Biplane fighter aces

The Commonwealth

Major John Loch ‘Gugu’ Hewitson DFC, SAAF no. 102733V

Born on 20 April 1918 in Pretoria, John Hewitson joined the SAAF in September 1939 and received his wings on 23 December 1939.

He first saw active service over East Africa with 1 SAAF Squadron in 1940, where he claimed his initial successes.

On 8 June 1940, he flew the Gloster Gauntlet for the first time when he took off at 08:20 for a 25-minutes flight with K7852.

He flew the Gladiator for the first time when he took off at 07:10 on 29 June 1940 with N5815 for a 20-minutes flight.

On 18 September, three Gladiators of 1 SAAF Squadron were patrolling in the Kassala area between 14:50 and 17:15 when two CR.42s climbed up to challenge them. The South Africans got in first, Major Schalk van Schalkwyk claiming one and Second Lieutenants John Coetzer and Hewitson (N5852) claiming a second shared; one CR.42 was seen to spin and crash while the other was chased to its airfield at Tessenei, where it was reported to have crash-landed.
Second Lieutenant Hewitson reported in his logbook a dogfight with two CR.42s over Kassala. One retired while the other apparently fell out of control. He fired 1000 rounds of ammunition during the combat.
The identity of the Italian pilots remains unknown since no account of this combat can be found in Italian records.

Hewitson was promoted to First Lieutenant on 1 October 1940.

On the 6 November, the British forces in Sudan launched an offensive to capture the Italian fort at Gallabat as well as occupy Metema, which was just across the frontier. All that the RAF could provide in way of support was six Wellesleys, two Vincents, six Gauntlets, ten Gladiators (drawn from ‘K’ Flight and 1 SAAF Squadron) and four Hawker Hardys (from the Rhodesian Air Force). The Wellesleys were first into action bombing Gallabat, with the Gladiators requested to over fly the area in large formations. Three Gladiators of ‘K’ Flight arrived over the advancing troops at low level. They were patrolling to the east of Metema when a formation of an estimated six or seven CR.42s from 412a Squadriglia led by the unit commander Capitano Antonio Raffi attacked them from out of the sun. The Gladiator pilots were taken by surprise; 24-year-old Flight Lieutenant Kenneth Howard Savage (RAF no. 37483) (L7614) was shot down and killed while Pilot Officer Kirk (K7969) was forced to take to his parachute; neither pilot saw their attacker. Pilot Officer Jack Hamlyn evaded the initial onslaught but his aircraft (L7612) was badly damaged and he force-landed, returning later on foot. These three victories were claimed by Capitano Raffi, Tenente Niso Provinciali and Sergente Pietro Morlotti.
Meanwhile, Major Schalk van Schalkwyk (N5855) of 1 SAAF Squadron had also taken off from Azzoza, but on arriving over the front was also attacked by the CR.42s. Observers on the ground at once rang the strip at ‘Heston’ to report the lone Gladiator in combat with eight opponents, and despite thick mud caused by an unexpected downpour during the night, Captain Brian Boyle at once took off, arriving just in time to see the commanding officer's Gladiator going down in flames, the pilot taking to his parachute with his clothes on fire; he did not survive. Immediately Boyle was also attacked, bullets entering the cockpit and wounding him in hands and legs; desperately he fought on until the engine of N5852 stopped, and he had to crash-land between the lines. Boyle was brought in by Indian troops and sent by ambulance to Wadi Seidna where he was hospitalised for some weeks. He was subsequently warded a DFC (1 SAAF Squadron’s first) on 7 January 1941 for his gallant action in going single-handed to van Schalkwyk’s assistance.
It seems that Captain Boyle was credited to Sottotenente Fiorindo Rosmino.
Capitano Raffi reported that four victories were claimed as a result of these engagements, but Sottotenente Rosmino’s aircraft was hit and he returned with his parachute pack riddled with bullets.
During the morning another ‘K’ Flight Gladiator was flown up to the front, and shortly after midday Flying Officer Jack Maurice Hayward (RAF no. 40111) joined four Gladiators of 1 SAAF Squadron from ‘Heston’, which took off at 13:20 in another patrol over the front. There, five Ca.133s were seen at 7,000 feet, 2,000 feet lower than the Gladiators, approaching the battle area. As the fighters prepared to attack, they were bounced from above by six CR.42s and 21-years-old Hayward’s aircraft (K7977) was seen to crash in flames, the pilot being KIA (possibly shot down at 15:30 by Tenente Mario Visintini of the 412a Squadriglia). The South Africans at once split up into pairs, Lieutenants John Coetzer and Robin Pare taking on the fighters while Lieutenants Andrew Duncan and Hewitson went after the bombers. The Caproni attacked by Duncan crashed on the Metema-Gondar road, while Hewitson’s fell out of control after he’d fired three burst and crashed; he also damaged a third bomber on the ground. The crew of one of the shot-down bombers survived, and was to return on foot several days later.
While this was going on, the two pilots fighting the CR.42s had managed to drive them off, each claiming one of the fighters shot down; no losses of CR.42s were recorded however, although either or both of those attacked may have been damaged, and force-landed.
By the end of the day, despite the loss of air superiority by the British forces, Gallabat Fort had been captured and the garrison virtually annihilated, only to be lost again the following day, under Italian ground counter-attacks supported by continuous hammering by Caproni and SIAI bombers, as in that moment the Regia Aeronautica had the main control of the air space.

