Sino-Japanese Air War 1937 – 1945

1943

January 1943

Chinese Air Force

As of the end of January 1943, the CAF had three groups of bombers but only one squadron of A-29s and one squadron of SBs were rated combat capable.
Its four fighter groups were deployed to defend Chengtu and Chungking. Three groups were equipped with a mix of P-66s and I-153s but only two squadrons in each group were considered combat capable. The 4th PG at Taipingsi equipped with P-40s and P-43s was the sole group with four squadrons (21st – 24th) rated combat capable. It alone had an offensive mission (”attack enemy aircraft…active over the upper Yangtze”) in addition to a defensive mission.

The 3rd PG (7th, 8th, 28th and 32nd PS) based at Peishiyi (near Chungking) had 15 P-66s and 94 pilots. Two squadrons were operational and two were in a training status due to lack of aircraft.

At the beginning of 1943, the 4th PG began to re-equip with new aircraft. It received 41 P-43As and 27 P-40Es.

The 5th PG (17th, 26th, 27th, and 29th PS) had headquarters at Shangliu and an operational base at Lanchow. It had nine P-66s and 69 qualified pilots. Two squadrons were rated operationally ready.

The 11th PG (41st to 44th PS) was equipped with 15 P-66s and had 73 qualified pilots. It was based at Chunglai and two squadrons were operational. The only Chinese squadron still flying Soviet fighters was the 41st PS. Pilots were non-commissioned officers (because of their lesser status some American observers thought selection of NCO pilots was less affected by graft and political influence than officer pilots and that they were less arrogant and more likely to accept constructive criticism during training).

By the beginning of 1943, the only truly combat capable unit with the SB was the 1st BG, which still had 19 aircraft.

During the year, the 10th BS became combat ready with the Lockheed A-29.

In January, the squadrons flying the DB-3 were disbanded.

US Army Air Force

On 16 January, the CATF make its last raid for a while since a fuel shortage grounds the fighters for the remainder of January and the B-25s for 33 days.

On 20 January, the 75th FS, 23rd FG transfers from Chanyi to Yunnani, China.

IJAAF

The IJAAF line-up had changed since the previous summer. There was still a strong contingent of army cooperation and reconnaissance aircraft but the striking force now consisted of two regiments of Kawasaki Ki-48 twin-engined light bombers (16th and 90th Sentais) and two regiments of Nakajima Ki-43-I fighters (25th and 33rd Sentais), together constituting the 1st Hikodan.
The 1st Hikodan carried out a series of raids on the advanced bases of the CATF in early 1943 during which it encountered little aerial opposition.

In mid-January, as it was the season for bad weather in south-west China, the 3rd Hikoshidan decided that it could conduct air operations more conveniently from the Wu-Han area and moved it’s main bases there.

Operations

1 January 1943
The Chinese Air Force celebrated New Year’s Day by flying its first combat mission with three of its new P-40Es, an uneventful patrol searching for a Japanese reconnaissance aircraft.

A single P-43 of the 76th FS flew a routine weather reconnaissance flight to Schwebo in Burma.

2 January 1943
In Burma, CATF fighters continued to hit transportation targets, strafing a truck convoy on the Burma Road. The strikes began near Loiwing and covered 30 miles of highway. At least five trucks were destroyed and others damaged.
Six B-25s bombed Monywa Airfield.

A single P-43 of the 76th FS piloted by Captain Jeffrey O. Wellborn flew a routine weather reconnaissance flight to Bhamo. He encountered an “I-45”. The Japanese aircraft was above the P-43 but Wellborn climbed on to its tail without being detected. Wellborn's first burst took the Japanese by surprise. The Japanese aircraft then attempted to escape by diving but Wellborn followed and shot the aircraft down in flames. Wellborn probably encountered a Japanese reconnaissance aircraft rather than an I-45 (i.e . Ki-45).
This was to be Wellborn's only aerial victory.

7 January 1943
At 11:03, Japanese unit attacked Kweilin. The 90th Sentai (16 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (18 Ki-43s) attacked the runway of Kweilin airfield and other installations on the south-west side of the base. Fires broke out at two points.
A second attack was launched at 16:00. The 90th Sentai (9 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (9 Ki-43s) attacked the airfield and railway station at Hengyang. Due to a heavy mist, the result of this attack could not be reported.
At 16:25, eight light bombers and seven fighters attacked the runway of Kweilin airfield as well as military installations in the city, causing many fires to break out.

At 12:20, the 16th Sentai (16 light bombers) and the 25th Sentai (11 Ki-43s) attacked and damaged the runway of Nancheng airfield and its attached installations.

The Japanese reported that not a single enemy aircraft was sighted during the day’s attacks.

CATF P-40s blasted fuel storage facilities at Mangshih.

9 January 1943
Two P-43s of the 23rd FG strafed Japanese trucks at Wanling and left two destroyed.

10 January 1943
The P-40E (of the 4th PG) began its combat career in China with an attack on Kingmen airdrome and targets of opportunity in Hubei Province by five P-40s and ten P-43s from Liangshan. Two P-40s flown by Mo T’ung-Che of the 23rd PS and Huang K’ung-Jun were lost to ground fire and the pilots were KIA. Two other P-40s suffered mechanical failures, which forced them to land at the Enshi airfield.
The Chinese pilots reported destroying five aircraft on the ground. Several trucks were destroyed on highways. However, it seems that the raid was a failure, since the Japanese had dispersed their aircraft one day before the attack.

11 January 1943
Fighters from the CATF strafed fuel drums along the road between Chefang and Mangshih and hit a truck full of soldiers near Ho-Lu.

12 January 1943
Two P-43As of the 21st PS, 4th PG (CAF) flew a reconnaissance mission along the west bank of the Han River. Near Itu (south-east of Ichang), the P-43As met two “Zeroes” (Ki-43s). Kao Yau-Hsin (CO of the 21st PS) claimed one shot down in flames while the second was claimed as badly damaged.

16 January 1943
At 09:00, P-40s from 16th FS, 51st FG (USAAF), intercepted Japanese aircraft that attempt a strike on Yunnani and claimed eleven “Zeroes” and one bomber shot down in the air battle. Eight “Zeroes” were claimed north-west of Yunnani by First Lieutenant George R. Barnes (two “Zeroes”), 2/Lt. Aaron Liepe, Captain Robert Lee Liles (two “Zeroes”), Cap. John D. Lombard and 1/Lt. James W. Little (two “Zeroes”). Two “Zeroes” and one bomber were claimed over Yunnani by 2/Lt. Melvin B. Kimball and Cap. Robert E. Smith (one “Zero” and one bomber). The last “Zero” was claimed 30m west of Yunnani by 1/Lt. Robert A. O’Neill. No P-40s seems to have been lost.
Anticipating that the Japanese aircraft would land at Lashio Airfield, six B-25s and eleven fighters were sent to that field in the hope of catching the enemy on the ground; finding no aircraft there, the B-25s and fighters attacked the town of Lashio.

The 50th Sentai took part in an attack on Kunming Station south airfield (possibly the same attack as mentioned above). They claimed three P-40s (one by Sgt. Satoshi Anabuki from the 3rd Chutai, who claimed it over Yunnan Station) for one K-43 lost when 1/Lt. Takeshi Ohtsuki (Class 54) was killed.

February 1943

Chinese Air Force

An American technical representative who spent three months with the CAF estimated that as of 1 February, the CAF’s serviceable American equipment amounted to nine A-29s, 45 P-66s, 18 P-43s and 18-20 P-40s.

In February, preparing for transition to the new American air equipment, the Chinese transferred the primary training groups from their flight schools to India. In China remained only the courses for reconnaissance and photography.

On 12 February 4th PG returned from Taipingsi to Baishi Aerodrome (Chungking) to provide air defence of Baidu.

US Army Air Force

On 1 February, the CATF still consisted of just four fighter squadrons and one squadron of medium bombers. Serviceable strength was 86 fighters and twelve B-25s.
It is interesting to note that the operational strength of the CAF (in new US equipment) and the CATF was virtually identical at this point. The CAF was essentially inactive at this time while the CATF was actively flying fighter missions and occasional bomber missions whenever weather permitted and targets were available.

On 6 February, the 9th PRS was redesignated to the 9th PS (Light).
The unit’s detachment at Kunming, sends a detachment of the detachment to Kweilin, which begun operating sometime in February.

IJAAF

On 17 February, Imperial General Headquarters issued the following directive to the China Expeditionary Army:
After the spring of 1943, the China Expeditionary Army will make every effort to strengthen its air operations. It will destroy the enemy’s air strength and frustrate the plan to raid the Homeland from bases in China.

The aerial defence system will be equipped and strengthened in China. At the same time, every available means will be taken to carry out reconnaissance missions in order to report the exact situation on the enemy air force.

Necessary air reinforcements will be carried out after the spring of 1943. In the meantime, the Air Force will cooperate with the Southern Army in destroying the enemy air forces, particularly the United States Air Force, in the interior and south-western sector of China.

Although it will depend on the situation at the time, it is presently planned to reinforce the Air Force in China with two fighter regiments and two heavy bomber regiments.

Air bases and navigational aids will be strengthened and completed in order to facilitate the operations of the Air Force and reduce the loss of planes.

Between the latter part of January and mid-February, the 1st Hikodan and other units were transferred from south China to the Wu-Han sector, while parts of the 33rd Sentai (12 Ki-43s), part of the 55th I F Chutai (Headquarters reconnaissance aircraft) and one Direct Cooperation unit of the 44th Sentai remained in south China to support ground operations.

By the latter part of February, the 3rd Hikoshidan had established its headquarters at Nanching, and the 55th and 85th I F Chutais stationed there were placed under the direct control of the Hikoshidan.
The main force of the 1st Hikodan (composed of the main forces of the 23rd, and 25th Sentais and elements of the 16th and 90th Sentais, together with the 18th I F Chutai was stationed at Hankou where it prepared for the operations to destroy the CAF, which had advanced to Liangshan and the USAF, which had advanced to south-west China.

At the same time, the Sato Unit (commanded by the commander of the 90th Sentai and composed of the main force of the 90th Sentai, one chutai of the 33rd Sentai and one Direct Cooperation Unit) cooperated from Haikoushih with the Luichow Peninsula Operation of the 23rd Army.

The 44th Sentai, using Nanchang and Puchi as its bases, cooperated with the 11th Army’s operation north of the Yangtze River.

The 206th I F Shireibu, based at Changtien in Shantung Province, cooperated with the operations of the North China Area Army.

The 8th Tokushu Kogekatai at Taihsien cooperated with the 13th Army’s operations.

Operations

9 February 1943
At 11:02, the 90th Sentai (8 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (7 Ki-43s) bombed and damaged the runways on Liuchowhsien airfield.

At about 11:00, the 90th Sentai (9 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (6 Ki-43s) attacked and damaged the runways and attached installations at Kweilin airfield.

At 11:37, the 16th Sentai (6 light bombers) and the main strength of the 25th Sentai, using Ani as a base attacked the runways of Lushih airfield.

At 12:25, six light bombers of the 16th Sentai attacked and severely damaged Laohokou air base.

At 15:30, the 90th Sentai (9 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (3 Ki-43s) attacked hangars and the railway station at Liuchowhsien.

At 16:03, the 90th Sentai (2 light bombers) and the 33rd Sentai (6 Ki-43s) attacked the Lingling airfield but were unable to contact any aircraft.
The two Sentais also attacked military installations in the city.

The Japanese reported that no enemy aircraft was sighted during the day.

11 February 1943
The 90th Sentai (17 light bombers) and a chutai from the 33rd Sentai (8 Ki-43s) attacked the air base at Kweilin at 11:13 and again at 16:10.
15 light bombers and three Ki-43s raided Luichowhsien the same day.
No enemy aircraft were sighted during the day.

24 February 1943
The Japanese had received information that enemy aircraft were using Liangshan airfield. The 25th Sentai (15 Ki-43s) and the 16th Sentai (12 light bombers) attacked this base and the surrounding area as well as Wanhsien pier. The managed to engage three enemy P-43s, one of which was shot down.
It seems that the were in combat with 22nd PS, 4th PG (CAF), which reported that 18 Japanese aircraft attacked Qiangjin, where the 22nd PS, 4th PG (CAF), had re-deployed at the end of 1942. Four P-43 Lancers led by the squadron commander Wang Tejian rose to intercept but three (nos. 2104, 2105 and 2113) of the four aircraft were quickly shot down and Xu Xiaomin in no. 2104 was mortally wounded. The fourth made a forced landing. The Japanese returned without losses.

28 February 1943
Six B-25s from Kunming, with fighter escort, bombed a storage area at Mangshih.

March 1943

US Army Air Force

On 10 March, the 14th Air Force was activated at Kunming assigned to U.S. Army Forces, China-Burma-India Theatre. This new Air Force was responsible for all USAAF units in China. Major General Claire Chennault was named Commanding General. The CATF was absorbed into the 14th AF.
The 14th AF soon after this began to receive B-24 and B-25 bombers, and P-38, P-47, and P-51 fighters. Soon it included 60 B-25s and more than a hundred fighters. They were assigned to support the ground forces on all fronts. Together with the naval air fleet of the USA they completed attacks on the Japanese air bases at Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines.

On 12 March, the 74th FS, 23rd FG transferred from Kunming, China, to Yunnani, China.

HQ 308th BG (Heavy) and it's 373rd, 374th, 375th and 425th BS (Heavy) with B-24s arrived in China from the U.S. on 20 March. The 308th BG and 425th BS were based at Kunming, the 373rd BS at Yangkai and the 374th BS and 375th BS at Chengkung. The four squadrons will flew their first combat mission on 4 May.

On 31 March, the 16th FS, 51st FG transferred from Chenyi to Kweilin, China.
On the same day, the 75th FS, 23rd FG transferred from Yunnani to Lingling, China.

Operations

5 March 1943
Two P-43s of the 76th FS, 23rd FG, flew a reconnaissance missions from Kunming to Hanoi. During this mission photographs were taken.

10 March 1943
P-40s from Kunming flew armoured reconnaissance into Burma, crossing the Salween River and covering areas south-west of Lashio.

15 March 1943
Captain Shizuo Irisawa (NCO35) of the 25th Sentai was killed in an accident over the East China Sea.

26 March 1943
Two P-43s of the 76th FS, 23rd FG, flew a reconnaissance missions from Kunming to Hanoi.

30 March 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed eight locomotives south-west of Lashio, exploding three of them.

31 March 1943
According to Japanese Intelligence, it was known that since the middle of February, the USAAF in China had been steadily preparing for its next operation. Intelligence reports stated that on the afternoon of 31 March, they had advanced about 40 fighters and seven B-25s to Kweilin and Lingling and that they were demanding weather reports for 1 April for the coast of Fukien Province with Fuchou as the centre showing clearly that they were planning not only attacks on the China front but also against the Homeland.
During the day, the 3rd Hikoshidan ordered a chutai from the 33rd Sentai, using six Ki-43s, to attack Kweilin. A few aircraft were sighted but the retreated before they could be engaged.
During the day, the 23rd FG sent part of its strength eastward to forward bases. The 16th FS, reinforced by flights of the 76th FS and 75th FS, went to Kweilin and Lingling. Later in the day, three P-40s and two P-43s of the 16th FS scrambled against the intruders from the 33 Sentai. The two formations sighted one another but no contact was made.

April 1943

IJAAF

There were definite signs that the USAAF was gradually building up its strength in the interior of China, and by 30 April, the total number of enemy aircraft at Hengyang and Lingling was estimated to be only about seven or eight fighters, three or four of which were being repaired, and several B-25s.

Operations

1 April 1943
Twelve aircraft of the 1st Hikodan (4 Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai, six Ki-43-Is and two Ki-43-IIs from the 33rd Sentai) advanced to Hengyang and Lingling and, about 09:00, engaged more than 20 P-40s over Lingling. Four enemy aircraft were claimed shot down while losing four fighters. The 25th Sentai lost Captain Masamiki Mori (Class 49), First Lieutenant Tadahiko Doki (Class 55) and Warrant Officer Tatsunori Yoshino (NCO73) while the 33rd Sentai lost Warrant Officer Kameo Okada (NCO73).
The USAAF reported that a Japanese force of nine fighters was intercepted in the Lingling area by fourteen P-40K-1s from the 75th FS (USAAF) and one P-43 (Captain Groseclose) at 07:20. The Americans held an altitude advantage as well as a numerical advantage and they claimed five fighters shot down by First Lieutenant Vern E. Brewer, Captain John F. Hampshire Jr, First Lieutenant James L. Lee, Captain Elmer Winston Richardson and First Lieutenant Charles Tucker. One P-40 was lost while another was damaged.

At 13:00, the 44th Sentai (nine reconnaissance aircraft) under the protection of six Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai, bombed and damaged the runway at Chienou air base.

In order to report any enemy attempt to bomb Japan, the 55th I F Chutai (four Ki-46s) formed a patrol line extending over 350km down the coast of Fukien Province from Lishui to Putien. Further, having received information that the USAAF was constructing facilities at Lishui in preparation for air raids against Japan, the 85th I F Chutai using approximately 80 reconnaissance aircraft continuously bombed Lishui and the surrounding area for three days from 30 March.

8 April 1943
The 74th FS (USAAF) sent one P-40 and one P-43 on a reconnaissance from Yunnani to Schwebo, Burma.

The 16th FS (USAAF) scrambled one P-40 and one P-43 in an attempted interception over Kweilin.

