraft from the 95a Squadriglia (18o Gruppo) under the command of Tenente Giorgio Solaroli. A little bit higher up were Maggiore Gustavo Garetto with six aircraft. As top cover at 6,000 to 7,000 metres were six MC.202s from the 23o Gruppo under the command of Capitano Mario Rigatti and above these were six more under the command of Tenente Colonnello Falconi.
The Italian aircraft were attacked by enemy fighters and the escort managed wth difficulties to defend the fighter-bombers. The pilots of the MC.202s claimed to have shot down five Spitfires and one probable, plus nine more damaged during this combat which they reported involved 25-30 Spitfires. From the 85a Squadriglia Sergente Luigi Gorrini claimed one destroyed and one damaged north-north-west of Tamet and Tenente Mario Melis claimed one destroyed over Tamet. From the 95a Squadriglia Maresciallo Felice Longhi claimed one destroyed north-north-west of Tamet, Tenente Giorgio Solaroli claimed one destroyed north-north-west of Tamet, Tenente Pietro Salvatico claimed one destroyed over Tamet and Tenente Roberto Caetani claimed one probably destroyed over Tamet.
The 13o Gruppo strafed Tamet landing ground with some success, four aircraft being claimed burnt and nine damaged. At Tamet, three Baltimores of 1437 Strategic Reconnaissance Flight were badly damaged, one Hurricane of 73 Squadron, which had just arrived, was burnt out, and a Lysander was destroyed. 2 PRU arrived later in the day, fortuitously missing this attack.
Maresciallo Longhi’s MC.202 (MM7894) was damaged in combat but Longhi managed to return to base. However, two MC.202 and one MC.200 were shot down. Sottotenente Ferruccio Telleschi from 95a Squadriglia (MM7908) and Maggiore Garetto were shot down together with Sergente Giuseppe Torre from 78a Squadriglia, 13o Gruppo, (MC.200 MM8324). All three pilots managed to escape by parachute. Sergente Torre was apparently hit by AA and wounded; he force-landed his MC.200 some distance away and was able to reach Axis lines two days later with the help of some Arabs. The other two pilots were captured and became PoWs.
Nine Spitfires of 92 Squadron were scrambled at 15:30 to intercept, led by Flying Officer Neville Duke (whose birthday it was) in Spitfire Vb EP338/QJ-S. Climbing to 4,000 meters over Tamet, the Spitfire pilots then spotted five MC.202s and dived on them. Four of the Italians dived and one climbed, Duke giving chase to the latter; after a burst struck the aircraft behind the cockpit, it rolled over and the pilot (most probably Sottotenente Telleschi), baled out north-north-west of Tamet. Flying Officer Duke and Sergeant McMahon then flew about for a few minutes before seeing another Macchi below west-south-west of Buerat, on which they dived out of the sun. Duke followed it and fired until it crash-landed; this aircraft was probably flown by Maggiore Garretto (the next day, Maggiore Domenico Camarda took over command of the 18o Gruppo). Duke’s claims were reported at 16:30-17:15.

In 1943, he served in the 3o Stormo.

On 15 February 1943, the Regia Aeronautica disbanded ‘Aeronautica della Tunisia’ and established two new commands under the 5a Squadra Area: Settore Nord with jurisdiction over Tunisia in the area north of the 35o parallel, under the command of Colonnello Augusto Bacchiani, and Settore Sud controlling the area south of the parallel, under command of Colonnello Carlo Drago.
Settore Nord therefore controlled Italian units at El Aouina, Gammart, Enfidaville, Sfax and Bizerta-Sidi Ahmed. The units were:
6o Gruppo (79a and 81a Squadriglie) with 16 MC.202 at Sfax under Maggiore Luigi Di Bernardo
368a Squadriglia with 12 G.50bis at Sfax commanded by Capitano Mario Ferrero
384a Squadriglia with 8 MC.200s at El Aouina commanded by Oreste Minuto
Settore Sud’s units were:
54o Stormo (awaiting the arrival of this unit)
3o Stormo at El Hamma with 19 serviceable MC.202 under the command of Tenente Colonnello Tito Falconi:
18o Gruppo (83a, 85a and 95a Squadriglie) commanded by Maggiore Domenico Camarda
23o Gruppo (70a, 74a and 75a Squadriglie) commanded by Maggiore Filippi

On 20 February 1943, Maggiore Filippi, CO of the 23o Gruppo CT, was travelling by car to Gafsa when he ran into a US outpost where he was shot by a sentry. His body was never recovered.
Capitano Giorgio Tugnoli took over command of the 23o Gruppo CT.

During the war he had been Commander of both the 156o Gruppo and the 23o Gruppo.

At the time of his death, Filippi was credited with at least 1 biplane victory and a total of 7.