A patrol at noon on 22 January spotted two Ca.133s on Agordat aerodrome, which lay on the road to Keren.
Later that day Lieutenants Hendrik Johannes Piet Burger (Hurricane ‘298’) and Hewitson (Hurricane ‘272’) strafed them there. They destroyed the Ca.133 (18-4), which had been damaged in the earlier combat and claimed damage to another (probably also from 18o Squadriglia).

On 24 January 1941, Italian raids were made on troops in northern Eritrea, and also on concentrations near Metema and Gallabat.
In the morning (take-off after 06:30), Lieutenant Hewitson (Hurricane V7655) strafed a Ca.133, which he found in a clearing 40 miles west of Agrodat.
At 11:30, Captain Gerald Le Mesurier with Lieutenants John Coetzer and E. A. Jarvis took off from Sabdaret in Gladiators, joining up with two Hurricanes (Lieutenants Hewitson and Leonard le Clues Theron) for another raid on Agordat. The Gladiators ran into two CR.42s at the enemy airfield. Captain Le Mesurier and Lieutenant Coetzer chasing one for about 24km, firing at intervals, before it finally outran them. Le Mesurier retuned and claimed it as a damaged. Lieutenant Jarvis engaged the other for about 15 minutes but failed to register any damage on it while the Fiat’s fire hit his top wing.
Italian fighters patrolling over the front seem to have claimed two victories during the day.
The South African fighters were back at 12:05

On the morning on 27 January 1941, six Hurricanes and six Gladiators of 1 SAAF Squadron, using Sabderat as an advanced landing ground for refuelling, attacked Gura airfield during the day, many aircraft being seen there. While Major Wilmot, Lieutenant Theron and a third pilot remained above as top cover, the other nine strafed, claiming hits on nine S.79s, seven S.81s and three Ca.133s.
The Gladiators taking part in the strafe were led by Captain Brian Boyle (Gladiator N5815) and the other five pilots were Lieutenants Servaas de K. Viljoen, Robin Pare, Andrew Duncan, John Coetzer and Taylor. Hurricane pilots included Major Wilmot, Captain K. W. Driver, Lieutenant Hewitson and Lieutenant Leonard le Clues Theron.
It seems that the attack was contested since Tenente Luciano Cacciavillani (attached to 412a Squadriglia) reported in his logbook that he scrambled at 12:35 and fought against a couple of Hurricanes, with no results.
After the strafe at Gura, Captain Driver and Lieutenant Hewitson continued to Adi Ugri where Driver strafed four more S.81s, claiming damaged to two of them. Hewitson meanwhile strafed other ground target.
The Italians reported that three S.79s and four S.81 were substantially damaged.

At 10:45 on 28 January, two Hurricanes, flown by Captain K. W. Driver and Lieutenant Hewitson, set off to attack Asmara airfield, but became separated. Driver strafed the target, firing on three aircraft, which he identified as S.79s; they were in fact very similar S.73 transports, and two were damaged.
Hewitson meanwhile apparently attacked Gura, claiming to have hit a S.79, a S.81 and two Ca.133s, although the Italians noted no record of such an attack.