14 April 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed pack horses south of Tengchung, barracks and warehouses in Lungling, and cattle and trucks north of Lungling.

15 April 1943
A P-43 was lost when two were sent on a reconnaissance mission in marginal weather. For unknown reasons Captain William Miller bailed out of his aircraft about 50 miles south of Kunming.

16 April 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed a group of buildings east of Tenchung.

18 April 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed an enemy-held supply village south-east of Tengchung.

23 April 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed a 15-truck convoy south-west of Lungling.

24 April 1943
At 11:44, 44 fighters from the 1st Hikodan (Ki-43s from the 25th and 33rd Sentais) engaged 11 P-40s in combat over Lingling air base. Three enemy aircraft were claimed shot down and one was destroyed on the ground. The Japanese lost one fighter shot down and one lost while returning to base.
13 P-40s from the 14th AF reported intercepting 25 fighters near Lingling and 75th FS claimed five of them shot down.

26 April 1943
The 50th and 64th Sentais escorted two light bomber sentais to Yunnan Station South airfield, where 64th Sentai claimed 11 aircraft destroyed on the ground by strafing.
The 25th and 33rd Sentais also took part in this attack.

28 April 1943
Around midday, about 20 Japanese medium bombers and a similar number of fighters attacked airfields at Kunming. High winds prevent bombing accuracy and little damage was done to the airfield. Several Chinese villagers near the field were killed. They were intercepted by P-40s from 75th FS, 23rd FG (USAAF), which claimed eleven victories and eight probables. Between 11:15-14:00 1/Lt. Charles H. Dubois claimed one “Zero” 100m 240o from Kunming. Lt/Col. John Richardson Alison claimed a probable “Zero” between 11:30-12:15 70m south-west of Kunming. At 12:15 and 100m south-west of Kunming they claimed eight “Zeroes”, five probables, one bomber and two probable bombers. These were claimed by Lt/Col. John Richardson Alison (1 “Zero”), Cap. Hollis M. Blackstone (2 “Zeroes” and 1 probable), Maj. Edmund Robert Goss (1 “Zero” and 1 probable), 1/Lt. Joseph Henry Griffin (1 “Zero”), Cap. John F. Hampshire (2 “Zeroes”, 2 probables, 2 bombers probables – one of the latter later upgraded to confirmed), 1/Lt. Mack Ashton Mitchell (1 “Zero” and 1 probable bomber), 1/Lt. Roger Carothers Pryor (1 “Zero”) and 1/Lt. Charles Tucker (1 probable “Zero”). No P-40s seems to have been lost.
The two Japanese heavy bomber sentais had been escorted by Ki-43s from 50th and 64th Sentais. Maj. Tadashi Ishikawa and Sgt. Satoshi Anabuki of the 50th Sentai each claimed one victory. However, during the withdrawal the 64th Sentai lost two Ki-43s during a persistent chase by P-40s.
The 25th and 33rd Sentais also took part in this attack.

29 April 1943
23 fighters and nine light bombers of the 1st Hikodan flew over Lingling air base. No enemy aircraft were encountered in the air, but two small aircraft were damaged on the ground and military installations in the city were bombed.

May 1943

Chinese Air Force

1943 was the turning point in the Sino-Japanese war and from 19 May to 6 June 1943 active combat operations developed in the western regions of Hubei Province. In the air skirmishes the quantities of both Chinese and Japanese aircraft often reached forty on each side. The Chinese 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 11th Air Groups and the American 14th Air Force (with a total of 165 aircraft) fought side by side. In the battles for Hubei groups of Chinese aircraft 53 times flew on combat missions (the fighters completed 336 sorties and the bomber 88 sorties). In total, according to Chinese sources they shot down 31 aircraft and destroyed six on the ground, and also sank 23 Japanese vessels.

During the battle in the Hubei Province, the Chinese attempted to seize the initiative in the air war for the first time during the long war. According to one Chinese historian: “...our air force began to transition from the strategic defence to counterattack... They displayed a high level of activity in air attacks. They determined the direction of the main blows of the Japanese air forces and actively opposed them. They conducted large scale bombing of enemy aerodromes and the positions of the enemy ground forces. They accomplished long distance attacks and interdicted the rear transport and communications lines of he enemy.”

In May the 1st BG completed their last flights on the Hubei front.

From May the 2nd BG bombed targets in the Hubei Province.

During the month the 4th PG was sent to Liangshan (Sichaun) to support the ground forces in the Hubei Province.

US Army Air Force

The forward echelon of the 14th AF, under Colonel Clinton D. Vincent and Lieutenant Colonel David L. ("Tex") Hill, moved into eastern China along the Hengyang-Kweilin line on 1 May. This brought US aircraft within range of all major Japanese-held bases from northern China to Indochina and Thailand, and made shipping in the China Sea more vulnerable to US air strikes.

The 23rd FG operated against the Japanese during the enemy's drive toward Changsha and Chungking in May 1943

On 13 May, the 76th FS, 23rd FG, transferred from Kunming to Lingling.

HQ 402nd Bombardment Group (Medium) was activated at Kunming on 19 May, China. No squadrons were assigned and headquarters was never fully manned.

IJAAF

Japanese Intelligence reported that on 6 May, the USAAF began to assemble its fighters at Kweilin and by 8 May, had approximately 52 aircraft in the area. Also at this time, a further 15 fighters had been advanced to Lingling were returned to Kweilin, making a total of approximately 67 aircraft on Kweilin field.
As it was the enemy’s tactics to give their bombers powerful fighter protection, it was estimated that they were preparing to advance a bomber command to Kweilin.
Poor weather prevented the 3rd Hikoshidan from carrying its plan of destroying enemy aircraft.
On 14 May, it was learned that 14 enemy fighters had moved from Yunnan to Lingling and the location and number of enemy aircraft on that day, was believed to be:

Lingling P-40 13
Kweilin P-38 1
  P-40 11
  P-43 1
  B-25 3
  B-24 8

Operations

2 May 1943
17 P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted 30-40 fighters near Lingling and in a running battle to just north of Changsha claimed at least seven Zeroes shot down. One P-40 was shot down.
It seems that both 25th and 33rd Sentais were involved in this combat reporting being pursued back from Lingling, losing five of their number. Three pilots from the 33rd Sentai were killed over Lingling; First Lieutenant Yoshio Kaminosono (Class 54), Sergeant Major Shimoo Morikawa (Sho-5) and Corporal Kaneru Yakata (Sho-7). Two pilots from the 25th Sentai were killed over Changsa; First Lieutenant Mitsuo Yoshida (Class 54) and First Lieutenant Masatoshi Suzuki (Class 55).

4 May 1943
From 14:10, six B-24s under the protection of eleven fighters, made repeated attacks for about 40 minutes on Sanya and Yuling on Hainan Island. It was believed that they used Mengtzu and Nanning air bases.
This was the first time B-24s had been used since they had attacked the Kuiluan coalmine in north China the previous winter.

8 May 1943
16 B-24s and 11 B-25s from the 14th AF bombed Tien Ho Airfield, the shop and factory area, and White Cloud Airfield at Canton. The 24 escorting P-40s strafed the target areas following the bombing strikes. Considerable damage was done, including the destruction of about 20 enemy aircraft.
The Japanese reported approximately ten B-25s with strong fighter protection bombed Canton city and airefield, inflicting slight damage in both areas. The 33rd Sentai intercepted this raid over Canton claiming four victories for the loss of two aircraft when Captain Yuto Sakashita (Class 51) and First Lieutenant Ichiro Sakai (Class 54) were killed.

15 May 1943
As it was considered absolutely essential that the US air bases in Yunnan Province be destroyed, the Imperial General Headquarters directed the IJAAF in Burma to cooperate with the forces in China. During the day, the 5th Hikodan of the Southern Army attacked Yunnan air base. They reported that they destroyed eight large aircraft and severely damaged five others. Two Japanese heavy bomber sentais were escorted by the 50th and 64th Sentais, claiming nine P-40s (four P-40s were claimed by Sgt. Satoshi Anabuki of the 3rd Chutai, 50th Sentai) for the loss of four Ki-43s and one bomber. The 64th Sentai lost 1/Lt. Takeshi Endo (Class 53) while the 50th Sentai lost 1/Lt. Shozaburo Kondo (Class 53), 1/Lt. Keiji Yamamoto (Class 54) and 1/Lt. Hideshiro Muraki (Class 55).
The US reported that 25-35 Japanese bombers and 30-40 fighters attacked Kunming. Nearly all of the bombs fell west and south-west of the airfield, causing little damage. 28 P-40s from 23rd FG intercepted, claiming 14 fighters and 2 bombers shot down.

19 May 1943
During an attack on Yangxizhen (Hubei Province) on 19 May, Xu Baoyun, the vice-commander of the 4th PG was killed. During day he led a group of eight P-40Es and four P-43As covering A-29 bombers. An antiaircraft round hit the fuel tank in the right wing of his aircraft. The machine was immediately engulfed in flames and the pilot was unable to escape from the cabin.

20 May 1943
Early in the morning, the Japanese bombed Liangshan. The surprise attack encountered no aerial opposition.
According to the Chinese, 25 aircraft were involved in the attack and they took off from Itu.

The four squadrons of the 308th BG (Heavy) flew their first combat mission during the day.

21 May 1943
The 33rd Sentai claimed a P-40 over Yichang.

25 May 1943
On 25 May fifteen P-40s of the 23rd PS, 4th PG, flew a mission to provide cover for the ground forces on the border of the Hubei Province. Over the front lines the Squadron’s vice-commander, Du Zhaohua left the formation and on his own began to strafe the Japanese positions. His aircraft suddenly exploded in the air, evidently from a direct hit by an antiaircraft round and he was instantly killed.

27 May 1943
On 27 May four P-40Es of the 22nd PS, 4th PG, attacked the Japanese positions in the Shanyu region. Two P-40s were shot down by antiaircraft.

28 May 1943
16 P-40s from the 14th AF, operating in two forces, dive-bombed railroad yards at Yoyang damaging tracks, warehouses, and the roundhouse.

29 May 1943
Nine B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Ichang while four P-40s from the same AF hit targets of opportunity in Tengchung and Lungling areas.

The 4th PS (CAF) missed a chance to confront the Japanese when it flew from Liangshan to cover Chungking due to a false alarm. While they were absent ten Japanese fighters strafed the field followed an hour later by an attack by nine bombers with fighter escort.

30 May 1943
Seven -24s from the 14th AF bombed artillery positions south of Ichang.

Four P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed Tengchung and targets of opportunity along the Burma Road and at Lamaing, Burma; eight others on offensive sweep strafed several targets of opportunity in the Ichang area; 11 others hit riverboats at Shasi and trains north-east of Yoyang.

31 May 1943
Nine P-43s escorted five A-29s from the CAF to attack the ferry crossing between Ichang and Itu.

Nine B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Ichang Airfield. Lieutenant Colonel John Alison and two USAAF wingmen led seven 4th PG (CAF) P-40s, which acted as escort to the bombers. This was Alison's last mission in China and the ace hoped to add to his record of kills. Instead, his P-40 was badly shot up by Captain Yasuto Ohtsubo, leader of the 1st chutai of the 33rd Sentai. Alison's life was saved by Lieutenant Tsang Hsu-Lan of the 4th PG who shot down Ohtsubo. Alison was able to identify ”Bulldog” Tsang by the number "2304" on his P-40. Tsang was awarded the American Silver Star as well as China's highest decoration. Totally, the heavy bombers and fighters claimed five enemy fighters shot down of an intercepting group of about 20. One Chinese P-40 was lost.
33rd Sentai claimed two victories while losing one pilot when Captain Ohtsubo (Class 52) was killed over Ichang.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance over the Siaokan area blasted a train and strafed a troop concentration

June 1943

Chinese Air Force

With the ground front in Hupei stabilized about 7 June, the CAF fighters withdrew to defensive dispositions in the Chungking and Chengdu areas. By the end of June, the Japanese estimated the CAF had 80 fighters in the Chengdu area and 35 defending Chungking. The Japanese may have sighted the reported number of fighters but their figures do not reflect CAF operational strength. The CAF reported to the 14th AF that in mid-June it had 5 P-40Es, 9 P-43s and 46 P-66s. These figures obviously do not reflect aircraft in factory repair and returned to service later as well as 15 P-40Ms received by the CAF soon afterwards.
The 4th PG defended Chungking aided by a detachment of P-66s. The continuing Chinese defensive posture is confirmed by the absence of any mention of CAF operations in official communiqués or Chinese press reports from early June to late August.

On 5 June, the CAF’s effective strength was:

Unit Aircraft type Numbers Base
1st BG Tupolev SB 3 Wenchiang
2nd BG Lockheed A-29 4 Baishiyi
3rd PG Vultee P-66 15 Taipingshi
4th PG Curtiss P-40E
Curtiss P-40M
Republic P-43M
9
5
6
Liangshan
5th PG Vultee P-66 7 Shuanliu/Lanchou
8th BG Tupolev SB 1 Lanchou
11th PG Vultee P-66 16 Baishiyi/Liangshan/Enshi
12th BG Tupolev SB 1 Wenchiang

Totally 67 (58 fighters and 9 bombers).

In June, when the combat activity moved on to the Chuanhu Province, the 41st PS, 11th PG, flew together with the 42nd PS.

In mid-1943 the Chinese government sent the 1st, 3rd, and 5th Air Groups to the Indian training centre to master American aviation equipment and air combat tactics.

At about this same time the P-40N, which was equipped with a more powerful engine, began to appear in China. Ultimately, it became the most numerous of Chinese aircraft during the Second World War. The 14th Air Force was first to reequip with the new Hawks, and then followed in turn the “pure Chinese” units.

US Army Air Force

On 5 June, the USAAF’s effective strength in China was:

Aircraft type Numbers
Curtiss P-40 1
Curtiss P-40E 64
Republic P-43 3
Lockheed P-38 1
North American B-25 13
Consolidated B-24 27

Totally 109 (69 fighters and 40 bombers).

On 21 June, the 11th BS (Medium), 341st BG (Medium) transferred with B-25s from Kunming to Kweilin.
The squadron has detachments operating from Hengyang, Suichan, Nanning and Lingling between Jun 1943 and Jun 1944.

IJAAF

From February until June, the 3rd Hikoshidan not only cooperated with the ground operations but also engaged enemy aircraft and bombed enemy airfields in an effort to deplete the enemy’s air strength. The enemy, however, avoided decisive battles and its well organized intelligence system prevented the IJAAF from carrying out surprise attacks. Its air strength was gradually increased making it daily more difficult to effectively bomb enemy air bases.
The enemy succeeded in strengthening its advance bases and constructed additional bases in south-west China. During the early part of May, the USAAF stationed units (consisting mainly of fighters) around Kweilin. From this time until the cessation of hostilities, the China Expeditionary Army exerted its utmost effort to reduce the threat from enemy air forces based in south-west China.

In June, the 33rd Sentai completed its conversion to the Ki-44, which had begun in the spring.
During the month, Captain Kiyoshi Namai was promoted to lead the 1st chutai.

During June, the 25th and 33rd Sentais together claimed 49 victories.

On 15 June, the 25th Sentai departed for Japan to convert to the Ki-43-II.
They however remained stationed in China.

Operations

1 June 1943
20 P-40s from the 14th AF dive-bombed warehouses and railroad yards at Changanyi.

2 June 1943
Five B-25s from the 14th AF, escorted by ten P-40s, bombed Pailochi Airfield.

18 P-40s from the 14th AF strafed troop barges and launches at Itu and six long columns of troops east of Changyang.

5 June 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed troop columns near Peiyang and hit a barge and boat north-west of Yoyang.

Four A-29s and three SB-3s escorted by five P-43s and eleven P-40s from the CAF bombed Itu.

6 June 1943
Five P-40s from the 14th AF strafed trucks, barracks, and personnel at Tangyang. At least 15 trucks were burned and considerable damage was done to the barracks area.

Eleven P-40s from the 14th AF hit the approaches to a bridge at Puchi. Two locomotives in the area were destroyed.

Ten P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Shasi Airfield and hit river shipping; in the general area.

Seven B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the airfield at Pailochi.

The CAF flew a mission against Niehkiako by three A-29s escorted by 13 P-40s and eight P-66s. Ground targets were bombed and strafed. One P-40 went down to ground fire. After the mission, the P-40s led by Colonel Li Hsiang-Yang, CO of the 4th PG returned to their base at Liangshan while the P-66s from the 11th PG returned to Peishiyi by way of Enshih.