Kill no. Date Time Number Type Result Plane type Serial no. Locality Unit
1 31/07/40 09:45- 1 Gladiator (a) Destroyed Fiat CR.42   Hal Far 75a Squadriglia
2 17/07/42 17:20-18:40 1 P-40 (b) Destroyed MC.202   N El Alamein 23o Gruppo
3 29/08/42 09:50 1 P-40 (c) Destroyed MC.202   SE Bir el Mukheisin 23o Gruppo
4 01/09/42 07:15 1 P-40 Destroyed MC.202   SE El Alamein 23o Gruppo
  03/09/42 12:40-14:25 1 P-40 Damaged MC.202   30km S El Alamein 23o Gruppo
5 09/10/42 11:50-13:00 1 P-40 (d) Destroyed MC.202   20km S Daba 23o Gruppo
  30/10/42 10:05-10:35 1 P-40 Damaged MC.202   El Alamein 23o Gruppo
  30/10/42 10:05-10:35 1 P-40 Damaged MC.202   El Alamein 23o Gruppo

Biplane victories: 1 destroyed.
TOTAL: 7 destroyed, 3 damaged.
(a) Regia Aeronautica claimed two Gladiators in this combat. RAF only lost Gladiator (N5519) of Hal Far Fighter Flight flown by Flying Officer Peter Hartley (who baled out with severe burns) and claimed by Sergente Manlio Tarantino.
(b) Claimed in combat with Hurricanes from 80 and 238 Squadrons, which claimed 1 damaged Bf 109 while losing 2 Hurricane (1 pilot KIA). 10o and 23o Gruppi and III./JG 27 claimed 3 fighters destroyed and 1 probable without losses.
(c) Claimed in combat with Kittyhawks from 2 SAAF Squadron and Tomahawks from 5 SAAF Squadron, which totally claimed 3 fighters, 2 probables and 5 damaged while losing 1 fighter and getting 2 damaged. 23o Gruppo claimed 5 P-40s and 1 probable while losing 3 MC.202 (1 pilot KIA) and 1 damaged.
(d) Claimed in combat with fighters from 92 and 250 Squadrons, which claimed 1 Bf 109 while losing 1 Spitfire (pilot MiA) and 1 Kittyhawk (pilot PoW) and getting two more Kittyhawks damaged. II./JG 27, 8./JG 53 and 9o, 10o and 23o Gruppi claimed 8 destroyed and 1 probable without losses.

3o Stormo, storia fotografica - Dai biplani agli aviogetti - C. Lucchini and E. Leproni, 1990 Gino Rossato Editore kindly provided by Jean Michel Cala with translations kindly provided by Birgitta Hallberg-Lombardi
53o Stormo - Marco Mattioli, 2010 Osprey Publishing, Oxford, ISBN 978-1-84603-977-5
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume One – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN 978-1908117076
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Two – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781909166127
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Three – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2016 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781910690000
Annuario Ufficiale Delle Forze Armate Del Regno D’Italia Anno 1943. Part III Regia Aeronautica – 1943 Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Roma
Assi Italiani Della Caccia 1936-1945 - 1999 Aerofan no. 69 apr.-giu. 1999, kindly provided by Jean Michel Cala
Courage Alone - Chris Dunning, 1998 Hikoki Publications, Aldershot, ISBN 1-902109-02-3
Elenco Nominativo dei Militari dell' A. M. Decorati al V. M. Durante it Periodo 1929 - 1945 2 Volume M - Z
Fighters over the Desert - Christopher Shores and Hans Ring, 1969 Neville Spearman Limited, London
French Aces of World War 2 - Barry Ketley, 1999 Osprey Publishing, Oxford, ISBN 1-85532-898-4
Gladiators over Malta: The Story of Faith, Hope and Charity – Brian Cull and Frederick Galea, 2008 Wise Owl Publications, ISBN 978-99932-92-78-4
Hurricanes over Malta - Brian Cull and Frederick Galea, 2001 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-902304-91-8
Il 23o Gruppo Caccia - Nicola Malizia, 1974 Bizzarri, Roma, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
L’aeronautica Italiana nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale - Giuseppe Santoro, 1957 Danesi, Roma, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
L’Aéronautique navale francaise de septembre 1939 à juin 1940 (Hors série Avions nr.1) - Lucien Morareau, January 1994 Le La Presse, Boulogne sur Mer, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
La campagne de France, les combars franco-italiens 10 juin-25 juin (Batailles Aeriennes nr. 11) - Matthieu Comas, January 2000 Le La Presse, Boulogne sur Mer, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
Malta: The Hurricane Years 1940-41 - Christopher Shores and Brian Cull with Nicola Malizia, 1987 Grub Street, London, ISBN 0-89747-207-1
Regia Aeronautica e Armee De L’Air 1940-43 - Giancarlo Garello, 1975 Bizzarri, Roma, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
Regia Aeronautica periodo prebellico e fronti occidentali - Angelo Emiliani, Giuseppe Ghergo and Achille Vigna, 1975 Intergest, Milano, kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Additional information kindly provided by Ludovico Slongo.

Last modified 13 May 2024