At 14:00 on 29 January, 1 SAAF Squadron took off to attack Gura, with six Hurricanes (Major Lawrence Wilmot, Captain K. W. Driver, Lieutenants Hewitson, Andrew Duncan, Hendrik Johannes Piet Burger and Leonard le Clues Theron) flying as top cover to five Gladiators, which would strafe. As they approached the Hurricanes run into several S.79s and a large number of CR.42s, which were seen over the airfield, the bombers having just returned from a raid over the front, and the fighters having scrambled at the approach of the South African aircraft. Captain Driver at once attacked an S.79 as it was going in to land, and shot it down in flames, two members of the crew baling out. The Gladiators then arrived, led by Captain Brian Boyle. These also met the Fiats, Lieutenant H. P. Smith (Gladiator N5851) and Lieutenant E. A. Jarvis each claiming one shot down.
Capitano Antonio Raffi, commander of the 412a Squadriglia, was above with two of his pilots, Tenente Luciano Cacciavillani and Maresciallo Aroldo Soffritti (they scrambled at 15:20), and he saw the Hurricane shoot down the S.79 before he could intervene. He then spotted the Gladiators, which he believed to be six strong, and at once, a great dogfight begun, during which the South Africans saw many Fiats falling away. Driver meanwhile had seen Adi Ugri landing ground on which four S.81s were dispersed, and attacking these, he left one (claimed as a S.79) in flames.
On return to base the combat with the Fiats was fully discussed, and it was decided that five had been shot down, one each by Lieutenant Smith and Lieutenant Jarvis, the other three being impossible to allocate to individual pilots. All the SAAF aircraft returned safely, although one Gladiator (N5831) had been hit by a single bullet.
This proves how easy it was to overestimate the damage caused, and indeed the numbers involved, in a whirling dogfight. Although several CR.42s were hit and damaged, none was in fact shot down. Tenente Cacciavillani's CR.42 was badly damaged by 50 hits, and Maresciallo Soffritti's was also damaged. Capitano Raffi’s own aircraft was hit five times and he recorded that he took ten bullets in his parachute and lost the fabric in the fuselage close to the cockpit and the tail plane. It seems that Raffi’s fire hit and damaged Lieutenant Smith Gladiator, who landed unhurt. The Italians reported combat against four Hurricanes and six Gladiators and reported one Gladiator shot down. Tenente Cacciavillani fired 60 rounds of 7.7mm, and claimed a Gladiator probably destroyed (shared) (strangely enough, this claim has been cancelled by a pen line in his logbook).

At 08:15 on 30 January, Captain K. W. Driver of 1 SAAF Squadron led three other Hurricanes (Lieutenants Hewitson, Andrew Duncan and Leonard le Clues Theron) to Adi Ugri to attack three S.81, which were left from an attack the previous day. Diving down, he set one of the bombers on fire, and Lieutenant Andrew Duncan burned a second and claimed a second shared destroyed on the ground. Actually all three were already beyond repair, and were being employed as dummies to attract just such an attack.
Lieutenant Hewitson strafed a pair of S.79s at Teramni.
The Hurricanes landed again at 09:30.

At 14:30 on 1 February, Lieutenants Hewitson and John Coetzer spotted five S.79s and a pair of CR.42s, 915m below them. The two Hurricanes made one stern and two head-on passes, resulting that the Italian bombers jettisoned their bombs and turned back. The escort fighters turned to attack one Hurricane then left with the bombers.

On 11 March, Captain K. W. Driver and Lieutenant Hewitson (V7688) set fire to a lone S.79 on the ground and then strafed an unidentified small biplane at Keren aerodrome while hunting for hidden CR.42s. Captain Brian Boyle (V7711), having strafed a S.79, joined the other two in shooting up three goods train.
AA fire damaged Captain Driver's Hurricane.

On 29 March 1941 Captain 'Piggy' Boyle and Lieutenant Hewitson left 1 SAAF Squadron, together with two other pilots, who returned to the Union in a Ju 52/3m for a well-earned rest.

He served as flight commander in 5 SAAF Squadron from 25 June 1941 to 31 May 1942 in the Western Desert.

On 24 September 1941, he received a Mention in Dispatches.