At 15:00, the 1st Hikodan, using the main strength of the 33rd Sentai (14 Ki-43s) and one chutai of the 90th Sentai (8 Ki-48s), made a successful surprise attack on Liangshan. They burned about 20 small aircraft on the ground as well as a number of gasoline supply cars.
The twelve CAF P-40s led by Colonel Li Hsiang-Yang returned to Liangshan from their mission as the Japanese force approached. The P-40s had just landed when the alert sounded. Also on the field were at least two American P-40s as well as a stray P-66 that had apparently landed with a wounded pilot. When aircraft were reported, approaching there was no immediate concern as these were taken to be the formation of P-66s. At Liangshan the last Chinese pilot to land was Captain Chow Che-Kai (known as "Fatty") CO of the 23rd PS who landed with his fuel tanks almost empty. Chow taxied his P-40 off the rain soaked runway. As he did, he heard a radio warning of eight unidentified airplanes headed for the field. Chow had seen his first group commander killed trying to take off in the middle of a Japanese air raid in 1937 but he was determined to take to the air. He directed ground crews to take care of his P-40 and then ran to a stray fighter, apparently a P-66, parked nearby. Without time to adjust his parachute, buckle the safety belt or check the fuel supply he gunned the engine. Chow was still in his take off run when bombs exploded on the runway just behind him and machine gun bullets hit nearby. Before he was two hundred feet in the air, he pulled for a 270-degree sharp, climbing turn, forgetting that such a manoeuvre might finish him in a stall. He followed the attacking Japanese bomber without even retracting his landing wheels and started to attack the leading flight, which was coming back for another bombing run as soon as they came into range. He aimed at the flight leader and gave him a long burst. He turned away for another short attack on the starboard plane. This flight of bombers broke off the attack and headed eastward low over the Szechuan Mountains.
Five other bombers were strafing the field along with more than a dozen "Zeros”. Chow debated briefly whether to take on these new opponents or follow the fleeing bombers. With his seat belt still unfastened and cockpit open, Chow decided a dogfight with fighters and bombers over the airfield made no sense. He decided to continue his attack on the first flight of bombers.
"Fatty" Chow attacked the port bomber, which was lagging slightly behind the other two. With his landing gear still extended he fired a long burst. The bomber burst into flames.
Chow observed the rear gun of starboard bomber pointing idly in an upward direction. Suspecting the gunner might be killed he closed to thirty yards. The pilot immediately swung to the left to come under the protection of his leader's rear gun. Chow fired a burst into the leader's right engine. The engine poured heavy black smoke and the bomber headed downward.
The third bomber headed north. Chow followed, finally taking time to adjust his parachute and safety belt and retract his landing gear. When he was ready, Chow opened fire at the bomber's right engine. However, this bomber didn't catch fire. Instead, it gyrated terrifically and became an erratic target for the Chinese pilot. Chow fired a burst into the left engine. The Ki-48 refused to catch fire. Chow pulled close to the bomber, flew parallel to it thirty yards off its wingtip, and waggled his wings. The Japanese pilot had no intention of surrendering and turned sharply toward Chow. He evaded and on his next pass aimed for the cockpit and fired a long burst. The bomber spun into the ground.
Back at Liangshan ten Chinese P-40s and a Fleet trainer had been destroyed, as had two U.S. P-40s. Three trucks and gas supplies also went up in flames. The wreckage of Chow's three victims was later found and his claims were verified.
Twenty-eight year old Captain Chow Che-Kai received the Blue Sky-White Sun award from Chiang Kai-Shek as only the fourth recipient of China's highest award. He was soon promoted Major and appointed acting Group commander.
Japanese sources admit the three losses over Liangshan.

In a separate raid on Enshih by eight unescorted Ki-48s, the Japanese reported encountering seven P-43 fighters and shot down one of them. One bomber piloted by Lieutenant Iwamura was shot down.
Their actual opponents were the eight the P-66s from the 11th PG returning from the mission against Niehkiako, which encountered the Ki-48s east of Enshih. Chen Zhaoji, CO of the 41st PS, claimed one bomber shot down.

8 June 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed a Japanese HQ at Tatung, China, barracks east of Lamaing, Burma, on the Salween River, and a camp north of Lungling, China.

9 June 1943
Six P-40s from the 14th AF damaged a railroad bridge at Puchi and strafed nearby railroad yards.

10 June 1943
Nine P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed ten barges and a gunboat at Chienli. One barge was set aflame.

At 15:25, 16 light bombers from the 90th Sentai, eight Ki-43s from the 25th Sentai and 19 Ki-43s from the 33rd Sentai attacked the air base at Hengyang and bombed five aircraft on the ground. This force also engaged about ten P-40s in the air, claiming five of them shot down. The 25th and 33rd Sentai claimed four of these.
Ten P-40s from the 23rd FG (US) intercepted about 25 aircraft over Hengyang between 13:15-13:45. The 74th FS claimed one enemy bomber shot down.

11 June 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit a camp on the Salween River, trucks at Mangshih, and warehouses at Tungling.

13 June 1943
Eleven B-25s from the 14th AF supported by 14 P-40s, bombed hangars and the depot area at Nanchang Airfield.

14 June 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted about eight bombers and 20 fighters 40 km south-west of Nanchang. The P-40s claimed seven fighters shot down.
It is possible that they had been in combat with Ki-43s from 33rd Sentai, which lost three fighters over Yangzi Jiang during the day. Sergeant Major Hideyasu Furutani (Sho-3) was taken POW while Sergeant Major Kunimitsu Taguchi (Sho-4) was killed.

15 June 1943
Ten B-25s from the 14th AF, escorted by 12 P-40s, supported Chinese ground forces by bombing positions at Owchihkow.

A lone P-43 from the 14th AF (USAAF) inventoried vessels at Hong Kong, Swatow and Amoy and verified the absence of aircraft on airfields at Amoy, Swatow, Namtu, and Saited. Altitude over the target was 32,000 feet.

17 June 1943
P-40s from the 14th AF strafed a warehouse and train south of Chiuchiang and a train north of Nanchang.

18 June 1943
Six Chinese P-40s attacked the Nanchang area, including two separate trains in the vicinity.

21 June 1943
Seven B-25s from the 14th AF, with escort of eight P-40s, bomb edthe village of Shihshow.
Eight other B-25s, supported by nine P-40s, were dispatched to attack the Japanese-held village of Hwajung but mistakenly bombed the friendly village of Nanhsien, killing over 50 Chinese.

30 June 1943
On 30 June Major John Lombard, CO of the 74th FS, set out from Hengyang with a P-40M-5 to check weather conditions north of Tungting Lake. He was however caught under a dropping overcast and crashed into a mountainside near Yiyang and was killed.

July 1943

Chinese Air Force

The 43rd PS, equipped with the P40E, first took part in combat in the July battles over Sian (west of the Shanxi Province).

As of 28 July, the CAF had recovered its strength and numbered nearly 100 fighters with 52 serviceable and others soon to be in commission. This included 19 P-43s of which seven were serviceable

On 31 July, the first elements of what would become the Chinese-American Composite Wing (CACW) arrived at Karachi Air Base fro the U.S.
On the same day, the 1st BG (Provisional) and the 3rd FG (Provisional) of the CAF were formed at Malir. These both units were to be included into the CACW.

US Army Air Force

On 12 July, the flight of the 9th PS (Light), 10th AF operating from Kunming, China and it's detachment operating from Kweilin, China with Lockheed F-4s returned to their base at Pandaveswar, India.
On the same day, the 21st PS (Light) dispatched a flight with F-5s from Bishnupur, India to Kunming and Kweilin, China.

On 31 July, the HQ 402nd BG (Medium) was disbanded at Kunming. This group, which had been activated in China on 19 May 1943, never had any squadrons assigned nor was it fully manned.

IJAAF

The 3rd Hikoshidna prepared for the air operations during the summer.
On 3 July, the 85th Sentai , equipped with Ki-44s, arrived at Nanking from Manchuria, the 2nd chutai moving to Canton on 5 July, whilst the unit’s two other chutais moved to Wuchang on 8 July.
Between 3 and 13 July, the 8th Hikodan (the 58th and 60th Sentais equipped with Mitsubishi Ki-21 Heavy bombers) moved to the China area from the Southern Army. They were placed under the command of the 3rd Hikoshidan. This was only temporarily and they were to return to the Southern Army not later than 10 October.
The 3rd Hikodan commander had already completed his plan to include the use of the reinforcements and as the deployment of ground units was completed about 10 July, he immediately dispatched the 8th Hikodan Headquarters, together with the 60th and 85th Sentais to Nanching. The 58th Sentai was sent to Tachangchen to begin necessary training. Around 12 July, the 3rd Hikoshidan’s Headquarters moved its command post to Hankou.
In planning its summer air operations, the 3rd Hikoshidan Commander found it necessary to take into account the fact that the increase in strength was restricted by time. Careful consideration had to be given to its employment in order to obtain the best results within the time limit and at the same time, to preserve its war potential. Although it was highly desirable to destroy the US bases in Yunnan, this was not feasible as poor weather conditions combined with the fact that the bases in north French Indo-China were not adequate for long term employment by the main force of the Hikoshidan would mean that few attacks on the USAAF in Kweilin and its vicinity could be launched. It was decided, therefore, to focus on attacks on the USAAF at Kweilin and its vicinity and to direct incessant attacks against the front line bases. Although it was recognized that the excellent of the enemy’s intelligence would prevent surprise attacks, it was felt that every advantage should be taken of the increase in air strength. It was planned to take every advantage of the weather. Heavy bomber units were to attack Szechwan Province and threaten Chungking, while lightning attacks were to be made against enemy air bases in Yunnan Province. Every effort was to be expended to prevent the enemy from attacking the homeland.
The important points of the 3rd Hikoshidan’s summer operations plans were :
Policy of Operation:
While fierce and incessant air raids will be made against United States air forces in south-west China from the Wu-Han sector, lightning attacks will be made on Chungking whenever possible. Later, the main force of the Hikoshidan will advance toward Canton, and French Indo-China to attack the enemy air forces in Yunnan Province. At all times, strict attention will be given to preventing the enemy from attacking Japan from the air.

Outline of Plan:

First Phase (end of July to mid-August):

During the first phase, the enemy air force north of Kweilin will be continually attacked.

Second Phase (mid to end August):

The 3rd Hikoshidan will advance and attack Chungking. It will destroy the military establishments there and also attack and destroy vessels on the Yangtze River.

Third Phase (beginning to end September):

The main force of the Hikoshidan will be dispatched to south China and French Indo-China and will attack Kweilin and bases in Yunnan Province.

During this operation, there will be close liaison between the air forces in central and south China and French Indo-China. Chienou and Chian aerodromes, which are the enemy front line bases against the Homeland, will be kept under strict surveillance and the enemy will be prevented from using them.

An element of the Hikoshidan will be assigned for air defence in important areas, such as, along the Yangtze River.

Operations

6 July 1943
Five B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF hit runway and revetment area at Pailochi Airfield.

7 July 1943
Seven B-25s and 22 P-40s the 14th AF attacked shipping at Canton. At least two interceptors were shot down.
It seems that they were intercepted by fighters from 33rd Sentai, which lost Sergeant Tamotsu Watanabe (NCO86) over Canton.

11 July 1943
Eight B-24s from the 14th AF pounded positions and barracks area at Kunlong.

One of two Chinese P-40s from Kunming on a reconnaissance mission near Haiphong was damaged by ground fire and the pilot had to bail out.

20 July 1943
Four P-40s of 14th AF bombed a warehouse area at Tengchung; 6 others strafed river-traffic and railroad targets of opportunity at Sinti, Changanyi, Tingszekiao, Kaiyu, and near Puchi.

23 July 1943
The 43rd PS suffered their first losses on July 23 during a Japanese attack on their base when a Chinese pilot taking off on the alarm flew into a dam.

25th Sentai escorted heavy bombers to Hengyang, claiming two victories.
During a second operation, the unit claimed five additional victories. They lost tow pilots when First Lieutenant Shozo Endo (Class 55) and Sergeant Masaharu Furugoe (NCO87) were killed over Lingling.

33rd Sentai escorted bombers to Lingling where three claims were made. Sergeant Teruo Yajima (NCO86) was lost over Hengyang.

24 July 1943
Eight Ki-44s from the 2nd chutai of the 85th Sentai attacked Kweilin from Canton. They took on a dozen US fighters near Hengyang including P-40s of the 74th FS and a couple P-38s. Captain Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu, CO of the 2nd chutai, claimed two P-40s shot down for the unit’s first successes. Two pilots were killed when Sergeant Fumio Yonezu (Sho-6) and Corporal Fukuichi Okada (Sho-8) were shot down.
One US P-38 was lost (pilot unharmed).

16 P-40s intercepted over 40 Japanese aircraft near Lingling, claiming three fighters and four bombers shot down for the loss of a single P-40 and its pilot.
It seems that they had been in combat with the 25th Sentai, which lost Sergeant Major Tadao Shibuya (NCO81) over Lingling.

25 July 1943
Nine B-25s of 14th AF, escorted by 17 P-40s and P-38s, bombed Hankou Airfield.

25th Sentai claimed four victories over Henyang.

26 July 1943
Five B-25s of 14th AF, escorted by 12 fighters, bombed Hankou Airfield. An estimated 30-50 fighters intercepted the force. The B-25s and fighters claimed 14 airplanes shot down and 17 probably destroyed. One P-40 was lost.
The 33rd Sentai claimed two victories during interception but lost three Ki-43s when Sergeant Major Shigeru Tanaka (Sho-5), Sergeant Yoshiaki Terayama (Sho-6) and Sergeant Shigenobu Hoshi (NCO87) were shot down and killed.
The 25th Sentai lost Sergeant Minoru Hirota (Sho-6) and Sergeant Hideo Hirose (NCO87) when both were killed by bombs on the ground.

23rd FG lost a P-40 (serial no. 42-9914) (MACR 461) during the day.

27 July 1943
Ten B-24s of 14th AF attacked shipping in the Samah Bay area of Hainan Island, claiming severe damage to two vessels. 25-30 enemy fighters intercepted the B-24s. 13 fighters were claimed shot down but no B-24s were lost.

Six B-25s of 14th AF, supported by 14 fighters, attacked targets of opportunity on Stonecutter's Island, in the Hong Kong area after failing to locate a reported freighter in the area.

28 July 1943
Six B-25s of the 14th AF, with an escort of nine P-40s, bombed Taikoo Docks at Hong Kong.

29 July 1943
18 B-24s of the 14th AF, with fighter escort, bombed shipping and dockyard installations at Hong Kong. Kowloon and Taikoo Docks and the old Royal Navy yards were hit.

Four P-40s of the 14th AF attacked a Japanese force of 23 bombers and 30 fighters attacking Hengyang, China. One Japanese fighter was downed.
The Japanese fighters taking part in the raid were from the 25th and 33rd Sentais. They claimed five victories for one loss when Sergeant Major Nobuharu Shibuya (NCO86) of the 25th Sentai was shot down and killed.

30 July 1943
15 P-40s of the 14th AF, intercepted 39 Japanese fighters and 24 bombers over Hengyang. In the ensuing battle, three bombers and two fighters were downed while two P-40s were lost.

Captain Nakahara of the 85th Sentai led nine Ki-44s to escort Ki-21s with the 25th and 33rd Sentais, the newly arrived 85th Sentai bouncing seven P-40s to claim four and two probables.

August 1943

Chinese Air Force

In August 1943, the 28th PS and 32nd PS of the 3rd PG were sent to India to be re-equipped with the P-40N.
During the transfer flight, one of the C-47s flew into a mountain. Five pilots of the 28th PS were killed in the crash.

The combined group of the most experienced aviators of the 1st BG was assembled in August 1943 and sent in two contingents to India for retraining on the B-25 Mitchell. Training flights began on 9 August. The crews had mastered the new aircraft by the end of the year and were assigned to the American-Chinese unit taking part in the battles in Changde.

US Army Air Force

On 11 August, the 76th FS, 23rd FG, transferred from Lingling to Hengyang.

Army Air Forces, India-Burma Sector, China-Burma-India Theatre was activated at New Delhi, India on 20 August. Lieutenant General George E. Stratemeyer assumes command. Components include the 10th AF, China-Burma-India Air Service Command (Provisional), China-Burma-India Training Unit (Provisional) and several lesser units.

On 22 August, the 21st PS (Light), 14th AF, transferred from Bishnupur, India to Kunming, China with F-5s. The flight which had been operating from Kweilin since July remained there until September 1944.

On 26 August, the 449th FS was activated at Kunming and assigned to the 51st FG. The squadron formed at Lingling and begun training with P-38s.

IJAAF

First phase of the 3rd Hikoshidan’s summer air operations (23 July to 22 August):
By mid-July, the 3rd Hikoshidan had completed its preparations for the operation and awaited an opportunity to attack the enemy. Due to poor weather, however, they were unable to carry out attacks successfully. In spite of this, between 23 July and 22 August, the Hikoshidan attacked Hengyang aerodrome nine times, Lingling three times, Kweilin twice (fighters only), Chienou nine times and Paochi and Chihkiang each twice. The results achieved were:

P-40 49 (seven unconfirmed) shot down
P-38 1 shot down
B-24 1 shot down

During this time, the enemy air force frequently attacked Hong Kong and Canton. It was estimated that eleven P-38s, 19 to 23 P-40s and one P-43, as well as 35 pilots were transferred from the Yunnan area to Kweilin and Lingling. Enemy fighters at Kweilin, Lingling, Hengyang and vicinity were estimated between 60 and 70 in the middle of August. Headquarters’ reconnaissance aircraft reported that there were 17 B-24s, ten B-25s, six twin-engined aircraft and 34 small type aircraft on Yunnan airfields and 13 large aircraft and three small aircraft on Chanyi field.

Operations

5 August 1943
23rd FG lost a P-38 (serial no. 42-12336?) (MACR 306) during the day.

13 August 1943
Four P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed enemy installations at Lungling.

16 August 1943
Four P-40s of the 14th AF bombed Tengchung.

17 August 1943
Four P-40s of the 14th AF bombed Mangshih.

20 August 1943
Six B-25s of 14th AF, with fighter escort, bombed Tien Ho Airfield at Canton. They claimed five interceptors shot down.

15 P-40s of the 14th AF intercepted 21 fighters over Kweilin. Two P-40s and two Zeroes were shot down.
They probably had been in combat with 33rd and 85th Sentais, which reported an attack on Kweilin. The 33rd Sentai claimed three enemy aircraft and the 85th Sentai two, these being claimed by Captain Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu, CO of the 2nd chutai. One of the 33rd Sentai’s was made by Mitsuo Yamato (his first claim of a total of eight).
Akiyoshi Nomura of the 85th Sentai reported that the engine of his Ki-44 abruptly stopped. He dived towards the ground, intending to kill himself, when the engine started again, and he was able to return to base.

23rd FG lost a P-40 (serial no. 42-9752) (MACR 460) during the day.

21 August 1943
14 B-24s, 7 B-25s, and 11 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked docks and the airfield at Hankou. A large force of enemy fighters, estimated at 50+, attacked the B-24 formation, shooting down two of the B-24s. Gunners on the B-24s claimed 40+ fighters shot down!
374th and 375th BS, 308th BG, received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for this raid on Hankou.
Major Toshio Sakagawa, commander of the 25th Sentai, claimed to have shot down the lead aircraft from a formation of B-24s, his unit also claiming a second of these bombers. Sakagawa’s claim was reportedly the first B-24 brought down in China and the pilot a Major Beat, became a POW.

In the Hengyang area, 19 P-40s of the 14th AF battled 33 airplanes, claiming five Zeroes shot down.
They had probably been in combat with 33rd Sentai, which reported four lost Ki-43s. Mitsuo Yamato claimed one victory during this mission. The killed pilots were Second Lieutenant Kiyotake Takahashi (NCO73), Sergeant Teruo Tsuji (NCO86), Sergeant Major Hiroshi Yamashita (Sho-4) and Corporal Shiro Fukuda (Sho-8).

South of Changsha, nine P-38s of the 14th AF clashed with twelve Zeroes, claiming three of them shot down.

22 August 1943
Four P-40s of the 14th AF bombed a Japanese HQ and a supply dump at Tengchung, and strafed trucks and troops in the area. Two other P-40s strafed road traffic between Tengchung and Lungling.

Mitsuo Yamato of the 33rd Sentai, claimed one victory over Chungking.

23 August 1943
In preparations for operations from French Indo-China and south China, the 25th Sentai (17 Ki-43s) and the 58th Sentai (21 Ki-21s) under the 8th Hikodan’s commander took off from Hankou at dawn to attacked military establishments at Chungking. En route, the 33rd Sentai (14 Ki-43s) joined them.
The air raid warning was flashed to Peishiyi airfield. 29 CAF fighters from the 4th and 11th PG scrambled. Ten P-40s, eight P-43s and eleven P-66s took to the air. At about 10:30 local time the Japanese bombers approached at a height of 7,000 meters (about 23,000 feet) but the Chinese had sufficient warning and some interceptors were able to exceed that altitude as the bombers neared their target. A flight of American fighters also scrambled from a distant base but was unable to intercept.
The Japanese formation flew past Chungking proper to attack their target, an arsenal, just west of the city. A reporter flying with squadron commander Captain Kiyoshi Kajikawa saw him observing the bombing through binoculars and spring up as the bombs hit the target. The bombers then belatedly received anti-aircraft fire. The reporter in Kajikawa's bomber "looked forward to the right and saw our fighters engaged in fierce air duels with the enemy fighters above us. White streaks of tracer bullets suddenly passed before my eyes indicating the enemy was tailing us. In an instant our Hayabusa fighters flashed by in hot pursuit of the enemy fighter which was attacking us. Suddenly the enemy fighter burst out in flames and went down at a furious speed trailing behind a long streak of black smoke. The enemy pilot bailed out and his parachute spread immediately." The aircraft shot down was almost certainly a P-43.
One Japanese bomber was shot down and others were damaged by Chinese fighter attacks. In Captain Kajikawa's bomber one of the crewmembers (Sergeant Ito) was wounded. The remaining bombers and their fighter escorts returned to base.
The Japanese reported encountering 10 plus P-43s, several P-40s and several unidentified aircraft. The 25th Sentai apparently was engaged in the bulk of the action. The Sentai claimed two P-43s (and three others uncertain), one P-40 and one unidentified aircraft. Sergeant Major Mitsuo Yamato of 33rd Sentai is credited with a victory over Chungking. It appears that the P-43s were able to climb swiftly enough to engage the Japanese but that some of the P-40s and P-66s that scrambled may have failed to make contact.
The Chinese lost four fighters. These appear to have been two P-66s, a P-40 and a P-43. The 4th PG lost Duan Kehui of the 21st PS. The 11th PS lost Su Rengui (41st PS) and Yen Guihua (42nd PS). The aircraft seen to be shot down with its pilot escaping by parachute may have been a P-43 claimed by Warrant Officer Seino Eiji of the 25th Sentai.
The Chinese communiqué reported three flights of their fighters intercepted the Japanese and claimed three fighters shot down and five bombers probably destroyed. They admitted little damage in the bombing and stated the CAF "sustained damage which was slight."
The Japanese knew their opponents were Chinese rather than American by virtue of their blue sky-white sun markings. They reported that the majority of the enemy planes were P-43s and that their fuel tanks were easily punctured making them much easier to shoot down in comparison to P-40s.
These Japanese units also attacked Wanhsien and Chienou until 8 September.

24 August 1943
Seven B-24s and six B-25s of the 14th AF, escorted by 22 P-40s and P-38s, bombed airfields at Hankou and Wuchang. Four B-24s were lost. They claimed 24 enemy interceptors shot down.
25th and 33rd Sentais intercepted the enemy over Wuchang. The 25th Sentai claimed four victories and the 33rd Sentai claimed three but lost two Ki-43s, when the unit commander, Major Akira Watanabe (Class 44) and Sergeant Yukiji Nogawa (NCO87) were killed. The 25th Sentai lost Warrant Officer Hasumi Kono (NCO73).

25 August 1943
Eight B-25s of the 14th AF, with fighter escort, bombed the Kowloon Docks at Hong Kong.

26 August 1943
15 B-24s of the 14th AF, with an escort of 17 fighters, bombed the Kowloon Docks at Hong Kong. Five Japanese interceptors were shot down.

Five B-25s of the 14th AF, supported by eleven P-40s, bombed Tien Ho Airfield at Canton, China. In a battle with enemy interceptors, one P-40 was lost. The B-25s and P-40s claimed 5 Zeroes shot down.

27 August 1943
Five P-40s of the 14th AF strafed a large truck convoy between Sintsiang and Yoyang, destroying five trucks and damaging 15 others. One P-40 was downed by ground fire.
Six other P-40s hit communication lines between Yoyang and Hankou. Targets included two small steamboats, a gunboat, several railroad cars, and a water tower.

29 August 1943
Nine B-25s from the 14th AF, with fighter escort, bombed the airfield at Chingmen.

30 August 1943
13 B-25s from the 14th AF, some with P-40 support, attacked Owchihkow and Shihshow, blasting fuel stores and several buildings. The P-40s strafed gun positions outside Shihshow.

Ten P-38s and P-40s from the 14th AF on armoured reconnaissance from Sinti to Yoyang to Sienning, strafed and bombed several targets of opportunity. Three locomotives were exploded and another damaged, a water tank was knocked down, and several railroad stations were heavily damaged.
Four other P-40s attack a convoy east of Hong Kong. One freighter was hit amidships, causing heavy damage. Two other vessels were also effectively damaged.

31 August 1943
Six B-25s of the 14th AF, hit Ichang Airfield while three others attacked an oil storage area to the east. P-40s also hit the oil stores.

Three P-40s claimed heavy damage to a freighter off Stonecutter's Island near Hong Kong.

Four P-38s of the 14th AF dive-bombed Yoyang railroad yards and Sinti warehouses. One P-38 was shot down by ground fire.

September 1943

The ground war

In the fall of 1943, battle broke out for the city of Changde (Hunan Province).

Chinese Air Force

During September, the 41st PS began to receive the P-66.

US Army Air Force

During September, HQ 23d Fighter Group transferred from Kunming to Kweilin.

During September, detachments of the 449th FS, 51st FG, based at Lingling, operate from Hengyang and Kweilin with P-38s.

On 3 September, HQ 68th FW 69th BW were activated at Kunming. Neither unit were manned until December 1943.

On 14 September, the 25th FS, 51st FG, transferred from Dinjan, India to Yunnani, China with P-40s. The squadron's detachment at Jorhat, India also transferred.

The 16th FS, 51st FG, transferred from Kweilin to Hengyang with P-40s on 20 September.

IJAAF

Between September 1942 and September 1943, the 33rd Sentai claimed 50 destroyed enemy aircraft for the loss of nearly 30 pilots including a commanding officer and four chutai leaders.
Around this time, the Sentai left the China area for the Burma front.

The 25th Sentai moved to Canton.

Second phase of the 3rd Hikoshidan’s summer air operations (22 August to 8 September):
Despite the positive action taken by the 3rd Hikoshidan, the USAAF continued to increase its strength in south-west China.
As poor weather prevented the Hikoshidan from attacking the enemy territory, the Hikoshidan decided to first carry out blitzkrieg attacks on Szechwan Plain and then switch the main force toward French Indo-China and south China and direct operations toward Yunnan Province and Kweilin from this area.
The main objectives and number of attacks were:

Chungking (military establishments) 1
Wanhsien, Patung and Santouping (vessels) 3
Chienou (aerodrome) 3
Wuchou (aerodrome) 2
Nanhsiung 1

Aircraft shot down:

P-40 11 (three unconfirmed)
P-43 5 (three unconfirmed)
B-24 6
Unknown types 1

Vessels:

Sunk 1,000 ton class 3 ships
  500 ton class 1 ship
Damaged 1,000 ton class 1 ship
  500 ton class 5 ships
  Tanker 1 ship

On 7 September, the Imperial General Headquarters directed the China Expeditionary Army to take the following action in regard to the employment of air units in China:

Having regard to the over-all war situation, the 8th Hikodan (including the 33rd Sentai) will be transferred to the Southern Army in early October. The 85th Sentai will remain in China for the time being. During air operations in south China, the Japanese Army will be permitted to use Heito and Kagi air bases.

Third phase of the 3rd Hikoshidan’s summer air operations (9 September to 7 October):
The 3rd Hikoshidan successfully advanced its bases to south China and French Indo-China and by early September had completed its preparations for attacks on Yunnan and Kweilin areas.
The disposition of the 3rd Hikoshidan on 9 September was:

3rd Hikoshidan Command Post – Canton
8th Hikodan
8th Hikodan Headquarters – Hanoi
25th Sentai (main strength) (Ki-43s) – Hanoi
33rd Sentai (main strength) (Ki-43s) – Hanoi
58th Sentai (Ki-21s) – Saigon
60th Sentai (Ki-21s) – Tourane
18th I F Chutai (Ki-46s) – Tourane, Hanoi
1st Hikodan
1st Hikodan Headquarters – Canton
85th Sentai (Ki-44s) – Canton
90th Sentai (Ki-48s) – Kagi (Formosa)
55th I F Chutai (Ki-46s) – Canton
Air Defence Unit in key areas
Part of the 25th Sentai (Ki-43s) – Hankou and Nanching
Part of the 33rd Sentai (Ki-43s) – Wuchang
Others
16th Sentai (Ki- 48s) – being converted into Ki-48-IIs in Shanghai and in Japan.
44th Sentai (reconnaissance and direct-cooperation aircraft) - Cooperating with ground troops in Hankou and Shanghai.
The 206th I F Chutai (direct-cooperation aircraft) – Cooperating with ground troops in north China as well as reporting on the activities of enemy submarines.
Five training Air Units: Being trained in central and north China.

Operations

1 September 1943
The 14th AF was active during the day.
Seven B-25s, supported by eight P-40s, attack a Japanese destroyer at Shihhweiyao. No hits were scored on the ship but considerable damage was done to the surrounding dock area.
Six P-40s sunk a small tanker down river from Yichang, damaged 2 large boats between Ocheng and Shihhweiyao, and strafed cavalry troops at Ocheng.
Three other P-40s heavily damaged a small ship at Swatow harbour and strafed the nearby airfield.
Three P-38s and a P-40 dive-bombed and strafed barracks at Yangsin, demolishing three buildings. Two nearby locomotives were also destroyed. The fighter-bombers then heavily damaged a small steamer at Wuchang, sunk one tug and damaged another at Kutang before blasting a train and an AA position south of Puchi.

2 September 1943
Ten B-25s and five P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Hong Kong, hitting the Kowloon area and attacked shipping off Stonecutter’s Island and in the Lai Chi Kok area.

4 September 1943
Ten B-25s and eleven P-40s from the 14th AF pounded Tien Ho airfield at Canton. Three of the 15 intercepting Zeroes were claimed shot down.

6 September 1943
Six fighter-bombers from the 14th AF attacked wharves, vessels, and destroyed a small factory building in the Yoyang-Shihhweiyao area.
Five others hit trucks, trains, gun emplacements and railway facilities in areas around Sintsiang and Puchi.

Four P-40s from Hengyang strafed and burnt two Japanese vessels near Wuhsueh.
North of Tean, near Kiukiang, a Japanese transport plane was spotted and shot down between 06:45-10:30 by First Lieutenant John Smith Stewart of 76th FS, 23rd FG, and the two Japanese pilots were killed. One of the P-40 had to crash-land but the pilot was unscathed.

8 September 1943
Two P-40s from Hengyang strafed railway station near Yoyang and claimed to have hit a locomotive.

9 September 1943
Eight B-25s and eleven P-40s from the 14th AF hit the White Cloud Airfield at Canton.
They were intercepted by more than 20 Japanese fighters and the 25th Sentai were probably these. The unit claimed two victories, one of the by Major Toshio Sakagawa.
The American bombers were probably also intercepted by the 85th Sentai since they lost Captain Yoshiaki Nakahara (Class 51) over Canton during the day.
One machine gunner in a B-25 was wounded in the head.

Four P-38s from the 14th AF bombed the docks at Whampoa.
Eight P-40s and P-38s hit shipping on the Yangtze River shipping near Chiuchiang, Kichun, Wusueh, Ocheng, and Changanyi, and strafe targets of opportunity in the general area.

Lieutenant General Moritaka Nakazono, commander of the 3rd Hikoshidan, together with his staff officers in charge of operations and intelligence, flew from Kagi, Formosa, to the command post at Canton.
At 17:45, the aircraft in which Lieutenant General Nakazono was flying was shot down over Hsiaochou, 10km south-east of Canton and he was killed.
The commander in Chief of the China Expeditionary Army then ordered Major General Rokuro Imanishi, commander of the 1st Hikodan to assume command of the Hikoshidan until Lieutenant General Takuma Shimoyama arrived at Canton a few days later.
Nakazono’s aircraft was most probably shot down by Second Lieutenant Billie M. Beardsley of 449th FS, 51st FG (US), who claimed a TE transport south-east of Whampoa at 15:30.

10 September 1943
Ten B-25s and seven P-40s from the 14th AF hit a cotton warehouse north of Wuchang and docks at Hankou. Nine of the 20 intercepting Zeroes were claimed destroyed.

Nine P-38s from the 14th AF bombed docks at Whampoa.

Ki-43s from 25th Sentai claimed a P-38 over the Hankou-Wuchang area.

11 September 1943
Ten B-25s and eleven P-40s of the 14th AF attacked the Hankou docks and Wuchang cotton mills.
They were intercepted by Japanese fighters and First Lieutenant Charles F. Pruett of 16th FS, 51st FG, claimed a ‘Zero’ and a I-97 between 09:05-12:05 30m south-east of Hankou.
One of the P-40s lost its way on returning from the battle and the pilot had to bail out when the plane ran out of fuel over Kwangsi.

Three P-38s bombed ammunition and fuel depots at Tayeh and strafed warehouses and barracks at Yangsin.

12 September 1943
Eight P-38s of the 14th AF bombed shipping in the Hong Kong area. Four hit Yangtze River traffic at Chiuchiang, and four P-40s strafed barracks and destroyed a locomotive west of Shihhweiyao.

14 September 1943
During a training flight in India, the commander of the 28th PS (P-40N), Captain Tseng Pei-Fu, was killed.

Four P-38s from the 14th AF severely damaged two vessels at Chiuchiang.

15 September 1943
Six B-25s and 14 P-40s from the 14th AF attacked a cotton mill in the Wuchang area.

16 September 1943
Eight B-25s and twelve P-40s of the 14th AF hit warehouses, barracks, ammunition dumps, and HQ at Liujenpa.

18 September 1943
Four B-25s and seven P-40s from the 14th AF attacked rail yards and blast furnaces at Shihhweiyao.

19 September 1943
Six P-40s attacked a railway bridge near Yunghsiu and strafed two Japanese ships near Shihhweiyao.

20 September 1943
The 25th and 33rd Sentais staged through Hanoi to escort heavy bombers to Kunming, claiming 10 victories and 8 probables for the loss of five of the bombers and one Ki-43 when Sergeant Hiroshi Tanaka (Sho-6) of the 33rd Sentai was killed over Kunming.
American sources reported that 27 Japanese bombers and 20 fighters attacked the airfield at Kunming. 24 P-40s and three P-38s from the 14th AF intercepted, claiming 17 airplanes shot down. One US fighter was lost and damage to the airfield was negligible.

21 September 1943
Eight B-25s and eight P-40s from the 14th AF attacked railroad yards and warehouses at Chiuchiang causing considerable destruction.