At 05:40 on 31 May, seven Bf 109F-4s from 4. and 6./JG 27 took off to escort Stukas (included Ju 87s from III./St.G. 3, which took off at 05:25 and landed 06:25) to attack enemy tanks 20 km south of Acroma. After the bombing and on the way back, south-west of Acroma, they clashed with five Hurricanes with eleven P-40s entering the fight shortly afterwards. Four P-40s were claimed by the Schwarm of 4./JG 27 when Oberleutnant Ferdinand Vögl one south-west of Fort Acroma at 06:15 and a second 2km north-east of Mteifel Chebir at 06:20 and at an altitude of 2,000m. The third was claimed by Feldwebel Franz Stigler south-west of Fort Acroma at 06:23 and the fourth was claimed at an altitude of 1,700m west of Fort Acroma at 06:24 by Feldwebel Alfred Heidel. However, the German fighters suffered hard and all three Bf 109F-4s from 6./JG 27 were shot down by P-40s over Bu Amud. The staffelkapitän Oberleutnant Emmerich Fluder (Bf 109F-4 trop WNr 8660 Yellow 3) was killed while Oberfeldwebel Erich Krenzke (Bf 109F-4 trop WNr 8774 Yellow 9) was taken PoW. The third was flown by Feldwebel Fritz Gromotka (Bf 109F-4 trop WNr 8548 Yellow 4) was luckier and came down on friendly territory, able to report back to Tmimi the next day.
They had clashed with eleven Tomahawks of 5 SAAF Squadron on a free sweep over Gazala-Bir Hacheim (06:25-07:50). The South African pilots had been informed of both the approach of bandits and that Stukas were bombing Acroma. Thus, at 06:55 and at an altitude of 10,000 feet, they turned their planes east. They met ten Ju 87s protected by a reported twelve Bfl09s and C.202s near Acroma. Four of these planes were close cover, four more 2,000 feet above as medium, and another four 3,000 feet further above as top cover. The latter were at 10,000 feet, the same level as the Tomahawks.
Major John Frost (Tomahawk IIb AM385/GL-W) ordered Blue Flight to attack the top cover and Red Flight the medium cover. He himself attacked the bombers with his flight of three. Frost and Lieutenant Kenneth Collin Morgan (AN354/GL-X) fired at the rear Stuka from astern; the aircraft glided away and was claimed as a shared probable victory at 06:55. Frost then warded off a Bf 109 before he and Lieutenant Charles Sommerville (AN431/GL-S) attacked a lagging Stuka and claimed as a shared damage at 07:00. Second Lieutenant John Michael Scott Martin (AM401/GL-I) banked in behind a Bf 109 at the same altitude, firing from 300 yards and then following him in a steep dive; at 200 yards, he fired two more bursts, seeing pieces falling off from the starboard wing and yellow-brown smoke coming from the wing root. Then he cleared his tail, losing sight of it being credited with a damaged at 06:55. Captain Andrew Duncan (AK523/GL-R) shot down a Bf 109 at 07:00 while Captain Hewitson attacked another without results. At 07:10 the enemy broke away. Total ammunition use were: .50-2420 and .303-8010 (Major Frost .50-400 and .303-380) (Lieutenant Morgan .50-40 and .303-160) (Lieutenant Sommerville .50-120 and .303-180) (2nd Lieutenant Martin .50-220 and .303-120).
It seems that 6./JG 27 probably was top cover, clashing with the Blue Section; Duncan and Martin claiming two of them. 4./JG 27 was probably medium or close cover. The Germans certainly suffered heavy losses, but nevertheless the Stukas did not sustain considerable damage. Therefore, it is possible that in some way the three pilots sacrificed themselves to protect the Stukas. Oberleutnant Rudolf Sinner took over as staffelkapitän of 6./JG 27.

On 1 June 1942, he was promoted to command 4 SAAF Squadron.