22 September 1943
Six P-40s escorting three B-25s attacked shipping near Shihhweiyao but none was hit.

30 September 1943
During a training flight in India was one of the flight commanders of the 28th PS (P-40N), Dai Dejin, killed.

Two B-25s and four P-40s of the 14th AF claimed heavy damage to a gunboat at Ft Bayard.

October 1943

Chinese Air Force

The Chinese-American Composite Wing (Provisional) (CACW) was activated on 1 October at Malir, with Colonel Winslow C. Morse as commander. Both American and Chinese air force officers would jointly command the operational units of the CACW, and American and Chinese pilots and crews would jointly operate the unit’s aircraft.
Organized as two fighter groups of P-40s and one bomber group of B-25s, CACW units began their first combat operations in October 1943. The coming in of the CACW effectively gave Major General Claire Chennault command and control over all tactical aviation operations occurring within the China theatre.
The units in the CACW were the 3rd FG (7th, 8th, 28th and 32nd FS) and the 5th FG (17th, 26th, 27th and 29th FS) both with P-40s and the 1st BG (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th BS) with B-25s.

On 9 October, the 28th and 32nd FS (Provisional) and the 2nd BS (Provisional) were activated.
On 15 October, both the 28th and 32nd FS of the 3rd FG (CACW) returned to China with their new P-40Ns and were assigned to strengthen the defence of Kweilin (Guangxi).

US Army Air Force

On 2 October, the HQ 51st FG transferred from Dinjan, India to Kunming, China and was reassigned from the 10th to the 14th AF.

A detachment of the 76th FS, 23d FG, based at Hengyang begun operating from Suichan with P-40s on 3 October.

On 7 October, the 26th FS, 51st FG, transferred from Dinjan, India to Kunming, China with P-40s

The 75th FS, 23rd FG, transferred from Kunming to Kweilin with P-40s on 11 October.

On 26 October, the 21st PS (Light), 14th AF, based at Kunming with F-4s and F-5s, sent a flight to operate from Suichan.

IJAAF

Third phase of the 3rd Hikoshidan’s summer air operations (9 September to 7 October):
Although the 3rd Hikoshidan had planned to make a series of attacks against Yunnan Province, due to bad weather conditions at this time, they succeeded in making only one attack.
An outline of the operations carried out at this time was:

Main objectives and number of attacks:

Yunnan Air Depot 1 attack
Kweilin Air Depot 2 attacks (one attack was a combined fighter-bomber attack
Suichuan Air Depot 2 attacks
Nanhsiung Air Depot 1 attack
Kanshien Air Depots 1 attack
Nanning Air Depots 1 attack
Chian Air Depots 1 attack
Ships in the vicinity of Patung  

The exact amount of damage is not recorded. However, the main objective was to damage runways so as to delay, if not prevent, attacks on the Homeland.

Planes shot down:

P-40 35 (9 unconfirmed)
P-38 2 (1 unconfirmed)
B-25 1 (unconfirmed)

It was reported that three B-24s were shot down and eight of a total of 24 larger type aircraft were destroyed on the ground during the raid on Yunnan Province, but these reports were not confirmed.

Ships:

Sunk 3 ships (each about 500 tons)
Damaged 2 ships (each about 1,000 tons)
2 ships (each about 500 tons)
A large number of small ships

During the summer operations the 3rd Hikoshidan shot down or destroyed one the ground approximately 103 enemy fighters and 22 bombers. Japanese losses were 25 fighters and 15 bombers missing, seven fighters and one bomber destroyed, 19 officers and 94 soldiers killed, four officers and 13 soldiers missing and 15 men wounded.

From the beginning to the middle of September, those units to be returned to the Southern Army, were returned. On 8 October, the Hikoshidan commander withdrew his command post from Canton and returned to central China.

At the beginning of October, it was estimated that the enemy had about 100 light bombers stationed at Kweilin. They also had a unit on Suichuan airfield and were beginning to use Kanhsien and Nanhsiung as air bases. From these bases, they carried out repeated attacks against the Japanese forces in central and south China. As they were receiving reinforcements from India, it was felt that unless Japan could increase the strength of its air force in China, the Japanese Army in that theatre would have difficulty in continuing the war.

With the enemy’s rapid gains in the south Pacific and in Burma, it was recognized that the over-all strategy called for the strengthening of the air force in those areas. T the same time, in order to remove the threat from the Homeland, it was necessary that the air force suppress the growing USAAF in China. The China Expeditionary Army, therefore, continued to attempt to smash the USAAF in China. It also strengthened its air defence at strategic points and improved its facilities at air bases in order to check the advancing enemy air forces.

During July – October 1943, the 25th Sentai claimed 54 destroyed enemy aircraft (including 8 B-24s, 36 P-40s and 7 P-38s) while losing eight aircraft.

Operations

1 October 1943
23rd FG lost two P-40s (serial nos. 42-45906 and 42-46250) (MACR 758 and 759) during the day.

20 P-40s and P-38 escorting 22 B-24s pounded Haiphong warehouses and harbour. Some 40 Japanese interceptor rose to meet them in an air battle lasting some 40 minutes. 30 Japanese aircraft were claimed to be shot down (!) for the loss of three P-40s. One was shot down over Haiphong (Chen Ping-Ching baled out). Another crashed-landed in China but the pilot (Wang Te-Min killed). A third was missing.

2 October 1943
Second Lieutenant Akihiko Nishidome (NCO79) of the 25th Sentai and Sergeant Major Yasuo Hasegawa (NCO86) of the 33rd Sentai were killed over Haiphong.

2 October 1943
Five P-40s from the 14th AF dive-bombed and strafed Yangtze River shipping in the Chiuchiang area. Strafing damaged several small craft.

3 October 1943
Aircraft from the 14th AF are active during the day when seven P-40s damaged a 250-ft (76.2 m) vessel on the Yangtze River near Chiuchiang.
Four P-38s bombed Chiuchiang docks.
Six B-24s damaged a 100-ft (30.5 m) coastal freighter off Tonkon Point on Hainan Island.

4 October 1943
17 Japanese bombers and 25 Zeroes attacked Kweilin Airfield. The bombs, dropped from 20,000 feet (6,096 m), failed to hit the target. Fighters from the 14th AF failed to make effective contact with the force.

5 October 1943
A few B-25s and P-40s from the 14th AF attacked a foundry at Shihhweiyao. Damaging hits were scored on a barrack, on AA positions, blast furnaces, hoppers, and a steam plant.
Ten USAAF fighters intercepted a force of about 50 Zeroes west of Kweilin, claiming one enemy fighter shot down before the enemy force turned back.
They were in fact intercepted by fighters from the 85th Sentai, which lost Sergeant Major Shigeharu Sasaki (NCO84) over Kweilin.

6 October 1943
Seven P-40s from the 14th AF from Suichan intercepted an attacking force of 27 bombers and 21 Zeroes. One bomber and one fighter were claimed shot down, and the attackers retired in the direction of Canton without dropping their bombs.
First Lieutenant Isamu Hosono (NCOR) of the 2nd chutai, 25th Sentai, took part in an escort to the bombers raiding Suichan, but P-40s bounced the formation and his aircraft was hit, being seen to trail black smoke. Realizing that he could not return, he continued to fight, and radioed base at 08:59: ”I will go down.” And at 09:02: ”Now, I will dive.”. Hen then called: ”Army Fighter Unit, Banzai!” followed by: ”Tenno Heika, Banzai!”, waved to his wingman, Sergeant Komatsu, and from a height of 1,000 meters dived into a river. As at this time becoming a prisoner was forbidden to Japanese servicemen, his final act was reported with admiration in the newspapers, which identified it as the best example of correct courageous behaviour. At the time of his death, Hosono was credited with 26 victories.

7 October 1943
16 P-40s, two P-38s and nine B-24s attacked the Haiphong harbour and were intercepted by twelve Japanese fighters, claiming four Japanese fighters downed and eight damaged. One P-40 was shot up and had to crash-land near Liuchou.

Four B-25s from the 14th AF attacked a 2,500-ton freighter 100 miles (160 km) south of Amoy scoring three direct hits. The vessel was left burning and listing.

8 October 1943
While on ferry mission over the Hump, three B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Tengchung, scoring hits on warehouses, barracks, and a HQ area.

9 October 1943
Four B-25s from the 14th AF on a shipping sweep off the south-east China coast in the Amoy-Quemoy area sunk a 150-ft (45.7 m) tanker and damaged a patrol vessel, and a freighter. One B-25 crashed into a hill and exploded.
Ten P-40s bombed fuel storage and barracks at Mangshih. One P-40 was downed by ground fire.

10 October 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a match factory and ammunition dump at Tengchung while eight others hit a supply dump and targets of opportunity in the Lungling area.

Eight P-40s carrying six 30lb bombs each hit Lungling but lost one plane.

11 October 1943
Eight B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the town areas of Tengchung.

13 October 1943
Three B-25s from the 14th AF on a sea sweep off south-east China hit shipping in Amoy harbour, claiming one freighter sunk and another damaged.

14 October 1943
Four B-25s from the 14th AF attacked shipping in the Amoy area, damaging two freighters, and bombed Amoy Airfield.

17 October 1943
Four P-40s from Kunming each with a 500lb and six 300lb bombs attacked Liuku. Two were hit by AA fire and had to crash-land.

21 October 1943
Six P-40s from the 14th AF pound the barracks area at Kunlong.

23 October 1943
Six B-24 from Kunming each carrying four 100lb bombs attacked Tuchiao on their way to India but was attacked by five Japanese fighters. However, the bombers escaped unscathed.

24 October 1943
Six B-25s, led by the newly promoted Major Tom Foley, CO of the 2nd BS, 1st BG (CACW), left Malir and became the first CACW aircraft to reach China.

26 October 1943
Two B-25s from the 14th AF attacked several vessels at Kiungshan, claiming four sunk or badly damaged.
Later six more B-25s hit shipping nearby, claiming one freighter sunk. One of the B-25s strafed the airfield at Kiungshan.

Japanese IJNAF fighters scrambling to intercept raiders over Haikou claimed to have shot down two for the loss of two fighters.

27 October 1943
Six B-24s of the 14th AF bombed the city of Tungling and claimed eight intercepting Zeroes shot down.

28 October 1943
Seven B-24s from the 14th AF bombed Mangshih.
Six P-40s strafed a warehouse and revetments at Yoyang Airfield.
Three B-25s and seven P-38s hit a barracks at Ft Bayard.
Two B-25s on a shipping sweep over the South China Sea damaged two freighters near Saint John Island and sunk a junk west of Kwangchow Wan.

The CACW suffered their first operational losses when a transport carrying 16 U.S. and Chinese ground crewmen, mostly from 28th FS, crashed over the Himalayas, killing everyone on board.
The wreckage was never found.

29 October 1943
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the administration building and runway at Ft Bayard airfield.
Nine P-40s on offensive reconnaissance in the Chiuchiang area strafed a 200-ft (320 m) steamer and attacked a train, destroying the locomotive.

30 October 1943
Seven B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF pound the motor pool and barracks at Shayang while nine P-38s hit the Chiuchiang dock area. Two enemy interceptors were shot down.

Eight P-38s from Hengyang, four carrying a 500lb bomb apiece, attacked Jiujiang docks and were greeted by eleven interceptors. One Japanese ship was claimed destroyed and three Japanese planes shot down, for the loss of one P-38 shot down and another set on fire causing the pilot to bail out. Two others did not return.
First Lieutenant Mamoru Inomata (Class 55) of the 25th Sentai was killed in this combat.

November 1943

Chinese Air Force

By the middle of September 1943 there had already appeared in the Chinese Air Force a sufficient quantity of American aircraft and pilots trained to fly them. Also, having observed during the war years the minimal effectiveness, in fact the complete hopelessness of the Kuomintang air units, Claire Chennault came to the conclusion about the expediency of unifying all the aviation units fighting in China. The Kuomintang government received this idea positively, and on 5 November “For the better organisation of co-operation of Chinese and American air forces” the Chinese-American Composite 16th Air Unit was organised at Kweilin. Initially it included the 1st, 3rd, and 5th Chinese Air Groups, and also part of the 14th US Air Force.
Commanding this “Air International Brigade” was Chennault himself, who had been successful in attaining the rank of General in the American Air Force. All command was combined on the principle of parity. At each level of command there were two commanders, one American and one Chinese. Chinese comprised two thirds of the flight and ground personnel. The air units were assigned to the operational command of the Chinese Air Force.

US Army Air Force

During November, a detachment of the 71st Liaison Squadron, US Army Forces, CBI, based at Ledo, India was sent to Kunming with Piper L-4s and Stinson L-5s.

On 13 November, the 21st PS (Light) was redesignated to the 21st PRS.
At the same was the 9th PS (Light) redesignated to the 9th PRS.

The 23rd FG supported Chinese forces during the Japanese offensive in the Tungting Hu region in November 1943

The 75th FS, 23rd FG transferred from Kweilin to Hengyang with P-40s during November.

On 21 November, the 76th FS, 23rd FG, transferred from Hengyang to Kweilin with P-40s. A detachment of the squadron was operating from Suichan.

The 16th FS, 51st FG, transferred from Hengyang to Chengkung with P-40s on 25 November. A detachment began operating from Tsuyung.

Operations

1 November 1943
Six B-25s and nine P-40s from the 14th AF bombed the Yoyang railroad yards.

2 November 1943
Five B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF pounded docks and warehouses at Shasi.

3 November 1943
21 B-24s from the 14th AF, supported by 30 fighters, pounded Kowloon Docks in Hong Kong. Four Japanese fighters were claimed shot down.
Nine B-25s and twelve P-40s pounded various targets in the Shihshow-Hwajung-Owchihkow area.

First Lieutenant Yoshiji Shiki (Tokushi) of the 85th Sentai was killed over Canton.

4 November 1943
The Chinese-American Composite Wing entered combat when three B-25s from the 2nd BS accompanied other B-25s from the 11th BS (USAAF) on a sea sweep against Japanese shipping. The B-25s hit Amoy and Swatom successfully bombing and strafing ground troops, supply facilities, and shipping. The B-25s claimed four cargo ships badly damaged and possibly sunk.
The CACW aircraft were flown by Major Foley, Captain William Carson and Lieutenant Kao with an all-Chinese crew. The formation found cargo boats at Swatow Harbour and swept in for the attack. Guns and bomb releases malfunctioned on Foley’s and Kao’s aircraft, so they turned around and came back across the harbour to try again. In the repeat attack, Lieutenant Kao became separated from the others, but Major Foley’s bombs hit a cargo boat and sunk it. This was the first damage done by the CACW to the Japanese, but there was a price to pay. It is believed that Lieutenant Kao’s bomber was damaged by return fire during one of his attacks. Two hours later the B-25 crashed near Wuchow, Kao apparently having become lost while trying to find the way home. All aboard were killed.

The 11th BS (USAAF) flew a second mission later in the day. This mission included a B-25 from the 2nd BS (CACW) flown by Captain William Carson. The mission was another sea sweep along the Chinese coast. This time Carson suffered with his bomb release and was hit by anti-aircraft fire that severed the gas line in the bomb bay while he was attacking an enemy vessel. On the return flight to Kweilin, Carson and his 11th BS flight leader became separated in bad weather. When the B-25 lost its right engine at 12,000ft, Carson decided it was time to drop down out of the overcast and find out where he was.
He tried to contact his Chinese radioman, but found that the airman had already bailed out of the aircraft. Then the other engine began to lose power, so at 14:40, Carson crash-landed the aircraft near a railroad line at Ishan. No one was injured, and the aircraft was considered salvageable. The radioman rejoined his crew later on their way back to base.

7 November 1943
Major Thomas Foley of the 2nd BS (CACW) flew a sea sweep but no targets were found.

8 November 1943
Two B-25s from the 14th AF bombed the Kiungshan airfield on Hainan Island, scoring direct hits on two hangars.
Captain William Carson, 2nd BS (CACW), who was credited with probably destroying three or four parked Japanese aircraft, flew one of the B-25s.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Hsiangyangchiao Bridge, causing little damage.

10 November 1943
Fighters from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance sunk three large motor boats in the Yoyang-Sinti area and damaged or sunk 15 sampans and a barge in the Hwajung-Shasi vicinity.

11 November 1943
Six B-24s from the 14th AF bombed the Burma Road about 375 miles (600 km) west of Tungling, producing a landslide and badly damaging the road.
South of Yoyang, six P-40s knocked out a gun emplacement and hit a radio station, barracks, and hostels in the area while eight more P-40s, on armed reconnaissance in the Li-Chou-Ching-Shih area, strafed a pontoon bridge and troops, and sunk a river steamer, a motorboat, and several small supply boats.

Major Thomas Foley and Captain William Carson of the 2nd BS (CACW) flew CACW’s first high-altitude mission, a strike against targets at Yochow, near Tungting Lake.

One P-40 of the 4th PG (CAF) lost its way on the way back after failing to find ground targets; the pilot bailed out safely when the fighter crashed.

12 November 1943
Ten B-25s and 24 P-40s of the 14th AF attacked Yoyang, hitting the warehouse area, railroad yards, and AA positions.
Five B-25s bombed the Yangchi Kang waterfront area and attacked waterfront targets at Puchi.
Six B-25s and twelve fighters hit targets at Yoyang. One of the B-25s didn’t return.
15 P-40s and a B-25 on armed reconnaissance hit several targets of opportunity in the Lungling area and between Yang-Chia-Kang and Sichai.