At 17:40 on 13 June, five MC.202s of the 71a Squadriglia took off for a free sweep in the Bir Harmat- El Adem- Acroma area. An enemy formation of around ten planes was intercepted and attacked. Five planes were claimed damaged by the returning pilots but Capitano Vicentini and Tenente Sergio Morandi failed to return (both MIA) while Tenente Vittorio Bacchi, wounded, was obliged to force-land. The two surviving planes landed back at 19:00 (they had used 130 rounds of ammunition).
At 18:35, 213 Squadron had taken off and had been attacked north of El Adem by four Bf 109 without suffering any loss.
At 19:00, seven Tomahawk IIb of 4 SAAF Squadron, eight Kittyhawk Is of 2 SAAF Squadron and seven Tomahawks of 5 SAAF Squadron had scrambled. 4 SAAF Squadron recorded being attacked out of the sun over El Adem (strangely enough considering the hour) by at least six Bf 109s (possibly the five Macchis). Two Bf 109Fs were claimed; one by Major Hewitson and one shared between Lieutenant Graham Harford Kaufmann (AN400/KJ-V) and Lieutenant Robertshaw. A third enemy fighter was claimed heavily damaged while in turn the plane of Lieutenant Cohen was heavily damaged and forced to belly-land. 2 SAAF Squadron claimed two C.202s; one by Lieutenant Vernon Lindsay (AL134/DB-H) and one shared between Captain Eric Smith (AL223/DB-F) and Lieutenant Robert Morton (AK926/DB-L).
5 SAAF Squadron didn’t record any action and just reported the presence of twelve Bf 109s.
Six Kittyhawks of 450 Squadron had taken off at 19:04, close escorted by eight P-40s of 112 Squadron to attack enemy vehicles in the Sidi Rezegh area. Before reaching the target, they saw a formation of twelve Ju 88s escorted by around ten Bf 109s. 450 Squadron tried to intercept the bombers but was in turn counter-attacked by the escort, losing three planes with a fourth (Cat.I); a Kittyhawk lost from 112 Squadron. It seems that the Germans claimed five victories in the El Adem area between 18:10 and 18:20 with Oberleutnant Hans Joachim Marseille of 3./JG 27 taking the lion’s share claiming his 84th to 87th victory in only five minutes. At 18:10, he claimed a P-40 5km west of El Adem, at 18:11 he claimed a P-40 3km north-west of El Adem, 18:14 he claimed a P-40 2km north-north-east of El Adem and at 18:15 he claimed a Hurricane II 3km east-north-east of El Adem. The fifth was claimed by Leutnant Hans Remmer of 1./JG 27, who claimed a Hurricane at 18:20 north-west of El Adem.
Looking into Commonwealth documents it looks strange that this combat took place only six minutes after take-off but notwithstanding this it seems almost sure that the Germans had met initially 213 Squadron and then 450 Squadron and 112 Squadron that didn’t claim any victory but suffered heavy losses.
17o had clashed with 2 SAAF Squadron and 4 SAAF Squadron, subsequently losing three planes for a single victory (Cohen).
The Macchis had possibly attacked the Tomahawks of 4 SAAF Squadron unaware of the presence of the Kittyhawks of 2 SAAF Squadron.

At 14:55 on 26 June, five Tomahawks of 5 SAAF Squadron and a mixed formation of six Tomahawks and Kittyhawks of 4 SAAF Squadron escorted bombers south-west of Mersa Matruh. Five Bf 109s were encountered by 5 SAAF Squadron, Lieutenant Edward William Popham being shot down, later being reported safe in hospital. 4 SAAF Squadron was jumped out of the sun by four Bf 109s, Major Hewitson being shot down and baling out over Axis territory to become a POW.
It is possible that they had run into Bf 109s from 5./JG 27, which claimed four P-40s south-west of Mersa Matruh. The claimants being Leutnant Kurt Jenisch, who claimed a P-40 30 kilometres south-west of Mersa Matruh at 14:32 and a second at 14:43 at a height of 600 meters in the same area, Feldwebel Siegfried Fricke, who claimed a P-40 south-west of Mersa Matruh at 14:35, Feldwebel Siegfried Fricke, who claimed a P-40 south-west of Mersa Matruh at 14:35 and Oberfeldwebel Emil Clade, who claimed a P-40 at an height of 20 meters, 35 kilometres south-west of Mersa Matruh.

Hewitson was first sent to an Italian prisoner camp – PG 47.

The award of a DFC was gazetted on 16 March 1943. He was released from Stalag Luft III in May 1945 and returned to South Africa after two weeks in England.

Hewitson ended the war with 1 biplane victory and a total of 5.

He undertook a refresher course on twin-engined aircraft at 24 Air School and then in October was posted to 43 Air School, Grahamstown, as O/C, Flying.

His final posting was to Waterkloof in December, where he was demobilised that month. Returning to Pretoria University, he completed a degree in quantity surveying, married and settled in Cape Town. After a number of jobs he was appointed as a Government Quantity Surveyor, a position he held until October 1990, when he retired as Principal Quantity Surveyor.

He is believed to be living in retirement in Kenilworth, South Africa.