13 November 1943
Four sorties totalling nine P-40s of the 4th PG (CAF) against ground targets in the western Hubei.

15 November 1943
20 B-24s from the 14th AF were dispatched against the Hong Kong-Kowloon area. Bad weather prevented 15 bombers from bombing the targets. Five of the bombers attacked the docks at Kowloon.

Six P-40s from Kunming attacked sampans and cargo ships at Haiphong.

16 November 1943
Eleven B-24s, two B-25s, and four P-40s of the 14th AF attacked the docks at Kowloon.
Two B-25s damaged two freighters near Nampang and Saint John Island. Two more scored hits on a tanker off the China coast south of Swatow while two other bombed barracks and a warehouse on Nampang Island.
One B-25 and twelve P-40s hit a cavalry unit, barge, houses, and numerous sampans at Shihmen.
The Li-Chou area was also attacked.
B-25s from the 2nd BS (CACW) was part of these attacks. Lieutenant Colonel Irving Branch sunk a 200-foot freighter and probably sunk a 150-footer. Bombardier-navigator Lieutenant Louis Graves was wounded by flying Plexiglas when the nose of the bomber was hit by flak.
Later that day, Major Thomas Foley of the 2nd BS (CACW) sank a 300-foot tanker.

17 November 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF strafed the airfield and barracks at Kengtung.
Eight other attacked Pingkai and targets of opportunity between Pingkai and Tahsai on the Salween River.

18 November 1943
Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF strafed troops and horses and sunk a troop barge at Shihmen. Four others, in support of Chinese forces, strafed the Tahsai ferry.

19 November 1943
B-25s from the 14th AF on shipping sweeps in the South China Sea strafed two vessels off Hong Kong, scored damaging hits on two vessels at Kiungshan, damaged a freighter off Tsao Tao Island, and left a gunboat and freighter sinking east of Swatow. Warehouses and wharves at Swatow were also hit.

Twelve P-40s hit Japanese troops near Shihmen.

20 November 1943
Two B-25s from the 14th AF hit warehouses and barracks on Nampang Island.
Weather prevented completion of several other scheduled missions.

Four B-25s (two each from the CAF and the USAF) and twelve P-40s from Hengyang attacked Tzuli.

The 25th Sentai claimed eight victories over Enshi.

21 November 1943
During a Japanese air attack on 21 November on the city of Changde, the squadron commander Ren Zao (11th or 4th PG) took off to intercept leading four P-66s. None of the Chinese pilots returned to the aerodrome. The commander managed to make a forced landing, while the others all perished.

29 P-40s from the 14th AF strafed 100+ sampans and small boats on Tungting Lake in the Li-Chou-Changde-Ansiang area.
Twelve P-40s attacked five vessels, 20 houses, and 100 men at Shihmen and between Shihmen and Li-Chou. Eight others hit troops and small riverboats near Tsowshih.
Twelve P-40s and four B-25s pounded the town of Tzeli.
Four other B-25s on shipping sweeps over the South China Sea damaged a freighter and blasted buildings at Taiping-hsu airfield.

Enshi airfield was attacked by two waves of Japanese aircraft. Three P-40s, one P-43 of the 4th PG (CAF) and four P-66 of the 11th PG (CAF) rose to meet the attackers. Two P-66s were shot down, both pilots Yen Tse-Kuang and Chou Fu-Hsin were KIA. Another P-66 was so heavily damaged that it crashed, killing the pilot Chuang Chuan-Wei. One Japanese fighter was claimed shot down when it was bounced by Liu Tsun. Three more Japanese aircraft were claimed as probables. The airfield itself was hit by some 36 bombs but damage was not serious.
Corporal Toshiaki Hirai (Sho-8) of the 85th Sentai was killed over Enshi (shot down by Liu Tsun).

22 November 1943
Twelve P-40s from the 14th AF strafed river traffic from Hofuh to Changde, and 16 attacked numerous small troop boats on Tungting Lake, west of Changdeh.

Nine A-29s from the 2nd BG (CAF) and nine escorting P-40s and P-43s from the 4th PG (CAF) bombed supply dumps at Chinshih.

Seven P-40s from Guilin attacked Canton; one fighter developed mechanical failure and the pilot had to bale out.

23 November 1943
13 B-25s, 24 P-40s and seven P-51s from the 14th AF pounded the Yoyang railroad yards and warehouse area. Eight other P-40s, on armed reconnaissance over the Hanshow area, strafed barges, boats, supplies, and cavalry forces.

Seven A-29s from the 2nd BG (CAF) and seven escorting P-40s and P-43s from the 4th PG (CAF) bombed targets near Kungan, including a pontoon bridge which was set ablaze.

24 November 1943
Five B-25s and 16 P-40s of the 14th AF bombed Hanshow and strafed 15-20 small boats north of the city.
Two other B-25s attacked the harbour and town of Amoy. Two direct hits were scored on a docked freighter.

25 November 1943
14 B-25s and 16 P-38s and P-51s from the 14th AF attacked the airfield at Shinchiku on Formosa, hitting a parking area, hangars, barracks, and other buildings. 32 enemy aircraft were claimed destroyed in the air and on the ground.
Six B-25s from 2nd BS (CACW) took part in the attack, leaving Kweilin at 06:00 and staged through Suichwan, where they picked up eight B-25s of the 11th BS and a fighter escort of P-38s and P-51s of the 23rd FG after they refuelled.
The formation crossed the Formosa Straits at minimum altitude and caught the Japanese completely unprepared. A few Japanese aircraft in the landing pattern were quickly shot down by the P-38s as the bombers climbed to 1,000ft to release their fragmentation bombs, which were armed with instant fuses. Seeing that there were no opposing interceptors and only minimum AA defence, Lieutenant Colonel Branch led his flight down for a strafing pass before they headed for home. Even the turret gunners got into the act, firing into a barrack area as the bombers swept low over the field. For this action, Lieutenant Colonel Branch was awarded a Distinguish Flying Cross.
The Shinchiku raid was the most successful thus far in the history of the 14th AF, and the 2nd BS received commendations from Colonel Vincent and Lord Mountbatten for its part in the attack.

16 P-40s on armed reconnaissance over the Hanshow-Chanpte area sunk 2 60-ft (18.3 m) boats and 15 sampans and strafed many small supply and troop-carrying boats.

14 P-38s and six B-25s in a low level bombing raid on Hsinchu destroyed and damaged some 27 aircraft, and inflicted some 45 casualties. The Japanese IJNAF claimed three aircraft shot down.

26 November 1943
Five B-25s and 16 fighters from the 14th AF attacked Kiangling airfield. Two other B-25s damaged a freighter in Honghai Bay while twelve P-40s attacked numerous boats in the Changde-Tehshan area.

Eight P-40s from Kunming attacked the Namlongyang train station.

27 November 1943
Four B-25s of the 14th AF on sea sweeps attacked docks and warehouses at the port of Swatow and hit a convoy of nine vessels heading south toward Amoy. The B-25s claimed one destroyer sunk and a destroyer and freighter damaged by direct hits.

28 November 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF bombed and strafed the barracks area and village on the west bank of the Salween River near Litsaoho.
Eight P-40s dropped ammunition to besieged Chinese troops at Changde.

29 November 1943
Two B-25s from the 14th AF hit the airfield, town area, and warehouse section at Swatow, two from the 1st BG (CACW) bombed the power station and nearby targets of opportunity at Amoy, and two attacked barges in nearby coastal areas.
The two bombers from 1st BG (CACW) were lost when Major Foley and First Lieutenant William Daniels attacked shipping at Amoy Harbour. They encountered heavy AA fire over the harbour installations. A radio station and a power station were hit by bombs, but both B-25s also sustained damage. Foley's B-25 was hit in an oil line of the left engine, while Daniels' bomber was hit in the hydraulic system, causing the wheels to partially extend. As the B-25s left the target area, the drag from Daniel's wheels hanging out in the wind caused him to fall behind Foley. Finally, Foley circled back, even though his left engine was now running very rough. Foley pulled behind Daniels, then radioed a message about the bad motor that Daniels only partially received.
Four minutes later Foley ordered his crew to bale out. The radioman, Lieutenant Yang C. C. and turret gunner Sergeant Lo K. C. baled out first. Then Foley and Lieutenant Wilbur Taxis, the navigator and Tsao K. K., the co-pilot, jumped out.
In the meantime, Daniels proceeded with his crew to the base at Namyung and circled there until his fuel supply had been used up. Finally, Daniels brought in the B-25 on its defective landing gear and made a crash landing. Three days later the damaged bomber was shot up by strafing Japanese fighter on the field at Namyung.
Foleys crew landed near Engteng and were contacted by Chinese army forces, who escorted them to Kukong. There on 8 December, they boarded a train for Hengyang, and on the next day they flew out of Hengyang to their base at Kweilin.

24 P-40s dropped food and ammunition to Chinese troops at Changde, strafed a camp in the Hsutu Lake area, damaged a vessel in Tien-hsin Lake and attacked numerous small craft in channels between Hsutu and Tungting Lakes and between Tsowshih and Hofuh.

Four P-43s of the 21st PS (CAF) escorted a P-40M on a reconnaissance mission and ran into four groups of a total of 21 Japanese aircraft east of Changde. One bomber and one fighter were claimed and three bombers and two fighters listed as probable. One P-43 was damaged and had to crash-land.
Among the Japanese aircraft were four fighters from the 25th Sentai, which claimed one Chinese fighter during an escort to light bombers apparently without loss to themselves.

30 November 1943
Six P-40s from the 14th AF bombed a fuel and ammunition dump at Luchiangpa.

At 12:43, eight P-40s took off from Hengyang and dropped supplies (9000 rifle rounds and 1000 catty of meat) to the garrison of Changde.
Earlier, four P-40s dropped 10,000 rifle rounds and four more strafed boats on a lake south-east of Ansiang.

December 1943

Chinese Air Force

The 4th PG began to re-equip with the P-40N at the end of 1943 and beginning of 1944. First sent to India at the end of 1943 were the 22nd and 24th PS followed in January by the 21st PS and the shortly after that the 23rd PS.

At the end of the year, the pilots of the 7th and 8th FS completed retraining.

The 26th and 29th PS were sent to India to take delivery of the P-40N at the end of 1943. The 44th PS also received the P-40.
At this time, the 29th PS came under the command of the CACW.

At the end of 1943, the 12th BS (SBs) was disbanded.

Between 24 December and the end of the year, the CACW lost a Chinese pilot when Lieutenant Wong K. C. was killed.

US Army Air Force

On 7 December, the detachment of the 76th FS, 23rd FG, which had been operating from Suichan since October, returned to its base at Kweilin with P-40s.

HQ 68th Composite Wing transferred from Kunming to Kweilin on 23 December.

On 26 December, the 76th FS, 23rd FG, transferred from Kweilin to Suichan with P-40s.

IJAAF

Air operations ordered to be carried out from October to the end of December were:
Continue aggressive operations to destroy the USAAF in China, especially around Kweilin. Attack and destroy the enemy forces whenever they advanced to the east of Kweilin (this does not include Kweilin).

If circumstances permit, attack Yunnan Province and cooperate with the Southern Army in its Burma Operation.

Depending upon the situation, make lightning attacks against the CAF.

Direct cooperation will be given the ground force by reconnaissance and direct cooperation units. An element of fighter and bomber units will cooperate with the 11th Army during the Chagte Operation.

In order to support the Navy, an element of the Army Air Force will guard against submarines off the coast of China and establish air defence along the Yangtze River. The establishment and completion of airfields will be accelerated, particularly the air defence installations on the main fields.

After the summer operations, the 3rd Hikoshidan continued to attack enemy airfields, taking advantage over every favourable opportunity. It also endeavoured to improve its fighting strength by reorganizing and training its units with special emphasis on night surprise attacks. In addition, in order to conduct strong yet flexible air operations in the future, the Hikoshidan planned to strengthen its navigation, communications and intelligence sections.

Japanese Intelligence estimated that the enemy air force in China in December was:

USAAF:
Fighters: Approximately 160 aircraft (approx. 100 aircraft in the Kweilin area)
Bombers: Approximately 70 aircraft (approx. 20 aircraft in the Kweilin area)
CAF:
Fighters: Approximately 150 aircraft
Bombers: Approximately 20 aircraft (about 20 fighters and some bombers advanced to Enshih and Lianshan)
In the early December, the 11th Sentai, equipped with Ki-43s, arrived at Wuchang from Manchuria.

From July until the end of 1943, the 85th Sentai had claimed 32 victories for the loss of 11 pilots.

Operations

1 December 1943
The first CACW fighter mission was flown during the day when nine B-25s, four from the 1st BS (CACW) and five from the 2nd BS (CACW), were assigned to strike the docks at Kowloon on the coast near Hong Kong, and 17 P-40s of the 3rd FG (CACW) contributed to the fighter escort, providing close support.
The formation joined up over Erh Tong, then headed south towards the target. CACW bombers were flown by Lieutenant Colonel Irving L. Branch, Captain Chester Conrad, Derward Harper, William Carson, Winston Churchill and 1st Lieutenant Mark Seacrest. Majors Yuan Chin-Han, Summers and Eugene Strickland, plus Captains Turner and Bull led the fighters. Also in the formation was Lieutenant Colonel Frank Rouse, who was in China to get some combat experience prior to forming the 5th FG (CACW). The other USAAF fliers were Lieutenants James Bush and Frank Smiley of the 28th FS (CACW) and Lieutenants John DeHaven and Clifford 'Tip' Boyle of the 32nd FS (CACW).
Rounding out the fighter pilots were the Chinese squadron commanders, Captains Cheng Sung-Ting and Hung Chi-Wei, plus Capitan Wang S. C. and Lieutenant Wu S. L. of the 32nd FS (CACW) and Lieutenants Meng C. Y., Chang C. M. and Cheng T. of the 28th FS (CACW).
The bombers crossed their target on a heading of 160o, then turned sharply back north toward home. The bombing appeared to be accurate, with only three bombs falling outside the target area. The flak was medium in intensity and accurate for altitude, but trailed the formation.
Five Ki-44s approached the formation but were driven off near Kowloon. During the exchange one of the B-25 gunners, Sergeant Wei C. C. in Lieutenant Colonel Branch's aircraft, claimed a Ki-44 probably destroyed, the first air-to-air damage claim made by the CACW.
All aircraft returned to base, and the bomber crews reported that the escort provided the P-40s was "very satisfactory".

Totally 19 B-25s, 24 P-40s and ten P-51s from the 14th AF pounded Kowloon shipyards.
Two B-25s hit nearby Taikoo Docks in Hong Kong.
16 P-40s sank about 30 boats in the area around Changde.

Six P-40s from Yunnani attacked Japanese positions in western Yunnan.

Two P-40s from Yunnai strafed four boats on the Irrawaddy.

23rd FG lost a P-51 (serial no. 43-6277) (MACR 12260) during the day.

2 December 1943
18 Japanese bombers and 30 Zeroes attacked Suichan airfield. Nine P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted, shooting down one Japanese aircraft. Two P-40s were lost.
It seems that the fighters came from the 85th Sentai, which lost Sergeant Tamotsu Nishikawa (Sho-7) over Suichan.

Six P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance bombed villages between Sha Nyao and Chiao Tou Chieh.
16 others bombed Japanese positions north-east of Changde.

3 December 1943
Eight P-40s from the 14th AF attacked barracks and other buildings at Wanling.

4 December 1943
Eleven B-25s and twelve P-40s from the 14th AF bombed Changde, which was taken by the Japanese earlier in the day.
Eleven more B-25s and 24 P-40s followed with two more attacks on Changde.
Included in the aircraft that attacked Changde were aircraft from the CACW, which didn't report any opposition.
Captain Akira Horaguchi (Class 53), the 1st chutai leader of the 85th Sentai, was killed over Changde. It seems that he wasn't lost in combat against CACW but against other Allied units.

Other P-40s from the 14th AF bombed dropped ammunition to Chinese troops on Tehshan Mountain.

23rd FG lost a P-40 (serial no. 42-104436) (MACR 11970) during the day.

Captain G. Lundy took command of the 74th FS after that Captain P. Bell had been wounded in action during the day.

5 December 1943
16 P-40s of the 14th AF over the Changde area damaged several large supply sampans near Ansiang and strafed various targets of opportunity in the Tehshan and Hsutu Lake areas.
20+ P-40s on patrols over the Changde area attacked numerous boats and other targets throughout the nearby lake region.

6 December 1943
Changde was pounded throughout the day by 30+ B-25s and numerous fighters from the 14th AF.
CACW reported that the fighters and bombers were to stage through Lingling, fly the mission to Changde, then land at Hengyang to refuel and rearm. Then they would return to Changde for another strike and continue home to Kweilin.
The first attack was made at 10,000ft, the four CACW B-25s carrying twelve 100-pound bombs each. As the formation reached the target a flight of six silver Ki-44s attacked individually from head-on. The bore in and fired, then pulled up over over the formation. The bomber of Lieutenant Lin C. Y. Took a hit in the leading edge of the left wing, and Lieutenant Seacreast's aircraft was hit in the top turret, but neither B-25 was seriously damaged.
The escorts, which were above and behind the bombers, jumped on the Ki-44s as they pulled off the bombers, and First Lieutenant Clifford D. Boyle of the 32nd PS (CACW) claimed one (the first "kill" of the CACW even if it wasn't confirmed until the following month) at 10:40 as did Captain James Tryon Bull of the 3rd PG (CACW). First Lieutenants Wu Yuen and John R. DeHaven, both of the 32nd PS (CACW), also scored probable kills at the same time during the combat.
All aircraft landed at Hengyang at 11:30, the B-25s were repaired as needed, and the second mission took off at 13:45.
Again the CACW bombers attacked Changde from 10,000ft, but this time the bombing was more accurate than during the morning mission. A formation of about ten Ki-44s and Ki-43s attacked over the target, wading head-on into the escort fighters.
Lieutenant Tan S. Y. of the 32nd PS (CACW) was shot down in P-40N no. 632. He was wounded and baled out but was captured near Changde and interned at Hankou. He escaped 14 months later and returned to his unit in April 1945.
First Lieutenant Boyle was shot down and killed in P-40 no. 652 'Quincy Queen'. He was credited with a probable during the mission at 15:00.
Branch's gunner, Sergeant Wei was credited with a Ki-44 that he had spotted chasing a P-40 and saw it dive into the ground after that he had fired on it.
The P-40 of Lieutenant DeHaven was damaged by one of the attackers, and two bullets hit Lieutenant Seacrest's B-25 in the windshield during the attack, but they didn't pierce the glass.

Other 14th AF fighters strafed targets of opportunity in the railway yard at Hsipaw and damaged a train at Hopong.

7 December 1943
Changde was hit twice by a total of 13 B-25s and several escorting fighters from the 14th AF.

8 December 1943
Nine B-25s escorted by 16 P-40s of the 14th AF pounded Changde.
Nine other B-25s bombed Hofuh and the 16 escorting P-40s bombed two villages to the north.

9 December 1943
15 B-25s of the 14th AF bombed Wuchang and Hankou, and three other bombed Changde.
P-40s strafed sampans above Nanhsien and attacked targets of opportunity in the Salween River area, including road traffic south of Hsia Chai, barracks at Tachai, and the town of San Tsun.

10 December 1943
At dawn, 32 Ki-43s and nine Ki-44s escorted light bombers to Henyang, where the crews of the latter claimed 15 aircraft destroyed on the ground for the loss of two of their number. The escorting fighters claimed three interceptors shot down.
The Americans reported that Japanese aircraft bombed Hengyang Airfield. Eight P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted one wave of aircraft over the field, shooting down three of them. Two P-40s were lost in the combat.

At dusk, the 3rd Hikoshidan reported having destroyed eight P-40, one P-38 and two B-25s on Lingling airfield.

11 December 1943
14 B-25s and ten P-40s from the 14th AF attacked Shihshow and Ansiang.
Three B-24s bombed Hankou airfield.

Nine P-40s from the 14th AF intercepted about 30 Japanese airplanes over Nanchang shortly after the enemy force bombed Suichan. The P-40s claimed ten enemy aircraft shot down.
Sergeant Major Sakio Hade (NCO82) of the 85th Sentai was bounced by enemy fighters and was killed as was Sergeant Yoshio Sakagami (Sho-7)..

49 fighters and bombers of the 3rd Hikoshidan attacked and destroyed 11 of 15 enemy aircraft on the ground at Lingling airfield.

12 December 1943
41 Japanese bombers and fighters bombed the west side of Hengyang Airfield, causing considerable damage. 31 P-40s and six P-38s from the 14th AF intercepted the enemy force, claiming 20 airplanes shot down. Two P-40s were lost.
The Japanese claimed 12 victories and 8 probables for the loss of two fighters from the 11th Sentai when Sergeant Masao Iida (Sho-6) and Sergeant Masuo Shigenobu (Sho-6) were killed.

Nine B-24s bombed Hankou airfield.

13 December 1943
Twelve B-25s with fighter escort from 14th AF bombed Li-Chou and Kungan.
Eight B-25s pounded Wuchang Airfield.
16 P-40s on armed reconnaissance strafed targets of opportunity from Changde to Linli to Li-Chou.

14 December 1943
The Chinese aces probably received the new P-40Ns “out of turn”, since the commander of the 23rd PS Chow Che-Kai flew a reconnaissance mission in the new type on 14 December. On the return flight he was killed in an air battle.

13 B-25s with fighter escort from the 14th AF bombed Shasi.
Two P-40s strafed supply trucks south of Tengchung.

15 December 1943
25 P-40s of the 14th AF strafed parked aircraft, trucks, and several buildings at Pailochi. At least three enemy airplanes were destroyed.
Two B-25s on a sea sweep over the Gulf of Tonkin claimed one ocean-going tug sunk.
16 P-40s on armed reconnaissance strafed the towns of Owchihkow and Shihshow.
Six others attacked the town of Luchiangpa and villages in the area.

16 December 1943
Colonel T. Alan Bennett (recently promoted), CO of 3rd FG (CACW), piled up P-40 No. 655 after engine troubles on take-off for a mission but fortunately without any injuries to himself.

Nine B-25s and eleven P-40s of the 14th AF hit the north-west part of Owchihkow.

Four B-25s on sweeps over the South China Sea damaged a freighter south of Nampang Island, bombed Tunguan docks, and shoot down one enemy bomber.
The B-25s of the 1st BG (CACW) made several five-plane strikes, and then began a series of two-aircraft anti-shipping sweeps that netted considerable tonnage destroyed.
Lieutenant Colonel Branch, CO 1st BG (CACW) and Captain Harper, 2nd BS (CACW), flew single shipping sweeps along the China coast. Branch found no targets and returned but Harper found plenty of action.
About 30 miles north-east of Canton, four Ki-44s attacked Harper's aircraft, two head-on and two from astern. The gunners were able to fight of the Japanese fighters without Harper's aircraft being hit, the Harper proceeded to bomb river docks at Tung-Wan and headed for home.
Just then, a twin-engined Japanese aircraft identified as a Ki-46 Dinah was spotted, and a 25-minute combat ensued. Considering the capabilities of the Ki-46 (a fast and maneuverable recon aircraft) it is more likely that the Japanese aircraft was a bomber, perhaps a Ki-48 Lily or Ki-21 Sally, because the top speed reported for the enemy aircraft was 200mph.
Three passes were made at it from behind, and all members of the crew took shots at the Japanese aircraft. Finally one crewman baled out, though only his small drag parachute opened, and Harper's crew watched the enemy aircraft crash into the ground.
Credit for the victory was shared by the crew, since it was impossible to determine whose gunfire had caused the fatal damage. Later it was reported that Chinese troops recovered important documents from the wreckage, and Captain Harper was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for the action.

15 P-40s on armed reconnaissance strafed Pailochi Airfield.
Eleven others strafed boats in channels north of Nanhsien.
Six P-38s strafed a troop train near Changanyi and attacked 25 sampans (destroying most of them) on the Yangtze River just above Huangtang Lake.

17 December 1943
Six P-40s of the 14th AF bombed and strafed barracks near Kunlong.

18 December 1943
27 B-24s supported by 28 P-40s of the 14th AF pounded the airfield at Namsang. Some of the P-40s strafed Laihka Airfield.
Two B-25s on a sea sweep claimed damaging hits on a freighter and a tanker in the Hainan Straits.
Five B-25s bombed the south-western part of Nanhsien.

The 33rd and 64th Sentais escorted heavy bombers to Kunming, claiming five victories. The 64th Sentai lost two pilots when Sergeant Hiroshi Uchimura (Sho-7) and Corporal Noburo Fujiwara (Sho-10) were killed.

19 December 1943
About 35 Japanese bombers and fighters attacked Hengyang Airfield. 26 P-40s were sent up against the attacking force and shoot down nine. Two P-40s were lost.
Twelve B-25s and eight P-40s attacked Nanhsien and Ansiang.

50th Sentai took light bombers to Yunnan Station, claiming ten victories but lost two pilots when Captain Takashi Tomomune (Class 53) and Sergeant Major Matsuo Kimoto (NCO87) were killed.

20 December 1943
Eleven B-25s and six P-40s pf the 14th AF from Kweilin pounded the Yoyang railroad yards. P-40s from Hengyang also provided support for the B-25s.

21 December 1943
29 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the railroad yards at Chiengmai. The warehouse area along the west side of the yards suffers very heavy damage.
14 B-25s, with fighter escort, attacked Hwajung.

The 25th Sentai lost Warrant Officer Shigenobu Ohsawa (NCO81) over Canton.

22 December 1943
Seven B-25s with fighter escort of the 14th AF bombed Hwajung.
Two others claimed three direct hits on a freighter 105 miles (168 km) south of Hong Kong.

65 Japanese bombers and fighters attacked Kunming Airfield. Ten P-40s and a P-38 from Kunming and several fighters from Yunnani engaged the enemy force in a 50-minute running battle, claiming twelve airplanes shot down. Two US aircraft were destroyed on the ground. The damage to airfield was not serious.
The Japanese Ki-21 bombers were escorted by the 33rd, 64th and 204th Sentias. The Japanese lost five Ki-43s and two Ki-21s but claimed 26 victories between them. The 204th Sentai lost two pilots when Captain Masami Nakajima (Class 52) and Sergeant Masuo Tamura (NCOR) were killed while the 33rd Sentai lost First Lieutenant Yoshibumi Suzuka (Class 55).

Seven P-40s of the 14th AF intercepted a force of 58 airplanes heading toward Chengkung, shooting down three of them and preventing an attack on the airfield.

23 December 1943
Five P-40Ns from the 7th and 8th PS flew from Giulin to attack the aerodrome at Tianhe. Somewhere near the target, there was an air battle and most of the P-40s were shot down.

29 B-24s escorted by seven P-51s and 23 P-40s of the 14th AF, pounded White Cloud Airfield at 14:00. The fighters claimed six destroyed and six probables interceptors downed.
First Lieutenant Vernon J. Kramer (76th FS) claimed a A6M over Canton (take-off 12:40-) while Flying Officer Robert J. Wilson (16th FS) claimed a A6M over Tien Ho airfield between 12:45-15:50.
The 74th FS claimed one Ki-44 (First Lieutenant Richard A. Mauritson) and two probables (First Lieutenants Theodore R. Adams and Reuben W. Hendrickson) at 14:00 over Canton.
32nd FS (CACW) took part in this mission when they escorted B-24s from the 308th BG attacking Canton at 14:00 and making a number of claims at 14:00 over Tien Ho airfield. Captain William L. Turner claimed a Ki-44 (?) as the first victory of his tour, bringing his total to four. First Lieutenant Keith G. Lindell claimed a Ki-44 (?) and a second as a probable. First Lieutenant Chen P. C. claimed a Ki-44. Three more probables (possibly Ki-44s) were claimed by Captain Hung Chi-Wei, First Lieutenant Thomas M. Maloney and Captain James A. Dale. Two Chinese Lieutenants, Hwang S. Y. And Wang K. C. were shot down and listed as missing in action. Lieutenant had been something of an artist, having designed the 3rd FG (CACW) insignia only a few weeks before his death.

The 85th Sentai lost Sergeant Major Hidesue Ikubo (Sho-5) over Canton.

14 P-38s dive-bombed and strafed Huang Shan Kou.
Two B-25s claimed one gunboat sunk in the Formosa Straits.

24 December 1943
18 B-24s of the 14th AF (including bombers from 308th BG) bombed a Tien Ho satellite airfield. The B-24s and 18 escorting fighters claimed 20 interceptors shot down. B-24 42-73329 from 308th BG (MACR 1609) was lost over the target.
Included in the escort were fighters from 74th and 76th FS, 23rd FG and 28th FS, 3rd FG (CACW). The fighters claimed 4 destroyed, 2 probables and 5 damaged.
The 76th FS reported their mission taking place between 11:30 and 14:30. Captain Lee P. Manbeck claimed a probable 'Zero' over Canton.
First Lieutenant James E. Spurgin Jr. of 74th FS claimed a damaged Ki-43 (Mk II) damaged over Canton at 12:30.
28th FS (CACW) was heavily involved in combat between12:45 and 13:00 over Tien Ho airfield with Ki-43s or Ki-44s. First Lieutenant Frank C. Smiley Jr. claimed one enemy fighter and two more damaged. First Lieutenant Arthur W. Skidmore claimed one damaged enemy fighter. First Lieutenant Meng Shao-Yi, Second Lieutenant Chao Yi-Hsin (who also claimed a damaged) and First Lieutenant Chow Shi-Lin (who also claimed one additional as a probably destroyed) claimed one enemy fighter each. Major Eugene L. Strickland led his fighters and reported:

"Eight B-24s were staging at Erh Tong and had to take off prior to our takeoff. As soon as their last ship cleared the field, my squadron started taking off. In approximately ten minutes we were all airborne and assembled in formation. By that time the B-24s had already set course for Canton and were out of sight. I headed for the course and increased my throttle setting to thirty-five inches of manifold pressure. We finally caught up with them about fifty miles from Canton.
A flight of about five Zeros hit the bombers from twelve o'clock. It is believed that in this initial pass they shot down a B-24. I saw one parachute open at the tail end of the bomber formation immediately after the first pass. Whether this was a Jap or an American I do not know.
As the Zeroes would come into the bombers from the front, they would do a half-roll through the bombers and break away down and to the side.
I was leading the first flight of fighters and I pulled them up slightly ahead of the bombers and did some long-range shooting at subsequent Zeroes coming in at twelve o'clock. This helped to some extent, for when they saw tracers coming across their noses they immediately flipped over on their backs and dived out. We did not try at any time to follow them down but maintained our position on the bombers.
In the meantime several Zeroes were stunting off to the side and out of range of our fighters. Captain Cheng, our Chinese squadron commander, was in command of the second flight and occasionally would turn into them and chase them off.
I got in several ninety-to sixty-degree deflection shots, but each time the Zero would flip on its back and do two or three turns and a spin and keep going down. Only once did I have a chance to follow a Zero in a climb. I was forced to break off because my airspeed was down to 150 mph. Following the Zero to my left, I broke sharply down and to the right. Looking back I did not at any time see the Zero again.
The bombers pulled off the target to the left and headed north again. The enemy continued to make attacks, which persisted until we were about eighty miles out from the target.
When we were about twenty miles on our way home I was on the right side even with the lead bomber and trying to reassemble the formation when I noticed a Zero on the tail of a lagging P-40. Immediately I pulled up and back. Lieutenant Smiley was on my wing all the time, a fact I was not aware of. I started firing slightly out of range to make the Zero quit firing as soon as possible. He immediately flipped over on his back and did about three turns of a spin. I continued firing while he was in the spin, with unobserved results. Pulling back up, I rejoined the formation.
The last Zero I saw was about five minutes later, about a thousand yards behind the last bomber and shooting at the formation. Shortly afterwards he broke off into diving turn. The bombers were left about ten minutes later and we came back to our base without further mishap."
The mission had lasted 3 hours and 15 minutes, with the fighters landing at Erh Tong at 14:50.
It seems that they at least had been in combat with the 25th Sentai since Captain Nakakazu Ozaki from this unit claimed one victory over Canton during the day.

25 December 1943
Two B-25s of the 14th AF claimed heavy damage to a passenger ship south of Hong Kong.

27 December 1943
Ten P-40s from the 14th AF strafed buildings on Pailochi Airfield and sunk a nearby riverboat. Two locomotives north of Yoyang were also destroyed.

36 Japanese aircraft attacked Suichan Airfield, destroying one B-25, the alert shack, and three fuel dumps. US interceptors from the 14th AF claimed four of the attackers shot down. One P-40 was lost.
The 25th Sentai lost three pilots when Captain Nakakazu Ozaki (Class 53), an ace and leader of the 2nd chutai, Sergeant Miyoji Maruyama (NCO87) and Corporal Hideaki Takeshita (Sho-10) were killed. It was reported that the newly promoted Captain Ozaki was engaged by at least 20 hostile fighters, his wingman Corporal Zukemura, being hard-pressed. Ozaki at once rammed one of his attackers, then crashing to his death some ten kilometres south-west of Suichan airfield. At the time of his death, Ozaki was credited with 19 victories and a further 12-14 damaged B-24s. He was awarded a posthumous individual citation and promoted two ranks to Lieutenant Colonel.

28 December 1943
Four B-25s and four P-51s of the 14th AF attacked Yangtze River shipping at Chihchow. One cargo ship was claimed sunk, two others damaged, and an armed motor vessel set aflame.
Seven P-40s bombed a building on the railroad siding at Yun-chi.

29 December 1943
Four P-40s from the 14th AF on armed reconnaissance strafed the railroad station, yards, and town area at Hsipaw, hit numerous freight cars between Hsipaw and Mansam Falls, and attacked railroad yards at Hopong.
Three B-25s on a shipping sweep along the Yangtze River claimed a cargo vessel and an armed passenger ship sunk south-west of Wuhu.

30 December 1943
Eight Japanese fighters strafed Suichan Airfield while twelve others provide cover. Two US aircraft were destroyed on the ground. Eight P-40s of the 14th AF intercepted the formation after the attack and shoot down three aircraft.
It seems that the 11th Sentai lost Sergeant Major Masa-aki Deguchi (NCO81) in this mission.

31 December 1943
25 B-24s from the 14th AF pounded the Lampang railroad yards, causing several big fires and many secondary explosions.
Six B-25s hit Yangtze River shipping in the Anking and Lu-Kuan areas, claiming three cargo vessels and a troop carrier sunk.
Two others on a sea sweep damaged a passenger vessel in the Hainan Straits.