Kill no. Date Time Number Type Result Plane type Serial no. Locality Unit
  18/09/40 14:50-17:15 ½ CR.42 (a) Shared destroyed Gladiator II N5852 Kassala area 1 SAAF Squadron
1 06/11/40   1 Ca.133 Destroyed Gladiator II   Metema area 1 SAAF Squadron
  06/11/40   1 Ca.133 Damaged on the ground Gladiator II   Metema area 1 SAAF Squadron
  22/01/41   ½ Ca.133 (b) Shared destroyed on the ground Hurricane I ’272’ Argodat airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  22/01/41   ½ Ca.133 (c) Shared damaged on the ground Hurricane I ’272’ Argodat airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  24/01/41   1 Ca.133 (d) Destroyed on the ground Hurricane I V7655 40m W Agordat 1 SAAF Squadron
  28/01/41 10:45- 1 S.79 (e) Damaged on the ground Hurricane I   Gura airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  28/01/41 10:45- 1 S.81 (e) Damaged on the ground Hurricane I   Gura airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  28/01/41 10:45- 1 Ca.133 (e) Damaged on the ground Hurricane I   Gura airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  28/01/41 10:45- 1 Ca.133 (e) Damaged on the ground Hurricane I   Gura airfield 1 SAAF Squadron
  11/03/41   1 S.79 Shared destroyed on the ground Hurricane I V7688 Keren 1 SAAF Squadron
  11/03/41   1 u/i e/a Shared destroyed on the ground Hurricane I V7688 Keren 1 SAAF Squadron
2 11/03/42   1 Ju 88 Destroyed Tomahawk IIb AN448/GL-H 75m N Gambut 5 SAAF Squadron
3 27/03/42   1 Bf 109 Destroyed Tomahawk IIb AN448/GL-H 15m SW El Adem 5 SAAF Squadron
  29/03/42   1 Bf 109F Damaged Tomahawk IIb AN448/GL-H Gazala 5 SAAF Squadron
4 04/06/42   1 Ju 87 Destroyed Tomahawk IIb AN452/GL-M 15m SW El Adem 4 SAAF Squadron
5 13/06/42 19:00- 1 Bf 109 (f) Destroyed Tomahawk IIb AN525/GL-H Gazala-Tmimi 4 SAAF Squadron

Biplane victories: 1 and 1 shared destroyed, 1 damaged on ground.
TOTAL: 5 and 1 shared destroyed, 1 damaged, 1 and 3 shared destroyed on ground, 5 and 1 shared damaged on ground.
(a) This claim has not been possible to verify with Italian records.
(b) Ca.133 (18-4) of 18 a Squadriglia.
(c) Probably from 18o Squadriglia.
(d) According to Aces High, this claim was made on 23rd January.
(e) These claims has not been possible to verify with Italian records.
(f) Possibly claimed in combat with MC.202s from the 71a Squadriglia, which lost three fighters while claiming one P-40. 2 and 4 SAAF Squadrons claimed four MC.202s while losing one P-40.

Luciano Cacciavillani's personal logbook courtesy of Cacciavillani family (Luciano jr and Alberto)
Aces High - Christopher Shores and Clive Williams, 1994 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-898697-00-0
Aces High Volume 2 - Christopher Shores, 1999 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-902304-03-9
A History of the Mediterranean Air War 1940-1945: Volume Two – Christopher Shores and Giovanni Massimello with Russell Guest, Frank Olynyk & Winfried Bock, 2012 Grub Street, London, ISBN-13: 9781909166127
Ali d'Africa - Michele Palermo and Ludovico Slongo, 2009 IBN Editore, ISBN 88-7565-060-8
Dust Clouds in the Middle East - Christopher Shores, 1996 Grub Street, London, ISBN 1-898697-37-X
Eagles over Gazala: Air Battles in North Africa May-June 1942 – Michele Palermo, IBN Editore, ISBN (10) 88-7565-168-X
Gloster Gladiator Home Page - Alexander Crawford.
Luftwaffe Claims Lists - Tony Wood
Springbok Fighter Victory: East Africa Volume 1 1940 – 1941 – Michael Shoeman, 2002 African Aviation Series No. 11, Freeworld Publications CC, ISBN 0-958-4388-5-4
Additional info kindly provided by Stefano Lazzaro, Michele Palermo, Tinus le Roux and Ludovico Slongo.

Last modified 07 November 2016