Known units taking part in combat during 1943

Chinese Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
  1st BG (CACW) Jiang Xian-Xiang (1943 – )
Colonel John A. Hilger (US) (08/43 – 21/09/43)
Lieutenant Colonel Irving L. Branch (US) (21/09/43 – 09/44)
Major Li Hsueh-Yen (Ch) (12/43 – 08/44)
Wenchiang
Malir (08/43 – end/43)
Yangkai (10/43 – 11/43)
Kweilin (11/43 – )
Tupolev SB
North American B-25 Mitchell
To Ka La-Chi (India) to re-equip with B-25s, reformed on 31 July and to come under the command of the CACW in October 1943.
1st BS 1st BG (CACW) Captain John H. Washington (US) (10/43 – 09/44)
Captain Lee Yien-Luo (Ch) (10-43 – 03/44)
Malir (08/43 – end/43) North American B-25 Mitchell Came under the command of the CACW in late 1943.
2nd BS 1st BG (CACW) Major Thomas F. Foley (US) (08/43 – 04/44)
Captain Hu Chao-Tung (Ch) (11/43 – 02/44)
Malir (08/43 – 11/43)
Erh Tong, Kweilin (10/43 – )
North American B-25 Mitchell Activated on 9 October and assigned to the CACW on 15 October as the 2nd BS, 1st BG.
3rd BS 1st BG (CACW)     North American B-25 Mitchell Not operational and came under the command of the CACW in early 1944.
4th BS 1st BG (CACW)     North American B-25 Mitchell Not operational and came under the command of the CACW in early 1944.
  2nd BG Tong Yan-Bo (08/42 – 04/01/43)
Zhu Hong-Xin (05/01/43 –)
Baishiyi Lockheed A-29  
  3rd PG
3rd FG (CACW)
Lieutenant Colonel T. Alan Bennett (US) (08/43 – 12/44)
Major Yuan Chin-Han (Ch) (10/43 – 08/45)
Taipingshi
Malir (31/07/43 – )
Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – ) Reformed on 31 July and came under the CACW in October 1943 as the 3rd FG.
7th PS
7th FS
3rd PG
3rd FG (CACW)
Major William N. Reed (US) (10/43 – 12/44)
Captain Hsu Chi-Hsiang (Ch) (10/43 – 11/44)
Malir (08/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – ) Came under the CACW in December 1943 as the 7th FS, 3rd FG.
8th PS
8th FS
3rd PG
3rd FG (CACW)
Major Howard Cords (US) (10/43 – 04/44)
Captain Szutu Fu (Ch) (10/43 – )
Malir (08/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (12/43 – ) Came under the CACW in December 1943 as the 8th, FS, 3rd FG.
28th PS
28th FS
3rd PG
3rd FG (CACW)
Major Eugene L. Strickland (US) (08/43 – 12/44)
Captain Tseng Pei-Fu (Ch ) (08/43 – 14/09/43)
Captain Cheng Sung-Ting (Ch.) (09/43 – 12/44)
Malir (08/43 – 15/10/43)
Erh Tong, Kweilin (23/11/43 – )
Curtiss P-40N (08/43 – ) Activated on 9 October and assigned to the CACW on 15 October 1943 as the 28th FS, 3rd FG.
32nd PS
32nd FS
3rd PG
3rd FG (CACW)
Captain William L. Turner (US) (08/43 – 09/44)
Captain Hung Chi-Wei (Ch) (08/43 – 08/45)
Malir (08/43 – 15/10/43)
Erh Tong, Kweilin (23/11/43 – )
Curtiss P-40N (08/43 – ) Assigned to the CACW on 15 October 1943 as the 32nd FS, 3rd FG.
  4th PG Li Xiang-Yang (23/04/1942 – 09/44) Taipingsi ( – 12/02/43)
Baishi (12/02/43 – 05/43)
Liangshan (05/43 – )
Republic P-43A
Curtiss P-40E
Curtiss P-40N
 
21st PS 4th PG Kao Yau-Hsin (1943 – 09/44)   Republic P-43A
Curtiss P-40E
Curtiss P-40N
 
22nd PS 4th PG Wang Tejian Qiangjin (end/42 – )
India (end/43 – )
Republic P-43A
Curtiss P-40E
Curtiss P-40N (end/43 – )
 
23rd PS 4th PG Chow Che-Kai (1943 – 14/12/43) Liangshan Curtiss P-40E
Curtiss P-40N
 
24th PS 4th PG   India (end/43 – ) Curtiss P-40E (10/42 – end/43)
Curtiss P-40N (end/43 – 1945)
 
  5th PG
5th FG (CACW)
  Shuanliu/Lanchou
Malir (end/43 – )
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – ) Not operational in the late part of 1943 and activated CACW on 13 January 1944.
17th PS
17th FS
5th PG
5th FG (CACW)
  Malir (end/43 – ) Vultee P-66 (09/42 – 03/44)
Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – )
Not operational in the late part of 1943 and activated CACW on 13 January 1944 as the 17th FS.
26th PS
26th FS
5th PG
5th FG (CACW)
  Malir (end/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – ) Not operational in the late part of 1943 and activated CACW on 13 January 1944 as the 26th FS.
27th PS
27th FS
5th PG
5th FG (CACW)
  Malir (end/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – ) Not operational in the late part of 1943 and activated CACW on 13 January 1944 as the 27th FS.
29th PS
29th FS
5th PG
5th FG (CACW)
  Malir (15/01/44 – ) Curtiss P-40N (15/01/44 – ) Not operational in the late part of 1943 and activated CACW on 13 January 1944 as the 29th FS.
  8th BG   Lanchou Tupolev SB  
  11th PG   Baishiyi/Liangshan/Enshi Vultee P-66 (06/42 – )  
41st PS 11th PG Chen Zhaoji   Vultee P-66 (06/42 – )  
42nd PS 11th PG     Vultee P-66 (06/42 – )  
43rd PS 11th PG     Vultee P-66 (06/42 – )  
44th PS 11th PG     Vultee P-66 (06/42 – )  
  12th BG   Wenchiang Tupolev SB  
45th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB  
46th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB  
47th BS 12th BG     Tupolev SB  
10th BS       Lockheed A-29  
12th BS       Tupolev SB Disbanded at the end of 1943.
43rd PS       Curtiss P-40E  
44th PS     India (end/43 – ) Curtiss P-40N  

US Army Air Force

Known units, commanders and stations
Squadrons Groups Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
21st PS (Light)
21st PRS (from 13/11/43)
    Bishnupur (27/06/43 – 22/08/43)
Kunming (det. 12/07/43 – 22/08/43)
Kweilin (det. 12/07/43 – 12/09/44)
Kunming (22/08/43 – 14/05/45)
Suichan (det. 26/10/43 – 26/06/44)
Lockheed F-4
Lockheed F-5
Curtiss P-40
Operated only a flight in China.
9th PRS
9th PS (Light) (from 06/02/43)
9th PRS (from 13/11/43)
    Kunming (11/42 – 12/07/43)
Kweilin (det. 02/43 – 12/07/43)
Lockheed F-4 Operated only a flight in China.
71st Liaison Squadron     Ledo (26/10/43 – 15/10/44)
Kunming (det. 11/43 – 01/07/44)
Piper L-4 Grasshopper
Stinson L-5 Sentinel
 
  23rd FG Colonel Robert L Scott Jr (04/07/42 – 09/01/43)
Lieutenant Colonel Bruce K. Holloway (09/01/43 – 16/09/43)
Lieutenant Colonel Norval C. Bonawitz (16/09/43 – 04/11/43)
Colonel David L. Hill (04/11/43 – 15/10/44)
Kunming (04/07/42 – 09/43)
Kweilin (09/43 – 08/09/44)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51
 
74th FS 23rd FG Captain Albert Baumler (11/12/42 – 18/02/43)
Major John Lombard (18/02/43 – 30/06/43)
Major N. Bonawitz (07/07/43 – 08/43)
Captain W. Crooks (08/43 – 11/10/43)
Captain P. Bell (11/10/43 – 04/12/43)
Captain G. Lundy (04/12/43 – 15/05/44)
Kunming (04/07/42 – 12/03/43)
Yunnani (12/03/43 – 19/05/43)
Kweilin 19/05/43 – 12/09/44)
Curtiss P-40
North American P-51
 
75th FS 23rd FG Major John Alison (01/12/42 – 05/43) Chanyi (17/08/42 – 20/01/43)
Yunnani (20/01/43 – 31/03/43)
Lingling (31/03/43 – 26/04/43)
Kunming (26/04/43 – 11/10/43)
Kweilin (11/10/43 – 11/43)
Hengyang (11/43 – 10/06/44)
Curtiss P-40  
76th FS 23rd FG Lieutenant Colonel Bruce Holloway (05/12/42 – 02/01/43) Kunming (18/08/42 – 13/05/43)
Lingling (13/05/43 – 11/08/43)
Hengyang (11/08/43 – 21/11/43)
Suichan (det. 03/10/43 – 07/12/43)
Kweilin (21/11/43 – 26/12/43)
Suichan (26/12/43 – 01/06/44)
Curtiss P-40  
  51st FG Colonel Homer L. Sanders (41 – 23/03/43)
Colonel John F. Eagan (23/03/43 – 20/09/43)
Lieutenant Colonel Samuel B Knowles Jr. (20/09/43 – 27/05/44)
Dinjan (10/10/42 – 02/10/43)
Kunming (02/10/43 – 09/45)
Curtiss P-40
Lockheed P-38
 
16th FS 51st FG Major G. W. Hazlett (14/09/42 – 27/01/43) Chenyi (29/11/42 – 31/03/43)
Yunnani (det. 26/12/42 – 03/43)
Kweilin (31/03/43 – 20/09/43)
Hengyang (20/09/43 – 25/11/43)
Chengkung (25/11/43 – 19/08/45)
Tsuyung (det. 25/11/43 – 04/44)
Curtiss P-40  
25th FS 51st FG   Dinjan (22/11/42 – 14/09/43)
Yunnani (14/09/43 – 09/45)
Poashan (det. 30/11/44 – 01/45)
Curtiss P-40  
26th FS 51st FG   Dinjan (10/10/42 – 07/10/43)
Kunming (07/10/43 – 01/08/45)
Curtiss P-40  
449th FS 51st FG   Kunming (26/08/43)
Lingling (26/08/43 – 02/44)
Hengyang (det. 09/43 – 09/43)
Kweilin (det. 09/43 – 09/43)
Lockheed P-38  
  308th BG (Heavy) Colonel William P. Fisher (03/11/43 – 19/10/44) Kunming (20/03/43 – 10/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
373rd BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Major Crockett (26/11/43 – ) Yangkai (20/03/43 – 14/09/44) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
374th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Captain Robert Barnet (22/08/43 – ) Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combat over China on 21 August 1943.
375th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Captain Henry G. Brady (09/42 – ) Chengkung (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator Received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combat over China on 21 August 1943.
425th BS (Heavy) 308th BG (Heavy) Harry Marshall Kunming (20/03/43 – 18/02/45) Consolidated B-24 Liberator  
11th BS 341st BG (Medium)   Kunming (04/06/42 – 21/06/43)
Kweilin (21/06/43 – 28/06/44)
Hengyang (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Suichan (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Nanning (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
Lingling (det. 06/43 – 06/44)
   
  402nd BG (Medium)   Kunming (19/05/43 – 31/07/43)   No squadrons were assigned and headquarters was never fully manned.

IJAAF

Known units, commanders and stations
Regiments Squadrons Commanders Stations Aircraft types Note
11th Sentai   Major Seijiro Morishita (02/43 – 08/44) Laolian (09/43 – 12/43)
Wuchang (12/43)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)  
11th Sentai 1st chutai Lieutenant Takashi Ninomiya (02/43 – 05/44) Laolian (09/43 – 12/43)
Wuchang (12/43)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)  
11th Sentai 2nd chutai Lieutenant Takashi Saito (04/43 – 01/44) Laolian (09/43 – 12/43)
Wuchang (12/43)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)  
11th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Juro Fujita (01/43 – 07/44) Laolian (09/43 – 12/43)
Wuchang (12/43)
Canton (12/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (07/43 – 02/44)  
16th Sentai     Hankou (02/43 – ) Kawasaki Ki-48-I
Kawasaki Ki-48-II
 
23rd Sentai     Hankou (02/43 – )    
25th Sentai   Major Toshio Sakagawa (07/11/42 – 07/44) Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yichiang ( – 08/43)
Canton (09/43 – 10/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (11/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
 
25th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Masatsune Mori (07/11/42 – 01/04/43)
Lieutenant Takashi Tsuchiya (04/43 – 03/09/44)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yichiang ( – 08/43)
Canton (09/43 – 10/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (11/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
 
25th Sentai 2nd chutai Lieutenant Hideo Sugawara (07/11/42 – 23/11/42)
Captain Nakakazu Ozaki (03/43 – 27/12/43)
Hankou (11/42 – 01/45)
Yichiang ( – 08/43)
Canton (09/43 – 10/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (11/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
 
25th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Keisaku Motohashi (11/43 – 08/44) Hankou (spring/43 – 01/45)
Yichiang ( – 08/43)
Canton (09/43 – 10/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (spring/43 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (05/43 – 11/44)
Activated during the spring of 1943.
33rd Sentai   Major Tsutomu Mizutani (08/42 – 01/43)
Major Akira Watanabe (01/43 – 24/08/43)
Major Isao Fukuchi (08/43 – 11/44)
Canton (09/42 – 07/43)
Wuchang (03/43 – 09/43)
Canton (09/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (05/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (spring/43 – 11/44)
 
33rd Sentai 1st chutai Lieutenant Yasuto Ohtsubo (02/42 – 31/05/43)
Captain Kiyoshi Namai (06/43 – 05/44)
Canton (09/42 – 07/43)
Wuchang (03/43 – 09/43)
Canton (09/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (05/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (spring/43 – 11/44)
 
33rd Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Taketo Sakashita (09/41 – 08/05/43)
Captain Chiyuki Doi (05/43 – 05/44)
Canton (09/42 – 07/43)
Wuchang (03/43 – 09/43)
Canton (09/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (05/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (spring/43 – 11/44)
 
33rd Sentai 3rd chutai Lieutenant Kosuke Kono (08/42 – 05/44) Canton (09/42 – 07/43)
Wuchang (03/43 – 09/43)
Canton (09/43)
Hanoi (09/43 – 10/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-I (05/42 – 06/43)
Nakajima Ki-43-II (spring/43 – 11/44)
 
44th Sentai     Nanchang (02/43 – )
Puchi (02/43 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-51  
54th Sentai   Major Yasunari Shimada (07/41 – 04/44) Chitose (10/42 – 01/43)
Obihiro (01/43 – 04/43)
Nakajima Ki-27 (07/41 – 02/43)  
54th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Shoji Tomita (07/41 – 26/02/42)
Lieutenant Kanji Kikuchi (02/42 – 02/44)
Chitose (10/42 – 01/43)
Obihiro (01/43 – 04/43)
Nakajima Ki-27 (07/41 – 02/43)  
54th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Toshio Dozono (07/41 – 25/04/42)
Lieutenant Yukichi Kitakoga (04/42 – 06/44)
Chitose (10/42 – 01/43)
Obihiro (01/43 – 04/43)
Nakajima Ki-27 (07/41 – 02/43)  
54th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Yaichiro Hayashi (07/41 – 11/43) Chitose (10/42 – 01/43)
Obihiro (01/43 – 04/43)
Nakajima Ki-27 (07/41 – 02/43)  
58th Sentai     Tachangchen (07/43 – )
Hanoi (09/43 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-21 Assigned to 3rd Hikoshidan between July and October.
60th Sentai     Nanching (07/43 – )
Tourane (09/43 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-21 Assigned to 3rd Hikoshidan between July and October.
85th Sentai   Major Goro Yamamoto (03/41 – 11/43)
Major Togo Saito (11/43 – end of war)
Hailang (12/41 – 06/43)
Wuchang (08/07/43 – 08/43)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)  
85th Sentai 1st chutai Captain Akira Horaguchi (06/43 – 04/12/43)
Lieutenant Hajime Saito (12/43 – 10/44)
Hailang (12/41 – 06/43)
Wuchang (08/07/43 – 08/43)
Hankou (10/43 – 02/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)  
85th Sentai 2nd chutai Captain Yukiyoshi Wakamatsu (01/42 – 12/44) Hailang (12/41 – 06/43)
Canton (05/07/43 – 12/44)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)  
85th Sentai 3rd chutai Captain Yoshiaki Nakahara (12/41 – 09/09/43)
Captain Morio Nakamura (09/43 – 12/44)
Hailang (12/41 – 06/43)
Wuchang (08/07/43 – 08/43)
Nakajima Ki-44 (late/42 – 12/44)  
90th Sentai     Licheng (08/42 – )
Peiping (08/42 – )
Hankou (02/43 – )
Kagi (09/43 – )
Kawasaki Ki-48  
Independent 18th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Hankou (08/42 – )
Tourane (09/43 – )
Hanoi (09/43 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-15
Mitsubishi Ki-46
 
Independent 55th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Kingmen (08/42 – 02/43)
Nanching (02/43 – )
Canton (09/43 – )
Mitsubishi Ki-46 Reconnaissance squadron
Independent 85th Dokuritsu Hiko Chutai   Nanching 03/43 – )   Reconnaissance squadron
Independent 206th Dokuritsu Hikodan Shireibu   Changtien (02/43 – )    
Independent 8th Tokushu Kogekatai (?)   Taihsien (02/43 – )   Army cooperation unit.











Last modified 04 September 2013